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Toronto 

LIBRARY 






PAPERS 

OF THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Vol. IX 



A MAYA GRAMMAR 

WITH BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPRAISEMENT 
OF THE WORKS NOTED 



BY 

ALFRED M. TOZZER 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 

PUBLISHED BY THE MUSEUM 

1921 



COPYRIGHT, 1921 

BY THE PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 

AND ETHNOLOGY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



E 

//337 

I/. 9- lo 



TO THE MEMORY OF 

CHARLES P. BOWDITCH 

1842-1921 

THAT GREATEST OF ALL FRIENDS OF MAYA RESEARCH 

THROUGH WHOSE INITIATIVE 

AND AID THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN MADE POSSIBLE 



PREFACE 

As the first recipient of the Travelling Fellowship in American 
Archaeology of the Archaeological Institute of America, I spent 
the winters of the years 1901-1902 to 1904-1905 in Yucatan, Chia- 
pas, and Tabasco, Mexico, and northern Guatemala.^ 

A report on the ethnological work of this Fellowship was pub- 
lished as a special paper of the Archaeological Institute of Amer- 
ica, "A Comparative Study of the Mayas and Lacandones," 
(New York, 1907, xx, 195 p., xxix plates). In that report (p. v) a 
promise was made that the linguistic part of the work undertaken 
under the Fellowship would be published later. The long-delayed 
fulfillment of this promise is the present study of the Maya lan- 
guage. The permission of the Archaeological Institute, through its 
President, has kindly been given to have this work pubhshed by 
the Peabody Museum. 

I can do no better than repeat what I said in 1907 regarding my 
obligations. "I desire at this time to express my appreciation and 
thanks to the three original members of the Committee on Ameri- 
can Archaeology, Mr. Charles P. Bowditch, Chairman, Professor 
F. W. Putnam, and Professor Franz Boas. To Mr. Bowditch, 
through whose initiative and aid the Travelhng Fellowship in 
American Archaeology was founded, and to Professor Putnam,^ 
both of whom have given unsparingly of their time in advice and 
counsel both before and during the four years of the Fellowship, 
and to Dr. Boas, who has been of great aid in his advice on the 
linguistic side of the work, I am deeply grateful." 

These obligations are quite as heavy today as they were in 1907. 
Dr. Boas has continued to give me valuable aid and it is owing to 
the never-ending interest and generosity of Mr. Charles P. Bow- 

1 For brief reports of the work of the Fellowship, see American Journal of 
Archaeology, 2d series, supplement, v. 6 (1902), p. 2-4; v. 7 (1903), p. 45-49; v. 
8 (1904), p. 54-56; v. 9 (1905), p. 4.5-47. 

2 Professor Putnam has died since this paragraph was first written. His 
death took place on August 14, 1915. 



vi PREFACE 

ditch that the Peabody Museum has been able to bring this study 
out as a Paper of the Museum. 

I also wish at this time to thank some of my many friends in 
Yucatan who aided me throughout the time I was there. Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward H. Thompson and Mr. and Mrs. William James of 
Merida gave me abundantly of their generous hospitality. I have 
spoken in another place of my obligations to the late Sefior Don 
Audomaro Molina and to Sefior Don Juan Martinez Hernandez. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface v 

PART I. — A MAYA GRAMMAR 

Introduction 3 

Maya stock 3 

Location 3 

Dialects 4 

Maya dialect 5 

Location 5 

Hieroglyphic writing 6 

Written Maya 6 

Early grammars on Latin model 7 

Grammars of Coronel, San Buenaventura, and Beltran .... 9 

Maya of present time 14 

Modern Maya grammars of Ruz, Seler, Palma y Palma, Lopez, etc. 15 

Provenance of material discussed 16 

Phonetics 17 

General character 17 

Consonants ; 18 

Vowels 19 

Doubled vowels 20 

Notation 20 

Alphabets used by various authorities 21 

Phonetic changes 23 

Syncope, Synalephe and Apocope 23 

Vocalic harmony 26 

Avoidance of hiatus 26 

Semi-vowels 26 

Lacandone dialect 27 

Character of stem 27 

Accent 27 

Grammatical processes 28 

Enumeration 28 

Word composition 28 

Affixes 28 

Reduplication 29 

Word order 29 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

Ideas expressed by the grammatical processes 29 

Word composition 29 

Habitual action expressed by verb and object 29 

Agent 29 

Gender of animals 29 

Indefinite time in the future 29 

Action just completed 30 

Optative 30 

Suffix 30 

Plurality in most nouns and some adjectives, -ob 30 

Plurality in 2d person, nominal pronoun, -es 30 

Plurality in some adjectives, -ak 30 

Plurality in some nouns, -al 30 

Exclusion in dual and plural, -on and -on-es 30 

Inclusion in plural, -es 30 

Verbal pronoun as subject or object 30 

Demonstrative pronoun, -a, -o, -u, with prefix le 30 

Reflexive pronoun, -ba 30 

Abstract nouns, -il 31 

Collective nouns, -il 31 

Attributive relationship, -il 31 

Gentilitious relationship, -il 31 

Habituality, -tal • 31 

Comparative degree, il 31 

Present time, transitive verb, -ik 31 

Present time, intransitive verb of motion, -kah 31 

Future time, intransitive and transitive verbs, -e 31 

Future time. Class IV verbs, -tsal or -tal 31 

Indefinite future, intransitive verbs, -ak and prefix bin 31 

Past time, intransitive and transitive verbs, Classes, II, III, IV, 

ah or h 31 

Distant past, transitive verbs, m-ah 31 

Causal verbs (Class lb), -s 31 

Verbs of agent (Class Illb), -t 32 

Effect of action of verb on subject, -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 32 

Passive relationship, past time, -b or -n 32 

Imperative, intransitive, -en, transitive, -e 32 

Inchoative or inceptive verbs and those of Class II, -tal or -hal . 32 

Reflexive verbs, -pahal 32 

Adverbial ideas, -il 32 

Manner of action, prefix be-, suffix, -il and demonstrative ... 32 

Numeral classifiers 32 

Prefix 32 

Gender of the " Nomen actoris," H- and s- 32 

Time attached to nominal pronoun, tan-, t-, and he- 32 

Time particle with intransitive verb in past, t- 32 

Nominal pronoun, subject of verb or possessive 33 



CONTENTS ix 

Ideas expressed by grammatical processes (continued). 

Prefix (continued). 

Semi-vowels used with nominal pronoun with vowel stems ... 33 

Demonstrative, le- 33 

Relative relationship, lik- or likil- 33 

Adverbial relationship such as ideas representing repetition, total- 
ity, etc 33 

Manner or state, be- with suffix -il and demonstrative pronouns . 33 

Direction of motion 33 

Negative, ma- 33 

Prepositions 33 

Reduplication 33 

Distant past in intransitive verb 33 

Iterative or frequentative verb 33 

Plural with some adjectives 33 

Plural with some participles 34 

Diminutive 34 

Word order 34 

Syntax 34 

Noun 34 

Fundamental place in language 34 

Incorporation in verb 35 

Incorporation to express agent 36 

Classification 36 

Abstract nouns 36 

Collective nouns 36 

Gender 36 

Number 37 

Case 37 

Attributive relationship 38 

Gentilitious relationship 38 

HabituaUty 38 

Diminutives 38 

Pronoun 38 

Forms of the pronoun; nominal and verbal 39 

Distinctive features 39 

Number 40 

Persons expressed 40 

Pronoun with vowel stems 41 

Verbal pronoun, when used 42 

Nominal pronoun, when used 43 

Time particles 43 

Contraction of time particles 43 

Present time, tan 44 

Potential mood, k- or ki- 46 

Future time, he- • • 46 



X CONTENTS 

Syntax (continued). 
Pronoun (continued,). 

Time particles (continued). 

Past time, t- 47 

Action just completed, o'ok 47 

Case 48 

Subjective 48 

Objective 48 

Possessive pronoun 49 

Natural possession, -il 49 

Demonstrative pronoun, le- -a, le- -o, le- -e 50 

te-la, te-lo, te-le 50 

Reflexive pronoun, -ba 50 

Reciprocal pronoun, tan-ba 51 

Interrogative pronouns 51 

Verb 51 

Classification 51 

Class I, Action or state, -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 52 

a, Pure action or state 53 

b, Causal, s 53 

Root in be 53 

Class II, Verbs in -tal, " endowed with," 54 

Class III, Neuter stems 55 

a, Stem alone 56 

b, Agent, t 56 

Roots in kin and kun 57 

Verbs in -ankil 58 

Class IV, Auxiliary " to be " 58 

Verb yan 59 

Class V, Irregular and defective verbs 60 

Bin-el, to go 60 

Tal-el, to come 60 

Qat, desire 60 

P'ek, dislike 61 

Tak, desire 61 

Qabet, necessary 61 

Suk, accustom 62 

Pat, ability 62 

Nama, obligation 62 

Tuub, to forget 62 

Qaah, to remember 63 

Tsik-pahal, to appear 63 

Utsul, to succeed, to happen 63 

Verbs with stems in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 63 

Intransitive verb 64 

Transitive verb 64 

Transitive to intransitive form 65 

Intransitive to transitive form 66 



CONTENTS xi 

Syntax (continued). 
Verb (continued). 

Tense 66 

Intransitive verb 68 

Present time 68 

tan and the nominal pronoun 68 

ka or kah with verbs of motion 68 

Future time 70 

he and the nominal pronoun 70 

Indefinite future, bin- -ik 70 

Verbs of Class IV 71 

Past time 71 

Class I, shortened stem and verbal pronoun 71 

Class II, -ah and the verbal pronoun 72 

Class III, n-ah and the verbal pronoun 73 

Distant past in -n-ah-ah and the verbal pronoun . 74 

Class IV, -h and the verbal pronoun 74 

Perfect tense with o'ok and the nominal pronoun . , 75 

Transitive verb 75 

Present time, -ik 75 

Future time, -ik and final -e 76 

Indefinite future, bin and final -e 76 

Past time, -ah 78 

Action just completed, o'ok and the nominal pronoun 79 

-ki with idea of " since " or " after " 79 

Distant past, m-ah 79 

Modes 80 

Indicative 80 

Subjunctive 80 

Potential 81 

Imperative 81 

Intransitive, -en and the shortened stem 81 

Transitive, -e 83 

Optative, qat and the future stem 84 

Passive 84 

Present time 84 

Class I, Causal s and suffix -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 84 

Class Ilia, -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 85 

Class Illb, agent t and -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul ...'... . 85 

Future time 86 

Present passive stem and -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 86 

Present passive stem with bin and suffix, ak ...... . 86 

Past time 87 

-ah-b or -ah-n with verbal pronoim 87 

Distant past, -ah-ah-n 87 

Verbal nouns 87 

Past participle, -an 88 



xii CONTENTS 

Syntax (continued). 

Verb (continued). . \ 

Verbal nouns (continued). 

Passive participle, -bal, -bil 89 

Infinitive °" 

After verbs denoting purpose, desire, ability, etc 89 

- Inchoative or Inceptive verbs, -hal or -tal 90 

Iterative or Frequentative verbs 91 

Reflexive verbs 91 

Reciprocal verbs 92 

Clauses 92 

Purpose or motive, future construction 92 

Ability, knowledge, desire, fear, etc 92 

Use of ka with future in -ak . . > 92 

Relative clauses 93 

Relative relation with lik or likil 93 

' Temporal clauses, introduced by ka 93 

Conditional, introduced by wa or kes 93 

Interrogative 94 

Withwa 94 

Sign of past omitted 94 

When answer is in the negative 94 

Questions asking permission 94 

Adjective 95 

Order 95 

Number, -ak, -tak, -lak 95 

Reduplication 96 

Comparison 96 

Comparative, -il 96 

Superlative, huts 96 

Diminutive 97 

Numerals 97 

Terms given by the early Spaniards 97 

Terms used in the hieroglyphic writing 97 

Terms used at present time 98 

Beltran's numeration 100 

Numeral classifiers 103 

Adverb 104 

Position 104 

Use of -il or -ik with verbal pronoun and adverbs 104 

Negation, ma 104 

Repetition, ka 105 

Totality, la 105 

Manner or state, be 106 

Demonstrative 106 

Prepositions and postpositions ■ • • 107 



CONTENTS xiii 

PART II — MAYA TEXTS 

Introduction Ill 

Material available Ill 

Grammatical structure Ill 

Lexicography 112 

Orthography 113 

Chirography 114 

Possibility of translation 114 

Indians of Chan Santa Cruz (1900) 115 

Lacandone chant (1902) 118 

Maya witch story (1866) 119 

Prophecy of Chilam Balam, Versions from the Chilam Balam de Chu- 

mayel and de Tizimin and from Lizana 120 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel. Passage, p. 77, 78 130 

PART III — AN APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 
RELATING TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

Introduction 139 

History of Maya linguistic research 139 

Writers of the xvi, xvii, xviii centuries 139 

Villalpando 140 

Landa 141 

Solana 141 

Xiu, Aguilar, Mena 141 

Coronel, San Buenaventura, Beltran de Santa Rosa, etc. ... 142 

Avendano 142 

Joaquin Ruz 142 

Pio Perez 143 

Fletcher, Henderson, Kingdon 14.5 

Brasspur de Bourbourg 146 

Carl Hermann Berendt 146 

Carrillo y Ancona 147 

Daniel Garrison Brinton 148 

WilUam Gates 148 

Juan Martinez Herndndez 149 

Bibliographies 150 

Bibhography of bibhographies 150 

Missing Authorities 150 

XVI century 151 

XVII century 152 

xviii century 153 



xiv CONTENTS 

Bibliographies {continued). 

XIX century 153 

Early history and early bibUography 153 

General and American bibliography 154 

American linguistics 155 

Middle America. General works 155 

Middle America. Linguistics 156 

Central America. General works 156 

Central America. Linguistics 156 

Yucatan. General works 157 

Yucatan. Maya linguistics 157 

Biographical works 157 

Sale catalogues 158 

Periodicals 158 

Classification of languages 158 

General 158 

Middle America 159 

Affinities 160 

With European languages 160 

With Oceanic and Asiatic languages 160 

With South American languages 161 

With Antillian languages 161 

Description of language 161 

Grammars , • 162 

XVI century 162 

XVII century 163 

XVIII century 164 

XIX century, etc - 163 

Special features , . 167 

Comparative grammar 167 

Maya stock 167 

Maya stock and Mexican languages 168 

Maya stock and North American languages 168 

Maya stock and South American languages 168 

Phonetics 168 

Vocabularies 169 

XVI century 169 

XVII century 172 

XVIII century 174 

XIX century etc 174 

Day and month names 177 

Comparative vocabularies 178 

Maya-Quiche and other Maya dialects 178 

Maya and Mexican languages 178 

Maya and North American languages 179 



CONTENTS XV 

Vocabularies (continued). 

Comparative vocabularies (continued). 

Maya, South American languages, etc 179 

Maya and Old World languages 179 

Special words 180 

Etymology of proper names 180 

Yucatan 180 

Maya 180 

Miscellaneous 180 

Numeration 181 

Maya dialect 181 

Comparative numeration 181 

Texts 182 

Books of Chilam Balam 182 

General 182 

Mani 184 

Perez Codex 184 

(Perez, Cronologia antigua de Yucatan) 186 

Chumayel 187 

Tizimin 189 

Calkini 190 

Ixil 190 

Oxkutzcab 190 

Kaua 190 

Nah 191 

Tekax 191 

Peto 191 

Nabuld 191 

Tihosuco 191 

Tixcocob 191 

Hocabd 191 

The Prophecies 192 

Medical Books 195 

Libros del Judio 195 

Ritual of the Bacabs 196 

The Catechism 196 

XVI century 196 

xvn century 196 

xviii century 197 

XIX century 197 

Los Sacramentos 197 

El Vidtico ■ 198 

Via Sacra 198 

Acto de Contrici6n 198 

Confesi6n 198 

ActosdeFe 198 



xvi CONTENTS 

Texts {continued). 

The Catechism (continued). 

The Mass 198 

Trinitate Dei 198 

Lord's prayer 199 

The Bible 199 

St. Luke, etc 199 

St. John 200 

St. Matthew and St. Mark 200 

Sermons 200 

XVI century 201 

XVII century 201 

XVIII century 201 

XIX century 202 

Secular Texts 202 

Cr6nica de Chicxulub (Pech MS.) 202 

Legal documents 203 

Xiu chronicles 203 

Titulos de Ebtun 204 

Libro de Cacalchen 204 

Cronica de Mani 205 

Documentos de Sotuta 205 

Documentos de Ticul 205 

Titulo de Acanceh 205 

Papeles de Xtepen 205 

Pohtical papers 205 

Poems, songs, folk-lore, etc 206 

Lacandone texts 207 

PART IV — A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS RELATING TO 
THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

Introduction 211 

BibUography 213 

APPENDICES 

I, Paradigms of verb classification 283 

II, Paradigms from Beltran, San Buenaventura, Coronel, Lopez, and 

Tozzer 286 

III, List of numeral classifiers 290 

IV, Comparative vocabularies from Peto, Sotuta, Tizimin, and Vallado- 

lid with corresponding terms from the Motul, San Francisco, 

and Ticul dictionaries 293 

Introduction 293 

Vocabularies 295 

Numeration 301 



PART I 
GRAMMAR 



PART I 
GRAMMAR 

INTRODUCTION 

Maya Stock. Location. The Maya linguistic stock stands with 
Nahuatl as the two most important languages of Middle America. 
With the exception of the Huastecan region, north of Vera Cruz on 
the Panuco River, the territory occupied by the Maya speaking 
peoples is practically continuous, including the greater part of the 
two southernmost states of Mexico, Chiapas and Tabasco, the 
peninsula of Yucatan which is composed of the Mexican states of 
Yucatan and Campeche, the Mexican territory of Quintana Roo, 
and British Honduras, Guatemala, and the northern part of Hon- 
duras. The Maya territory in Guatemala is broken up by islands 
of Nahuatl speaking people and by a few independent stocks such 

as Xinca. 

The geographical unity of the Maya speaking peoples is remark- 
able when one takes into consideration the colonies of Nahuatl 
speaking peoples scattered along the Pacific coast of Central Amer- 
ica even as far south as the Isthmus of Panama. The Mayas seem 
to have been content to remain very much in one place and it is 
evident that it was not their general custom to send out colonies 
to distant parts of the country. Moreover the wandering of the 
Mayas among themselves in the comparatively small territory oc- 
cupied by them is not shown by investigation to have been great. 

Most of the dialects of the Maya seem to have been identified 
with certain localities from the time of the earliest Spanish records 
down to the present. There does not seem to have been that 
shifting of population which one might naturally expect. The 
geographical conditions may have had something to do with this 
seeming lack of mingling of the people of one dialect with those of 
another. The peninsula of Yucatan is comparatively isolated from 
the rest of the Maya territory and the dialect spoken there is very 



4 GRAMMAR 

little changed as far as can be made out from the earliest times of 
which we have records. The various mountain ranges in the south 
often render communication difficult and a mountain system often 
separates distinct linguistic differences as regards dialects of the 
Maya. Geography cannot, however, in all cases explain the free- 
dom of mixture of two dialects occupying neighboring territory. 

Spanish speaking people are found in almost all parts of the 
country occupied by the Mayas and their influence has, of course, 
been very great in changing the native dialects. The Indians in 
most cases have picked up enough Spanish to make themselves in- 
telligible in all parts of the country. When intercourse is to be 
carried on between the people speaking two different dialects of 
Maya, Spanish is usually the medium. This may explain in part 
the distinct dialectic areas still to be made out. 

The Maya stock has no affiliation as far as can be made out with 
any other language of Mexico or Central America. Some authori- 
ties claim that the Zapotec is nearer akin to Maya than it is to 
Nahuatl. Maya is morphologically distinct from the latter. 

Dialects. The Maya stock has a large number of dialects which 
may be divided according to their structure into a certain number 
of groups. Stoll's classification (1884) is the most satisfactory one 
and it has been followed in the main here.^ The different divisions 
are as follows : 

1. Maya group proper including the Maya of Yucatan, the Itza 
or Peten, the Lacandone and possibly the Mopan dialects. 

2. Tzental or Tzeltal group including the Tzental, Chontal of 
Tabasco, Tzotzil, Chanabal, and Choi (Cholti and Chorti) dialects.^ 

3. Mam group including the Mam, Ixil, and Aguacateca dia- 
lects.^ 

4. Quiche group including the Quiche, Cakchiquel, Tzutuhil, 
and Uspanteca dialects. 

5. Pokom or Pokonchi group including the Kekchi, Pokoman 
and Pokonchi dialects. 

1 For other classifications, see p. 158-160. 

^ Sapper (1897, p. 393) makes a Choi group including Chontal, Chorti, and 
Choi. Gates (1920, p. 606) also makes a separate group of Cholti and 
Chorti. 

^ Gates (1920, p. 606) also includes in this group Solomeca, Jacalteca, 
Chuje, Chicomucelteca, and Motozintleca. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

6. Huasteca.^ 

A further classification can be made based on the use of the pro- 
noun. In the Maya, Tzeltal and Mam groups the verbal pronoun 
is a suffix: in the Quiche and Pokom groups this pronoun is a 
prefix.2 

The relative antiquity of the various dialects is a subject which 
has not received much study. The great length of time necessary 
for the development of these dialects from a mother-tongue must 
be taken into consideration not only from a linguistic but also 
from an archaeological point of view.^ 

Maya Dialect. Location. The language treated in this paper is 
the Maya dialect of the Maya linguistic stock.'* This dialect is 
spoken by the natives of the entire peninsula of Yucatan, a larger 
territory than that occupied by any of the other dialects. This 
idiom is commonly regarded as the purest of all the Maya dialects 
owing to the isolation of Yucatan.^ The language may show a cer- 
tain pureness and stability lacking in other places where the Maya 
stock is spoken but there is little reason to suppose that the Maya 
dialect is the most primitive and that it was from a language such 
as is spoken in Yucatan that all the other Maya dialects have 
sprung. Investigations have not gone far enough into the com- 
parative morphology of the Maya for us to ascribe with certainty 
a primordial character to any of the various dialects. It is com- 

1 Sapper (1905, p. 9) has the Chicomucelteca of southeastern Chiapas a§ a 
dialect of the Huasteca. He also gives here the approximate number speak- 
ing the various dialects. 

2 Compare Seler, 1887. The page references throughout this paper to this 
work of Seler apply to the 2d edition, published in v. 1 of his collected works. 

3 StoU (1884, p. 157) estimates the period of 2000 years as the shortest 
time required to explain the difference between Maya and Cakchiquel. 

* Henceforth when speaking of the Maya, the dialect alone will be under- 
stood unless the term Maya stock is employed. 

5 Berendt (1878, p. 7) writes in this connection, " The Maya language 
proper (Mayathan) is spoken through the whole peninsula of Yucatan, the 
ancient name of which was Maya. It is the purest and, at present, the most 
highly developed of all the languages of the family, and is used not only by 
the Indians, but also by the greater part of the white and mestizo population; 
in the interior of Yucatan I have met with white families who do not under- 
stand one word of Spanish. The Maya language is likewise generally used in 
writing and in printing books of instruction and devotion." 



6 GRAMMAR 

monly supposed, however, that Huasteca shows evidences of 
greatest age with Mam second in point of time. 

No attempt will be made in this study to treat the comparative 
aspects of the Maya dialect with other dialects of this stock.^ 

Hieroglyphic Writing. In the treatment of the Maya language I 
shall omit completely any discussion of the phonetic character of 
the Maya hieroglyphics. There is reason to suppose that there is a 
number of distinct symbols in the hieroglyphic writing of Central 
America which denote certain phonetic characters of the Maya 
speech.2 por the purpose of this paper, however, the Maya will be 
regarded as a language unrecorded up to the time of the Conquest. 

A complete elucidation of the hieroglyphic inscriptions will prob- 
ably be impossible until an advance has been made in our ac- 
quaintance with the phonetic elements in the composition of the 
glyphs. Within recent years our knowledge in this respect has not 
advanced at all in comparison with the gains made in deciphering 
the numerical parts of the hieroglyphic writing. A successful cor- 
relation of the Maya language and the Maya hieroglyphs holds 
out a prospect of the greatest interest and importance from the 
point of view of Maya research.^ 

Written Maya. The Spaniards found the natives speaking the 
Maya language. Their missionaries throughout New Spain easily 
recognized the impossibility of accomplishing any work in christian- 
izing the people without first learning the native languages. This 
they set about doing in every case and many of the Spanish Padres 
became proficient in the languages of the conquered peoples.* 

^ Seler (1887) has successfully attempted this. See also the works of 
Charencey. 

2 See Bowditch, 1910, p. 254-258 for a discussion of this point. 

2 It is needless to comment here on the "Landa Alphabet" and its failure 
to produce the results hoped for. 

* Zavala (1896, p. iv, v) gives the following quotations from the records 
of the Third Mexican Council which considered affairs relating to Yucatan. 
I give these verbatim as quoted by Zavala although the Latin is incorrect in 
several places. "Clericos in regionibus Indorum heneficia cum onere obtinentes 
in materna erumden regionum lingua examinent, Episcopi, et quos repererint 
linguae hujusmodi ignaros, sex mensium spatio prefinito, ad discendam linguam 
compellant, admonentes eos, quatemus elapso termino, si linguan hxijusmodi non 
didiscerint, beneficium quod obtinent, ipso facto, vacabit, et alteri de eo fiet pro- 



INTRODUCTION 7 

One of the first acts was to record the native languages phoneti- 
cally as nearly as they could with the Spanish characters at their 
command. It was impossible to write down many of the sounds 
occurring in the different native dialects with the Spanish letters 
and, in some cases, arbitrary signs or marks were adopted to desig- 
nate these sounds as, in the Maya, the inverted c (o) was early 
used as the sign for a ts sound frequent in the language. 

The natives soon learned to write their own languages, which 
hitherto had been unrecorded, by using the same Spanish char- 
acters and the signs adopted by the Spaniards. To their ability in 
this line we owe many valuable documents connected with the 
native culture of the country, manuscripts written in the native 
language but with Spanish characters.^ 

Early grammars on Latin model. The Spanish priests did not 
stop with translations of documents into the native languages but 
they wrote grammars and collected vocabularies as well. These 
grammars and dictionaries exist in great numbers. There is hardly 
a dialect spoken in Mexico or Central America that has not some 
sort of a grammar dealing with the structure of the language. The 
difficulty met with in using these grammars written by the Spanish 
is the same as that found wherever a primitive language has been 
studied and recorded along the lines and with the corresponding 
forms found in Spanish, Latin, or some other Indo-European gram- 
mar. The Spanish priest thought he had successfully written a 
grammar of a native language if he had found forms in that lan- 

visio. . . . In quo, et in Regula decima octava Cancellarioe Apostolicce contientim 
Episcoporum oneranhir." (Lib, III, Tit. 1 De doctr. cura, V.) 

"La Regla decimaodava, dice Arrillaga, es la vigesima que estampa Murillo 
en el tit. de Institutionibus, num. 82; y en ella se prescribe que la provision de 
algun beneficio parroquial, hecha en alguna persona que no sepa el idioma de sus 
feligreses, ni pueda explicarse en H, aim cuando proceda del mismo Papa, sea 
nula y de ningun valor" {Notas al Cons. Ill mex.). 

"20. Item voluit, quod si contingat, ipsum (Urbano VIII) alicui personae de 
parochiali Ecclesia, vel quovis alio beneficio exercitium curce animarum parochi- 
anorum quomodolibet habente, prouideret, nisi ipsa persona intelligat, & intelli- 
gibiliter loqui sciat idioma loci, ubi Ecclesia, vel beneficium huiusmodi consistit, 
prouisio, seu mandatum, & gratia desuper, quoad parochialem Eccleisam, vel 
beneficium huiusmodi, nullius sint roboris vel momeiiti." 

1 The Books of Chilam Balam (p. 182) are examples of Maya texts written 
by the natives phonetically. 



8 GRAMMAR 

guage to correspond to every term in his Spanish grammar. The 
desire to find words which fitted the different categories of thought 
expressed in his own grammar often outweighed his keenness in 
reaHzing that many grammatical forms used in Spanish could not 
be properly expressed in the native language. Parallels were sought 
for every form in the Spanish or Latin. The investigators usually 
found some native term which seemed to them to conform to the 
same expression in their own language. If a native did not seem 
able at first to give words for the pluperfect tense in his language, 
the more one insisted that there must be such forms the sooner 
the native would give something which superficially seemed to be 
a pluperfect. 

The whole difficulty lies in the fact that it is impossible to build 
up a grammar of a primitive language by following a Latin or 
Spanish model. ^ This rigid adherence to such a model leads to two 
defects. Forms are given the investigator, often after repeated 
questioning, which only vaguely express corresponding forms in 
Spanish or Latin. These are often unnatural and are compounded 
so as to express in a most artificial way the idea desired. The second 
defect is the greater as scores of native expressions are entirely 
overlooked and are never recorded in the early grammars as there 
are no forms corresponding to them in Latin. 

The Spanish missionary did not realize that the different cate- 
gories of a grammar of a primitive language are entirely different 

1 Palma y Palma (1901, p. 159) in criticizing Beltran's grammar expresses 
the same idea. ''Fray Pedro de Beltran, el niejor autor de gramdtica mmja, hay 
que admitir que la carenda de un signo propio en el idioma para la expresion de 
los verhos sustantivos es efectiva. Tan hdbil en la lengua como diestro en el latin, 
se esjorzo en calcar su Arte del idioma maya a la gramdtica de la de Virgilio, sin 
tener en cuenta el genio y diversidad de indole de cada una. De aqui sus errores en 
esto y en otras cosas de que no me es posible hablar, lo que no desdice en nada su 
talenlo que me es tanto mas grata reconocer, cuanto que el P. Beltran fu6 yucateco 
nato y todo el vigor de su entendimiento claro se desarrollo en las aidas de su suelo 
nativo al cual presto un gran servicio con su obra que da a conocer mejor que 
ninguna otra, una de las mds ricas lenguas americanas que se acaba y desapare- 
cerd quizd pronto." 

Berendt (1878, p. 5) writes in this connection, "A striking instance of this 
method is presented by the Spanish grammarians, who, in treating the aborigi- 
nal languages, are particularly bent upon finding similarities or concordances 
with the Spanish or Latin grammar, and, if they do not find them, frequently 
invent them. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

from those of an Indo-European language. The only possible 
method of approach to the study of a primitive language is an 
analytical one, working out the different thought units and the 
methods of expressing these entirely divorced from any model 
based on Latin or Spanish lines. ^ 

This difference in categories will be seen at many places in the 
following pages. Here it is only necessary to point out a few of 
these differences. The distinction between the noun and the verb 
is vague in many of the Maya stems — many verbs are really 
nouns and used with the possessive pronoun as the subject. Time 
particles attached to the nominal pronoun are entirely overlooked 
in the early grammars. There is no true case in Maya except in 
the pronoun where we find only the nominal pronoun used as the 
subject and as a possessive and the verbal pronoun used as an ob- 
ject. No gender is expressed except that particles are found denot- 
ing the sex of the actor in the "nomeii actons." The inclusive and 
exclusive forms for the plural are found in the pronoun. 

Maya is a polysynthetic or incorporating language where a pro- 
nominal subject of the verb is always expressed. Maya follows, in 
general, the same methods of expression as those found in the 
greater number of American languages. From the point of view 
of lexicography it is distinct from any of the other languages spoken 
in Mexico or Central America. It is therefore in its structure alone 
that it corresponds to other American languages. 

In the analytical treatment of the grammar I desire, as Boas * 
expresses it, to present the data "as though an intelhgent Indian 
was going to develop the forms of his own thought by an analysis 
of his own form of speech." 

Grammars of Coronel, San Buenaventura, and Beltran. In spite 
of many omissions and forms which are more or less artificial, the 
old Spanish grammars are of distinct service in understanding the 
language. I have made frequent reference to these grammars in 
the footnotes when my forms differ from those given by them. 

There are three early grammars of the language which are worthy 
of special mention, that of Coronel, published in 1620, that of San 

1 For a masterly treatment of this point of view, see Boas, Handbook of 
American Indian Languages, Bulletin 40, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 
1911. Introduction, p. 5-83. 

2 Op. ciL, p. 81. 



10 GRAMMAR 

Buenaventura in 1684, and that of Beltran de Santa Rosa in 

1746.1 

The first grammar to be written on the Maya language was by 
Villalpando, one of the first Cathohc priests to arrive in Yucatan. 
He died in 1551 or 1552. His work was never pubhshed and the 
manuscript has disappeared .^ This grammar, with additions by 
Landa, was probably the basis of Coronel's work.^ The latter 
starts with the pronouns giving nothing on the phonetics which are 
treated by both San Buenaventura and Beltran. 

It is quite evident that San Buenaventura based his work almost 
entirely on that of Coronel. The examples in Maya given to illus- 
trate the different parts of the grammar are often identical with 
those given by Coronel. There are, in fact, only a very few cases 
where San Buenaventura has material not to be found in Coronel. 
The list of particles (fols. 20-37) given by San Buenaventura con- 
tain many not listed by Coronel. Coronel, on the other hand, has 
many not given by San Buenaventura. Coronel also discusses the 
optative which is not mentioned by San Buenaventura and he 
gives a much fuller treatment of the subjunctive than that given 
by San Buenaventura. The latter's work, written about 1675, was 
published in 1684, 64 years after that of Coronel. There is no 
internal evidence that the language had changed during that time. 

Beltran called San Buenaventura, ''el Protomaestro del Idioma 
Yucateco." He was not aware of the grammars of Villalpando, 
Landa, and of Coronel when he wrote his work.* Beltran follows 
San Buenaventura in using the same verbs for his paradigms but 
he has a large amount of new material in his grammar and often 
refers to what he considers mistakes in San Buenaventura's work. 
In every way Beltran's grammar should be considered by far the 
best of the three printed early treatises on Maya. His qualifica- 
tions for writing a grammar are many as he himself states.^ He 

1 For full discussion of the different editions of these grammars, see p. 163- 
165. 

2 For a list of the large number of authorities whose works have been lost 
see p. 151-153. 

3 Beltran, 1859 ed., p. 242. Hereafter references to Beltran will be to this 
edition. 

* See Beltran, p. 242. 

' § 148. "Para exponer al 'publico mi dictdmen (habiendo de asentar mis con- 
jugaciones diver sas de las del R. P. Fr. Gabriel [San Buenaventura]) necesario 



INTRODUCTION 11 

was a native of Yucatan, grew up among the Indians and lived 
among them practically all his life. San Buenaventura, on the 
other hand, was a Frenchman and probably lived almost exclu- 
sively with Spanish speaking people in Merida. 

It has already been pointed out that there are practically no 
differences between the Coronel and San Buenaventura grammars. 
Beltran, on the other hand, finds much to differ with in the lan- 
guage as he records it and a^ given by San Buenaventura.^ The 
differences between the present author's version of the grammar 
and that of Beltran and of the other grammarians will be noted 
throughout the paper. 

There are four possible explanations for these differences : 

1. Time. 

2. Mistakes of each of the authors in question. 

3. Omissions due to following the Latin model. 

4. Difference in locality where the data were collected. 

Beltran's work, written in 1742, was published in 1746, 62 years 
after that of San Buenaventura (1684) and 126 years after that of 
Coronel (1620). It has been pointed out that the grammars of 
Coronel and San Buenaventura do not differ in substance and yet 
presumably each recorded the language as spoken at or near the 
time they were published, 64 years apart. The question may then 
be asked, did 62 more years cause the differences in the idiom as 
noted by Beltran from that of the time of San Buenaventura? 
Again, are the differences noted in the language as spoken today 

es dar las razones, que me asisten para esta, que parece cosa nueva. Es, pues, la 
primera qv£ siendo yo hijo de esta provincia, criado entre esios naturales y habiendo 
habitado con ellos una montana yerma, predicdndoles, confesdndoles, instruyin- 
doles y con ellos de continuo en su idioma confabulando, de modo que se me llego 
a olvidar mucho de los vocablos castellanos; y estando juntamente instruido del 
Arte gramdtico latino, me es jrredso confesar que entiendo con claridad sus periodos 
y que conozco con evidencia en que clausulas no concuerda su modo de hablar con 
el comun modo; y tambien donde pueden no regir bien las reglas que se pueden dar 
para instruccion de los que quisieren sin error aprender su idioma." 

1 Beltran, 1859 ed. in his " Prologo al Lector" writes, "Para estefin, queriendo 
facilitar mas este negocio; lei el Arte del R. P. F. Gabriel de San Buenaventura, de 
Nacion Frances, Proto-Maestro de este Idioma, y hasta hoy el unico, que did su 
Arte a la prensa: en donde habiendo yo hallado muchos yerros de imprenta, falta 
de muchas reglas, y reglas, que ya prescribieron por el contrario uso; me determine 
d formar un nuevo Arte, con el designio de proseguir haciendo un vocabulario y 
otras cosas curiosas, y necesarias." 



12 GRAMMAR 

and that of Beltran's epoch due to the factor of time? Languages, 
we are told, never stand still and when we take into consideration 
the steady advance of the Spanish language we do well to pause 
before stating that time is not a great factor in causing these dif- 
ferences. I consider, however, that time has played a relatively 
small part. Those differences pointed out by Beltran in his criti- 
cism of San Buenaventura's grammar are undoubtedly, due for 
the most part, to mistakes in the observation of the earlier gram- 
marian.^ This point will be made clearer in the comments made 
later on the specific statements of Beltran, San Buenaventura, and 
Coronel.2 

The differences I found in the Maya as now spoken in Yucatan 
from the forms given by Beltran are, with some few exceptions, due, 
it seems to me, to the rigid adherence to the Latin model observed 
by Beltran. My points of difference with Beltran are compara- 
tively few when everything is taken into consideration. The addi- 
tional data presented here are due to the breaking away from the 
Latin model and carrying on observations from a different angle 
of approach.^ It should be clearly understood that I refer here to 

' Beltran states that some of his criticisms of San Buenaventura are due 
to the changes of time. He writes as follows (§ 49) "Para conocer a qu6 con- 
jugacion pertenece cada verbo, se advierta que estas son cuatro, numero a que las 
redujo el R. P. Fr. Gabriel de S. Bxienaventura, Religioso nuestro y Frances de 
nacion, Protomaestro de este Arte, formando el suyo {que a la Imprenta did) 
verdaderamente con gran trabajo y elegancia: regraciable por la conocida utilidad 
que nos dejo su magisterio; pero como no todo lo pudo andar, nos dejo qu£ ad- 
vertir algo, y porque las tiempos mudan las cosas, sera preciso que haga yo algunas 
notas cunndo sean Jiecesarias." This statement is flattering to San Buenaven- 
tura and was evidently meant to be so. In the specific objections given through- 
out Beltran's text it is clear that he considers San Buenaventura to have made 
actual mistakes in recording the language. The fact that he states that he was 
brought up among the natives (§ 148) and that San Buenaventura was a 
Frenchman brings out clearly his own idea that he was the better fitted to 
write a Maya grammar. 

^ The reader will note that I have endeavored to point out in footnotes the 
main points where I differ from the old grammarians on the one hand and 
modern writers such as Seler, Palma y Palma, and Lopez, on the other. 

3 Brinton (1882, p. 35, 36) writes on this point, "I must, however, not omit 
to contradict formally an assertion made by the traveller Waldeck, and often 
repeated, that the language has undergone such extensive changes that what 
was written a century ago is unintelligible to a native of today. So far is this 
from the truth that, except for a few obsolete words, the narrative of the Con- 
quest, written more than three hundred years ago, by the chief Pech, which 



INTRODUCTION 13 

grammatical structure and not to vocabulary. In the latter respect 
the change has been far greater.^ 

There remain to be examined the differences due to the locality 
where the material was collected. There are no data to identify 
the place where Coronel did his work on Maya. San Buenaventura 
was connected with the Convent of San Francisco in Merida.^ The 
name of the Indian who gave him most of the facts regarding the 
language is known but we are not aware, as Beltran points out, 
whether or not this Indian was a native of Merida.^ 

Beltran was at the Convent of San Pedro y San Pablo at Tiab 
in the former province of San Jose. This town, now called Teabo, 
is in the present District of Tekax, about half way between Tekax 
and Peto. It is very probable that the material for his grammar 
was collected in this vicinity.^ A contrast should be made between 
a practically pure Maya population in towns such as Teabo and a 
mixed population such as is found at Merida. 

I print in this volume, could be read without much difficulty by any educated 
native." 

1 See in this connection the discussion of the translation of old Maya texts, 
p. 114. 

2 According to the Aprobacion del Br. Juan Gomez Brizeno in San Buena- 
ventura's grammar, the latter was "Religioso del Orden del Senor S. Francisco, 
Difinidor habitual Guardian del Convento del Senor S. Francisco de la Ciudad 
de Merida y Lector en el Idioma Yucatheco." 

3 Beltran (§ 50) writes, "El R. P. jui Autor primero . . . y lo enseno todo d 
los Indios de esta Provincia, fu^ un Indio llamado Kinchahau, y por otro nombre 
Tzamna. Noticia que debemos a dicho R. F. Gabriel, y trae en su Calepino lit. K. 
Verb. Kinchahau, jol. 390, vuelt.; mas no dice como adquirio este Indio tal Idi- 
oma: y de aqui se infiere que el Idioma de esta Provincia era otro y muy distinto." 

* Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871, p. 23) writes, "Le pere Beltran de Santa- 
Rosa Maria ^tait natif de Merida de Yucatan, ou il prit, des sa jeunesse, I'habit 
de Saint Francois, Profitant des travaux fails avant lui, et en particulier de ceux 
du pere Gabriel de Saint Bonaventure, il composa sa Grammaire, dans le temps 
qu'il enseignait la langue may a au monaster e principal de San-Benito de sa ville 
natale, dont les grandes mines recouvrent aujourd'hui celles de Vantique demeure 
des pontifes d' Ahchum-Caan." There seems little doubt that Brasseur de 
Bourbourg is mistaken in thinking that Beltran's Grammar was written in 
Merida. There is pubhshed in the grammar the Censura of Miguel Leal de 
Las Alas, Predicador of the Province of San Jose and of Pedro Martin, Pre- 
dicador at Tiab together with the Licencia of Juan Esteban Pinelo of the Pro- 
vince of San Jose. These add weight to the supposition that Beltran wrote 
his work when he was at the Convent of San Pedro y San Pablo at Tiab, the 
present Teabo. 



14 GRAMMAR 

Palma y Palma, who collected his material in Merida, writes of 
the language as spoken in the east, where Beltran lived, as espe- 
cially given to contractions.^ The use of contractions marks the 
main change in the language as recorded here and that used by 
the Lacandones. It is probable that simple phonetic variations and 
a difference in the use of the contracted forms alone distinguish the 
Maya of these two widely separated localities.'^ The changes in the 
language in the peninsula itself seem to be correspondingly few and 
consist for the most part, of a favorite use of one or more possible 
variations in expression. These variations are commonly known 
by everyone. Shghtly different pronunciations of the sounds are 
to be noted. The language structurally does not seem to differ 
much in the whole peninsula. 

It is possible to sum this question up by saying that, whereas 
the vocabulary has changed greatly owing to the more extended 
use of Spanish and the corresponding loss of Maya words, there 
seem to be comparatively few differences in the fundamental 
characteristics of the language, the structure remaining practically 
unchanged as far as can be made out from a comparison of the 
language as spoken in the early days of the Spanish Conquest and 
that spoken today in the smaller towns and away from the large 
centers of population. 

Maya of present time. As noted in a previous study of the ethnol- 
ogy of the Mayas 3 one very interesting fact comes out in connection 
with the Maya language of Yucatan, a fact noted by all histo- 
rians and writers on the inhabitants of the peninsula. The Maya 
language has withstood with amazing stability the entrance of the 
Spanish tongue into the country. The language is still an impor- 
tant factor to be taken into consideration when dealing with this 
people. Maya is the language spoken by the natives in the large 
cities quite as much as in the thinly populated regions. Even the 
natives who have a good knowledge of Spanish almost invariably 
use Maya when conversing with one another and some absolutely 

* Palma y Palma (p. 179), "C/in y tlo, son contracciones mas usadas en el 
Oriente constituyendo uno de los distintivos del lenguaje y estilo en aquella parte 
del pais donde vivid largos anos de misionero y predicador el P. Beltran ' hasta 
casi olvidar el castellano,' como H mismo pone en el prologo de su gramdtica." 

2 For further details in this point, see p. 27. 

3 Tozzer, 1907, p. 36. 



INTRODUCTION 15 

refuse to speak anything else, clinging to their own tongue with 
the greatest devotion.^ 

So general is the use of the native tongue in the peninsula that 
in some places in the small interior towns it is sometimes difficult 
to find one who can carry on a continued conversation in Spanish 
although most of the younger generation understand it when 
spoken. It is curious to note the varying differences in the tenacity 
of the mother tongue in various parts of Mexico and Central 
America. In many isolated places throughout the whole region 
the native languages still continue to be used. But in most cases 
with close contact the native tongue has given way to Spanish. 
Contact, however, since the very earliest days of the Conquest has 
not had this influence on the Maya of Yucatan and this still re- 
mains the language of the country. 

On many of the large plantations, Maya is spoken exclusively 
and the mayordo7nos use it invariably in speaking to the natives. 
The Spanish priests when making their visits through the small 
towns preach their sermons in Maya. 

Modern Maya Grammars. I have attempted to give in the 
Appraisement (Part III) a full discussion of what I consider to be 
the relative merits of the many writers on the Maya dialect. It is, 
therefore, only necessary here to say a few words concerning the 
modern works to which reference is made in the main body of this 
paper. The grammar of Ruz (1844) is of very slight value. The 
work of Seler (1887), although based entirely on the early gram- 
mars, is the first attempt ever made to explain the structure of the 
language. The book of Palma y Palma (1901), although following 
the lines of the older grammarians, contains a great deal of new and 
valuable material. The grammars of Zavala (1896) and of Pacheco 
Cruz (1912) should be mentioned here. The best modern grammar 
is that of Lopez Otero (1914). 

^ Compare Brinton (1882, p. 27-28) who writes, "It has been observed 
that foreigners, coming to Yucatan, ignorant of both Spanish and Maya, ac- 
quire a conversational knowledge of the latter more readily than of the former." 
He quotes Garcia y Garcia (186.5, p. Ixxv) who writes on this point, ^'La lengua 
castellana es mas difficultosa que la Maya para la genie adulta, que no ha mamado 
con la leche, como lo ha ensenado la experiencia en los estranjeros de distintas 
nadones, y en los negros bozales que se han radicado en esta provincia, que mas 
fadlmente han aprendido la Maya que la castellana." 



16 GRAMMAR 

The late Senor Don Audomaro Molina of Merida, Yucatan, was 
probably one of the best Maya scholars of the present time. He 
partially completed the difficult task of revising for publication 
the Motul dictionary. Unfortunately he published nothing on the 
language. 

One of his pupils, however, Daniel Lopez Otero, notes in his 
Gramatica Maya ^ that he is under obligations to Senor Molina 
who taught him the greater part of the rules he uses in his work. 

Mention should be made of another Maya scholar, Senor Don 
Juan Martinez Hernandez of Merida, who has worked for many 
years on the Maya language and, more especially, on the Books of 
Chilam Balam and on Maya chronology. His valuable writings are 
listed in the Bibliography. I am under deep obligations to him 
for encouragement in this work and more especially for his willing- 
ness to read the proof and to suggest changes in the text of this 
paper. 

All Maya scholars are very greatly indebted to Mr. William 
Gates of Point Loma, California, through whose energy and acu- 
men large stores of material in the Maya language have been 
made available to students. Further mention of this work is made 
in Part HI (p. 148-149). 

Provenance of material discussed. The greater part of the linguis- 
tic material used in this study was obtained from Benito Can, a 
native of Valladolid, a town in northeastern Yucatan. The Span- 
iards under Montejo founded this city in 1543 upon the site of the 
native town of Saki. During the early days of the Spanish occupa- 
tion the city arose to some prominence. It was and is, even to this 

' Lopez (1914, p. 5) writes in this connection, "Tampoco he pretendido con- 
quisiar honores que no merezco, sino rendir este humilde recuerdo de gratihid y 
admiracion a mi ihistrado y muy querido maestro, don Audomaro Molina Soils 
(q. d. D. g.) de quien he aprendido la 7nayor parte de las reglas que, en esta desa- 
linada obrita, hallard el indulgente lector que se dignare leerla. Si el Maestro 
viviera, no me ocuparia en escribir nada acerca de este idioma; pero habiendo falle- 
cido sin haber realizado la noble idea, por H acariciada, de dar a luz una gramatica 
y un diccionario de la lengua maya, y observando que ninguno de sus discipulos 
ha publicado nada hasta la fecha acerca de este idioma, a fin de que tan sabias 
como utiles ensenanzas no sean relegadas al olvido, he resudto publicar en forma 
gramatical las lecciones que de 61 he recibido, aumentadas con, algunas reglas 
tomadas del arte . . . de Beltrdn de Santa Rosa Maria, y otras observaciones que 
personalmente he tenido ocasidn de hacer," etc. 



PHONETICS 17 

day, the farthest point eastward of the country brought under 
complete Spanish control. The vast territory immediately east- 
ward to the coast is occupied by the "indios sublevados." These 
wandering bands of Indians have never been wholly conquered by 
the Mexicans. Valladolid has suffered several attacks and destruc- 
tions at the hands of these wild tribes and the city is now hardly 
more than an Indian town. 

The language spoken at Valladolid is perhaps more free from out- 
side influence than that used in any other portion of the settled 
part of the peninsula. 

At the time of my four successive seasons in Yucatan, Benito Can 
was an indented servant upon the Hacienda of Chichen Itza be- 
longing to Mr. E. H. Thompson then American Consul at Progreso, 
Yucatan. It was while accepting the kind hospitality of Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson that I did the greater part of my linguistic work. 

The investigations into the language were undertaken at several 
different times covering the whole period of four years. Thus I 
was able to check up the material often after periods separated by 
an absence of a year or more. 

Benito Can had a strain of Spanish blood in his veins. He had 
lived all his life, however, in the town of his birth and had had com- 
paratively little contact with the Spanish speaking population. 
His knowledge of Spanish, however, was adequate for my purpose. 
He was one of three brothers the other two of whom could not 
speak a word of Spanish. This man was of rather a higher grade 
of intelligence than the average Maya. I used several other inter- 
preters to check up the material obtained from Can. 

PHONETICS 

General character. The phonetic system of the Maya is gen- 
erally simple. The occurrence of the velar k (q) and the glotta- 
lized or fortis forms of the t, p, and the two dental surds (o and 
ts) give the language a certain harshness when compared with the 
Nahuatl of the north with its smooth liquid sounds.^ 

1 Beltran in his " Prologo al Lector" writes, "Es el Yucateco Idioma garboso 
en sus dicciones, elegante en sus periodos, y en ambas cosas conciso: piies con pocas 
palabras y breves silabas explica a veces profundus sentencias. Y como se acer- 
tardn a pronundar ciertas consonantes, que lo hacen acre, seria muy fdcil de 



18 GRAMMAR 

Consonants. The system of consonants includes one velar, two 

palatals, alveolars, a double set of dentals in both the surd and the 

fortis, and labials. It is often difficult to distinguish between the 

sonant b and its corresponding surd p. It is probable, however, 

that they are not interchangeable. The following table represents 

the system of consonants found in the Maya: 

Sonant Surd Fortis Spirant Nasal Lateral 

Velar <1 

Palatal k H 

Alveolar t t' s n 1 

/o 0' 

Dental 'j^tl ts' s 

Labial b p p' 

In addition to these sounds, w, y, and h sounds occur. I have 
been much perplexed by what I have long thought to be an r 
sound, possibly a sonant of the spirant. No mention of this sound 
is made in any of the early grammars and its presence is denied by 
the Mayas themselves. This sound 1 seem to have heard in several 
words written by Maya scholars with a doubled vowel: 

tin bor-t-ik, or, as usually written, tin boo-t-ik, 
lerti or leeti or leti. 

I have come to the conclusion to omit this sound from the list.^ 

There may also be fortis forms for the velar and the palatal 
surd (q and k). These are difficult to make out. No differentiation 
sefems to be made between the surd and the fortis in the k sounds 
in the greater number of cases. I have been unable to note any 
difference in the grammatical structure of the language as a con- 
sequence of the failure to differentiate between the surd and the 
fortis in these two cases. The vocabulary ought naturally to make 
the distinction if it is present but I have not found it. 

The velar k, written q, is formed between the back of the tongue 
and the soft palate. The palatal k is the common English k. The 

avrender por Arte; por carecer, no solo de muchas letras, sino tambien de libros 
enteros, de los cuales fastidian a un Gramdtico. iQuihi creyera, que un idioma 
muy lato se habia de pradicar con expedicion y sin tropiezo: sin tardanza, y con 
prefeccion sin el adminiculo de ocho consonantes? Este es el Idioma 6 Lengua 
Maya; y tan cierto, que carece de las siguientes: d, f, g, j, q, r, s, II." 

1 The r sound is well recognized in Cakchiquel and Quiche where it is used 
in place of the y in Maya. Pahna y Pakna (p. 145) uses the r in one case, at 
least, in modern Maya. 



PHONETICS 19 

palatal spirant (H) is an intensified h sound and is found only in 
one place as far as could be made out. The first dental surd, really 
a ts, is written with an inverted c (o). The second dental surd, ts, 
is pronounced like the first ch in church. The fortis forms, called 
by the early Spanish grammarians " las letras heridas," are found 
in the alveolar, t*, the two dentals, o' and ts' and the labial, p'. 
These are common and are characterized by a forcible expeUing 
of the breath with glottal closure. The dental spirant, s, is pro- 
nounced like the sh in hush. The lateral (1) is thick and rather 
strongly sonant.^ Long combinations of consonant sounds do not 
occur. 

Vowels. The vowel system is very simple. The vowels all have 
their continental sounds. There is a long a (a) and a short a (a), 
the first pronounced like a in father and the second like a in hat. 
There is also some indication of a long e (e) like a in fate, long i 
(i) like i in pique and long u (u) like u in rule in addition to the 
ordinary e, i, and u. I did not find a long o.- The only diphthong 
is ai, written by the early authorities as ay. 

1 For the best discussion of the phonetics of the Maya as given in the older 
authorities, see Beltran, §§ 1-16. See also Lopez, §§ 1-11 and Gates, 1920, 
p. 611-61.3. 

2 Perez (1866-1877) speaks of two forms of the vowel although he does not 
distinguish these forms in his dictionary. Under each of the vowels he de- 
scribes the two forms. Under "A," for example, he writes, ^'Esta vocal se 
pronuncia de dos maneras, una suave que puede ser larga 6 breve, y otra fuerte en 
la que como que se contiene el aliento 6 sonido repentinamente al mismo tiempo de 
emitirlo: como en na, casa y na, madre." A question might well be raised here 
whether he is not speaking of the doubled vowel in each case. It seems from 
his illustration ot na, casa, and na, madre, that this is not the case. The a in 
the word for house is short and in that for mother it is long. 

Berendt (1869) also gives two forms for each of the vowels but he expressly 
states that one is long and the other short. 

Palma y Palma (p. 137) refers at length to the confusion caused by the 
different ways of pronouncing the same vowel. He writes (p. 139), " Aunque 
de esto hahlar^ despuH en lugar mds apropiado, bueno es decir siquiera de paso, 
que las voces rnonosildbicas mayas, no tienen una cantidad prosodica fija. Unas 
son extremadamente breves en la emision, y otras, sin confar con sus diversas 
inflexiones y acentos que son otros medics de dislincion, son mds 6 menos largas. 
Por eso no se representan bien siempre doblando las vocales, pues las hay tan 
largas, que necesitarian tres 6 mds." 

In this discussion of long and short vowels, it is significant to observe that 
the Landa alphabet has three forms for a, two for o and two for u. See in 
this connection, Palma y Palma, p. 222-239. 



20 GRAMMAR 

Doubled Vowels. These are very common in Maya and great care 
is sometimes needed in distinguishing them as : ^ 

kan, snake. siil, to give, to offer. 

kaan, sky. ton, male sexual member. 

be, road. toon, we. 

bee, exclamation of pain. hun, one. 

sil, to tuck up the sleeves. huun, paper, letter. 

Notation. It is a matter of no Httle importance to decide how 
the various sounds should be written. The table (p. 21), gives the 
alphabets as used by the modern authors on Maya as well as the 
letters used by the older Spanish authorities either in their gram- 
mars or in their vocabularies. There is a considerable mass of 
written Maya and material is still being published in Yucatan in 
this language. The usual modern method follows more or less 
closely that used by the earlier writers, c for our k, a k for the velar 
surd (q), a barring or doubling of the letters for the " letras heridas " 
or fortis forms, ch, th, and pp. The fortis form of one of the den- 
tals is almost 9,lways written o. The inconsistency from a pho- 
netic standpoint of this method is great but the fact that there is 
a large mass of material already written in this way should be 
given due consideration before any changes are suggested. 

Furthermore, the ease of printing and the necessity for new 
type if diacritical marks are used are other considerations which 

1 The later Spanish dictionaries often fail to distinguish the difference be- 
tween a single vowel and the same one doubled. Perez (1866-77), for example, 
gives qiq or qiiq for blood, kimil or kiimil, to die. The Motul and Ticul dic- 
tionaries, on the other hand, give but one form for each of these words. The 
early Spanish grammarians make no reference to these double vowels. 

Berendt specifically mentions them. In speaking of false diphthongs he 
writes (1869, p. 4) " In languages of the Maya family they are often formed.by 
a repetition of the same vowel and constitute a remarkable distinction; kan 
is snake and kaan is sky in Maya." 

Pimentel (1862-1865, v. 2, p. 7; ed. 1874-1875, v. 3, p. 108) writes "No se 
observa cargazon de consonantes en yucateco, y si la repeticion de una misma 
vocal en muchas palabras." 

1 e and z were omitted, probably by mistake, from the list of sounds given 
by Zavala. 

2 Seler in his first paragraphs writes the sounds as indicated here and in his 
text he follows the accustomed usage. 

3 e and ch were omitted by mistake in the 1859 edition of the grammar. They 
occur in the 1746 edition. 



PHONETICS 



21 



ALPHABETS USED BY VARIOUS AUTHORITIES 





m 

% 

1 
o 


'eTs. 


C-. 
00 

t-H 

"a 
> 

a 


CO 
00 

uT 
(1) 

1 


"5 


1— I 

o 
.S 
03 


>> 

% 

ooo 


05 

i-H 

C 

pa 


00 
IPO 


3 


CO 

S2 


o 

c 

H 

fe.2 


.2 

5 
Si 


o 
o" 
P9 


c" 
a ' 

o| 

II 


o 

c 
o 


a, a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a, a 


a, a 


a, a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a, a 


a 


a 


ai 
















ei[?] 


















b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


k 


c 


c 


c 


c 
k 
ch 


c 

k 


c 


c 


k 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


ts 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ts2 

ch' 


ch 


ch 


ch 


tx 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch3 


ch 


ch 


ts' 


ch' 


ch 


ch 


chh 


ch' 


ch 


ch' 


tx 


ch 


?h 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


e,e 


e 


e 


[e]' 


e 


e 


e 


e 


e,e 


e,e 


e 


e 


e 


e 


e3 


e 


e 


H 


J 












h' 
















h 




h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


J 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 
j 


h 
j 


i.i 


i 


i 


i 


i 
c' 


i 
c' 


i 


i 
k 


i,i 


i.i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


q 


k 


k 


k 


k' 


k' 


k 


k' 


•• 

K 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


o 


o 


o 





o 


o 


o 


o 


6,6 








o 





o 








o 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 
P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P' 


P' 


P 


P 


PP 


PP 


PP 


P' 


P 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 
z 


PP 

z 


s 


s 


z 


{zY 


s 

X 


s 


z 


z 


s 


z 


z 


z 


z 


? 


z 


5 


f 


s 


X 


X 


X 


s 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t' 


t' 


dt 


th 


th 


tt 


th 


t' 


t 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 





tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


ts 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


o' 


tz' 











tz' 








ts 


3 














D 








u,u 


u 

V 


u 


u 


u 


u 

V 


u 


u 


u,u 

V 


U,U 


u 


u 


u 


u 


U 


V 


u 


w 


































y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 



' See footnotes 1, 2, and 3 on opposite page. 



22 GRAMMAR 

should be taken into account. If any changes whatsoever are to 
be made from the older methods it seems to me that these changes 
should be along well recognized phonetic lines and that they should 
be consistent. 

In adopting what, in some cases, is a new method I have been 
largely governed by a desire to follow phonetic practices used by 
other writers on the languages of America, namely, to use a single 
character for a single sound and to express consistently all sounds 
made in the same way by a similar notation as, for example, the 
fortis by an apostrophe after the letter. For purposes of a gram- 
mar of the Maya dialect the following changes in notation are 
used in this paper :^ 

1. The palatal surd is always written k rather than c as the c 
in Maya is always hard. 

2. The velar surd is written q, not k which is commonly used. 

3. The dental spirant is s, not x or sh, as this is a single sound 
and should be written by a single letter. 

4. One of the dental surds is written ts, not ch, as the sound is 
really made by a t before the dental spirant, tsh would be more 
correct than ch. 

5. The second dental surd is written o, not tz or ts. 

6. The fortis of the alveolar t, the dentals o and ts, and the 
labial p are written with an apostrophe following the letter, t', o', 
ts', and p' respectively rather than th, o, ch, and pp. 

7. The s, written g or z by the Spaniards is, of course, a well 
justified change. 

8. W is added to the alphabet. This letter is not found in any 
of the former Maya writings from the fact, no doubt, that there 

1 In proper names, especially the names of towns, and in the terms given to 
the divisions of Maya time as shown in the hieroglyphic writing no changes 
have been made. 

I am well aware that these changes in notation will meet with adverse criti- 
cism. I do not cherish the hope that my method will be followed by other 
workers in this field. I have retained the same general system of notation as 
that used in my previous papers on the Maya language. I have felt that, for 
pur])oses of a grammar, it is well to make these changes as, with one exception, 
the method used here corresponds to that employed by most other writers on 
American languages. The one exception is the use of the inverted c (o) which 
is used by all the ancient Maya authorities. It is employed here, however, 
for the dental surd and o' for the corresponding fortis form. 



PHONETICS 23 

is no w in Spanish. The consonant w is clearly different from u, 
a vowel, and should be distinguished from it. 

It should be noted that in quoting the Maya of any of the 
earlier authorities I have used, for the purpose of uniformity, the 
method of representing the sounds as here given rather than that 
used by the writers themselves. 

Phonetic Changes. These do not play an important part in 
word composition. When the sign expressing past time, t, is used 
with the nominal pronoun of the 1st person plural, k, in both the 
inclusive and exclusive forms, the k is lost and the t becomes a 
fort is: 

t-k-puts-ah becomes t'-puts-ah. 

In much the same way, when two k sounds come together they 
usually combine into the velar : 

o'ok-k puts-ah becomes o'oq puts-ah.^ 

Sijncope, Synalephe, and Apocope.- Contraction by syncope, syn- 
alephe, and apocope occur very frequently. As in English, so in 
Maya, both the contracted and uncontracted forms are in good use. 
When a native is dictating texts, he is much more inclined to use 
the uncontracted forms; whereas, in everyday speech, he usually 
employs the contracted forms. 

Syncope is noted in the following places: 

1. The transitive verb with a pronominal object may lose the 



1 This root is more commonly written puts', to pound, to bruise, to grind 
something: despachurrar, machucar, nwler, etc. Puts'tuntik, despachurrar 
con piedra, malar apedreando con las grandes. 

2 Beltran (§§ 129-147) gives ten rules for these changes. He writes, "Porque 
en este idioma no se habla en todo como se escribe, ni se pronuncian muchas voces 
conforme lo piden las reglas {ij es lo que causa, que algunos que lo hablan parezcan 
forasteros 6 se juzgue que no pronuncian como deben; siendo asi, que hablan segun 
las reglas del arte) se advierta que es tan necesario el ^iso de las sinalefas y sinco- 
pas, que sin hiph-bole se puede afirmar, que todo el ser y hermosura de esta lengua 
es el uso de ellas y la parte mas principal del arte es su explicacion.'" And again 
(§ ]3o), "La sincopa no es otra cosa, que comerle a algun vocablo alguna silaba, 6 
letra vocal 6 consonante. Y esta figura agracia tanto al idioma Maija que sin ella 
parece que sus vocablos se hacen extranos, poco agradables y en su cadencia feos. 
En tanta manera, que puedo sin temeridad decir que cast la mitad de sus vocablos 
se sincopan 6 son sincopables." 



24 GRAMMAR 

i of the ending -ik in the present and the a of the ending -ah in 
the past: 

tan-in puts-ik-ets becomes tin puts-k-ets ^ 

t-in kambe-s-ah-ets becomes tin kambe-s-h-ets. 

2. The same vowels (i and a) of the temporal endings of the 

transitive verb are lost when the reflexive form of the pronoun is 

used: 

tin han-t-ik-im-ba becomes tin han-t-k-im-ba 
tin han-t-ah-im-ba becomes tin han-t-h-im-ba 

3. All polysyllabic transitive verbs lose the vowel of the tem- 
poral endings before the -es of the 2d person plural and -ob of the 
3d person plural : - 

tun yakun-t-ik-es becomes tun yakun-t-k-es. 
tun yakun-t-ik-ob becomes tun yakun-t-k-ob. 

4. Verbs using the suffixes -al, -el, -11, -ol, -ul lose the vowel 
of the suffix in the present and the future of the intransitive: 

nak-al-in-kah becomes nak-1-in-kah. 
he-in han-al-e becomes hen han-l-e. 

The verbs in -tal, following a final consonant in the stem, do not 
follow this rule. 

5. In the future of the intransitive with bin and the suffix -ak, 
the a of the suffix is lost : ^ 

bin han-ak-en becomes bin han-k-en. 

When the stem ends in k the whole suffix is lost: 
bin nak-ak-en becomes bin nak-en. 

6. In words of two syllables containing two similar vowels', the 
second vowel is lost when: 



1 Beltran (§ 140) gives an example of syncope; 
ten kambe-s-ik-ets becoming ten kambe-s-ets. 
This seems to me to be incorrect as the contracted form has lost the k, the 
sign of the present. His second example; 

tees kambe-s-ik-on becoming tees kambe-s-k-on, 
correct as it retains the k. 
^ Compare Lopez, § 166. 
3 Lopez (§ 165) gives the following: 
bin takets for bin talakets. 



PHONETICS 25 

(a) the plural sign is used : 
taman-ob becomes tamn-ob. 

(6) the verbal pronoun is used : 

winik-en becomes wink-en. 
(c) the demonstrative pronoun is used: 

le-winik-a becomes le-wink-a. 

7. When a vowel suffix is added to a stem ending in 1, the vowel 
of the stem is sometimes lost: 
tel-o becomes tl-o. 

Synalephe is much less common than syncope. It is noted in the 
following places : 

1. Time particles of the present, past, and future attached to the 

nominal pronoun: 

Present, tan-in becomes tin. 

tan-a becomes tan, etc 
Past, ti-in becomes tin. 

ti-a becomes ta, etc. 
o'ok-in becomes o'in. 
o'ok-a becomes o'a, etc. 
Future, he-in becomes hen. 

he-a becomes ha, etc. 

« 

2. The negative ma and the nominal pronoun: 
ma-in becomes min. 

3. Ti and some other prepositions and the nominal pronoun: ^ 
ti-in watots becomes tin watots. 

Apocope. This is not uncommon in everyday speech. Among 
the places where it may be found, the following are to be noted: 

1. The final -e, the sign of the future of the transitive with bin, 
is sometimes lost when followed by a noun : 

bin in han-t-e wa becomes bin in han-t wa. 

2. The final -e of the future is usually lost when the form in bin 
takes a pronominal object: 

bin in yakun-t-e-ets becomes bin in yakun-t-ets. 



1 Beltran (§§ 132, 133) makes a distinction in the contraction of ti meaning 
" in " and ti meaning " to or for." Compare also Lopez, § 164. 



26 GRAMMAR 

3. The final -e, the sign of the imperative with transitive verbs, 
is lost when followed by a pronoun or a particle beginning with a 
vowel : 

oik-e a-yum becomes oik a-yum. 

4. The final -1 of the suffix -il is lost when an adverb or negative 
is used : 

ma sak-en-i for ma sak-en-il. 

Vocalic harmony. This is observed in many different sets of 
suffixes especially those in -1, the vowel of the suffix agreeing with 
that of the stem: 

han-al, wen-el, tip'-il, top-ol, quts-ul. 

There seems, however, to be a strong tendency to prefer the 
suffix -al even when the vowel of the stem is not a. 

Avoidance of hiatus. In certain suffixes beginning with a vowel, 
when the stem ends in a vowel, the hiatus is sometimes avoided by 
adding a b sound. This is seen in some cases in the plural suffix 
-ob in which case there may be a certain harmony between the 
consonant of the suffix and the consonant added. 

An h sound is also sometimes added in order to avoid an hiatus 
between two vowel sounds: 

meya-h-en, 1 am a workman. 

This should not be confused with the hi, the sign of the past: 
meya-hi-en, 1 was a workman. 

Semi-vowels. These are added both to nominal and verbal stems 
beginning with a vowel. Whatever the previous history of these 
sounds may have been they now show a syntactic relation as we find 
the change of w and y made, not according to the initial vowel, but 
rather in relation to the person of the verb or of the nominal 
pronoun. 

Root, al, to see. 

tin w-al-ik, I see it (contraction of tan-in w-al-ik). 

tan w-al-ik, you see it (contraction of tan a-w-al-ik). 

tun y-al-ik, he sees it (contracted to t-i-al-ik). 

tank al-ik, we see it. 

tan wal-ik-es, you see it. 

tun y-al-ik-ob, they see it (contracted to t-i-al-ik-ob). 



PHONETICS 27 

It will be noted that w is added in the first person singular and the 
second person singular and plural and y in the third person sin- 
gular and plural. No vowel is added in the first person plural. 

Lacandone Dialect. Certain simple phonetic changes and a less 
extended use of contraction alone distinguish the dialect spoken 
by the Lacandones from that used by the Mayas of Yucatan. 
Final 1 in stems appears as n in the Lacandone, wen-el changing 
to wen-en. Certain stems with final n in the Maya change to m 
in the dialect of the Lacandone. The great distinguishing mark, 
however, between the Maya as spoken around Valladolid, Yucatan, 
and that spoken in Chiapas is the frequent use of contraction among 
the people in the former territory. Forms which one is unable to 
analyze among the Mayas appear separated into their component 
parts in the dialect spoken by the Lacandones. This is especially 
to be noted in the time particles used with the nominal pronoun. 
I shall limit myself hereafter entirely to the language used in 
Yucatan, leaving it to be understood that that spoken by the 
Lacandones is essential^ the same with the exceptions which 
have just been noted. 

Character of Stem. Stems are almost entirely monosyllabic 
and consist normally of consonant, vowel, consonant. Several are 
made up only of vowel and consonant, and a smaller number of 
consonant and vowel. 

Accent. This is not marked. It is in part dependent upon the 
length of the vowel. Contracted syllables usually seem to have 
greater stress of voice laid upon them. In spite of some authorities 
to the contrary, there seem to be few cases where a difference in 
accent occasions a difference in the meaning of the form.^ 

The accent in aU the Lacandone chants is much more noticeable 
than in the ordinary speech. There is often a definite rhythm and 
in the slow chants this is very marked.^ Syllables composed of the 

1 1 was unable to find the distinction in accent made by Beltran (§ 98) be- 
tween the infinitive of certain verbs in -1 and the past participle; 

lub-ul, to tall and lub-ul, a thing fallen, 
lik-il, to raise and lik-il, a thing raised. 

2 Tozzer, 1907, p. 131 and Chant no. 17. 



28 GRAMMAR 

vowel i or ki are often added at the end of words to fill out a cer- 
tain measure. These added sounds seem to affect the meaning in 
no way.^ The rhythm is very irregular and it is impossible to as- 
certain the general scheme of long and short syllables. 

GRAMMATICAL PROCESSES 

Enumeration. 

1. Word composition. 

2. Affixes. 
(a) Prefix. 
(6) Suffix. 

3. Reduplication. 

4. Word order. 

Word Composition. An idea is expressed in Maya either by a 
single stem, usually monosyllabic, to which one or more particles 
are affixed, or by the juxtaposition of two stems modified and re- 
stricted by one or more prefixes, suffixes, or both. In the latter 
case each stem remains phonetically a unit and each is separated 
from the other by an hiatus. Grammatically, however, there is 
a unity existing between the two. The most important case of 
word composition is that of the transitive verb with its object. 
So strong is this unity that the action of the verb as related to its 
specific object is taken as a whole and is considered as intransitive 
in sense and thus follows the intransitive in form. It is possible to 
join all transitive verbs with their objects in this way but only 
those expressing some common and natural act in relation to the 
object are usually found in the intransitive form as owe-money, 
chop-wood, etc. 

Affixes. These are very common in Maya and are used to ex- 
press practically all the grammatical ideas. Phonetically there is 
much closer unity between the root and its affixes than between 
two juxtaposed roots. In the former case certain phonetic changes 

^ Compare in this connection Palma y Palma (p. 144) who writes, "No 
obstante, las particulas coinpositivas que no modifican el sentido, son muchisimas, 
las cuales, efidivamente, solo contribuyen a la variedad de las fonnas de la ex- 
presion constituyendo asi, como el indicado padre Beltran dice, ' particulas ador- 
nativas ' que facilitan giros de estilo de que resulta un lenguaje elegante y artistico 
cuando se habla bien el idioma." 



GRAMMATICAL PROCESSES 29 

tend to strengthen this unity. An intimate relation is also brought 
about in some cases between the suffix and the stem by vocalic 
harmony. It is often difficult to draw a line between true word 
composition and prefixing and suffixing. I have placed under 
Composition all forms made up of words which can stand alone and 
thus can be considered as true words in contrast to the affixes 
which cannot appear alone. There are, no doubt, many of the 
latter which were once words. Tan, for example, which is given 
here as a particle is shown by Perez to be an impersonal verb. 

Reduplication. This is not especially common in Maya and 
is found only in a limited number of cases. 

Word Order. This does not play a great part in expressing 
syntactical relations. 

IDEAS EXPRESSED BY THE GRAMMATICAL 

PROCESSES 

Word Composition. This is employed in the following forms: 

1. Habitual action. When a verb and its object expresses this 
idea the two form a unit and the form becomes intransitive in the 
past tense: 

so[t]-tse-n-ah-en, I cut wood. 

This is composed of the root, sot, to cut, and tse, wood. The idea 
of cutting wood is regarded as a verb in itself. 

2. Agent. This is sometimes expressed by word composition in 
addition to the usual sign for the agent, t. 

tin tak-ok-t-ik, I am bending something with my foot (ok). 

3. Gender. In names of animals and, in a few cases, in othei 
nouns: 

sibal ke, male deer, 
ts'upul ke, female deer. 

4. Indefinite time in the future. This is expressed by the root of 

the verb bind, " to go," in both the intransitive and transitive 

verb: 

bin nak-ak-en, 1 am going to climb. 

bin a hant wa-e, you are going to eat the tortilla. ' 

1 This also shows a form of word composition as the object is inserted be- 
tween the root of the verb and the sign of the future, -e. 



30 GRAMMAR 

5. Action just completed. This is shown by the root o'ok, to 
finish : 

o'a puts-h-en (o'ok-a puts-ah-en), you have just finished hitting me. 

6. Optative. This is made by the root of the verb qat, to desire, 
in qat bin (el), 1 desire to go, I may go. 

The Suffix. This is found to express the following relations 
and ideas: 

1. Plurality. In most nouns, the 3d person of the nominal pro- 
noun, and in some adjectives, by -ob : 

na, house, na-ob, houses. 

u-na, his house, u-na-ob, their house or his houses. 

2. Plurality. In the 2d person of the nominal pronoun by -es: 
a-na, your house, a-na-es, your (more than one) house. 

3. Plurality in some adjectives. By -ak: 
kan-ak tsupal-al, tall girls. 

4. Plurality in some nouns. By -al. 

tsupal, a girl. 
tsupal-al, girls. 

5. Exclusion of the person spoken to. In nominal pronoun by 
-on for dual and -on-es for plural: 

k-na-on, our (his and my house). 
k-na-on-es, our (their and my house). 

6. Inclusion of person spoken to. In plural by -es: 
k-na-es, our (your and my) house. 

7. Verbal pronoun, -en, -ets, etc., when used as subject or ob- 
ject of verbs and as the auxihary, to be: 

puts-en, 1 hit, 1 am a hitter. 

tan puts-ik-en, you are hitting me. 

winik-en, 1 am a man. 

8. Demonstrative pronoun, -a, -o, and -u with the prefix le-: 

le winik-a, this man here. 

le winik-o, that man there. 

le winik-e, that man at a distance. 

9. Reflexive pronoun. By -ba: 

tin puts-im-ba (puts-ik-in-ba) 1 am hitting myself. 



IDEAS EXPRESSED 31 

10. Abstract nouns. By -il: 
kohan-il, sickness. 

11. Collective nouns. By-il: 
u-yoooil-il, the poor. 

12. Attributive relalionship. By-il: 
u tunits-il qaq, the stone ot the fire. 

13. Gentilitious relationship. By -il : 
Ho-il, a Meridano. 

14. Habituality. By -tal : 
kohan-tal, a sickly man. 

15. Comparative degree. By -il: 

U3 na, a good house. 
U3-il na, a better house. 

16. Present time in transitive verb. By -ik: 
tin o'on-ik, 1 am shooting something. 

17. Present time in intransitive verb of motion. By -kah: 
nak-1-in-kah (nak-al-in-kah) 1 am chmbing. 

18. Future time in intransitive and transitive verbs. By -e : 

hen o'on-e, 1 shall shoot. 

hen o'on-ik-e, 1 shall shoot something. 

19. Future time in verbs of Class IV. By -tsal or -tal: 
hen winik-tsal-e, 1 shall become a man. 

20. Indefinite future in intransitive verbs. By ak with stem bin : 
bin nak-ak-en, 1 am going to climb. 

21. Past time in intransitive and transitive verbs of Classes II, III, 
IV. By -ah or h: 

tin o'on-ah, 1 shot something. 
tsi-1-ah-en (tsi-tal-ah-en) 1 lay down. 
o'on-(n) ah-en, I shot. 
keel-h-en, 1 was cold. 

22. Distant past in transitive verb. By ma-ah: 
tin puts-m-ah, 1 hit something a long time ago. 

23. Causal verbs {Class I b). By s: 

tin kim-s-ik, I kill something, I cause something to die. 



32 GRAMMAR 

24. Agent {Class III h). By t: 

tin mis-t-ik, 1 am sweeping or 1 do something with a broom. 

25. Effect of action of verb on subject. In some cases this serves 
to express a passive relationship. By -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul: 

tin lub-ul, 1 am faUing or my being affected by a fall. 

26. Passive relationship, past tense. By b or n: 
nao-s-ah-b-en, 1 was approached, 
o'on-ah-n-en, 1 was shot. 

27. Imperative. Intransitive by -en, transitive by -e: 

o'on-en, shoot! 

o'on-e, shoot something! 

28. Inchoative or Inceptive verbs and verbs of Class II. By -tal or 
-hal: 

tin winik-tal, I am becoming a man. 

29. Be flexive verbs. By -pahal: 
tun tsun-pahal, it begins itself. 

30. Adverbs. When the verbal pronoun is used and the adverb 
precedes the verb, the verb takes the suffix -11: 

tsits simbal-n-ah-il-en, 1 walked rapidly. 

31. Manner of action. When this is expressed by prefix be, thus, 
the verbal form takes -11, and the demonstrative suffixes -a, -e, or 
-o: 

be tal-il-en-a, in this way, 1 came. 

32. Numeral classifiers (see p. 103). 

The Prefix. This is found to express the following relations 
and ideas : 

1. Gender of the " Nomen actoris." H- for male, s- for female: 
H-men, a shaman, literally, one who knows. 

s-men, a female shaman. 

2. Time, attached to the nominal pronoun, tan for present, t for 
past, and he for future: 

tan-in (tin) o'on-ik, 1 am shooting something. 

t-in o'on-ah, 1 shot something. 

hen (he-in) o'on-ik-e, 1 shall shoot something. 

3. Ti77ie, used with the intransitive verb in the past. By t: 
t-puts-en, I hit or performed the act of hitting. 



IDEAS EXPRESSED 33 

4. Nominal pronoun. When used as subject of the verb or as 
the possessive: 

tin (tan-in) puts-ik, 1 am hitting something. 
Juan, u huun, John, his book. 

5. The semi-vowels. When used with the nominal pronoun with 
vowel stems. These have a phonetic and syntactical history (p. 
26): 

6. Demonstrative, le- with the suffixes -a, -o, -e : 
le-winik-a, this man here. 

7. Relative relationship. By lik or likil: 

likil in wen-el the object in which 1 sleep, my hammock. 

8. Adverbial relationships. Such as those indicating repetition 

with ka, totality with la, and a large number of others: 

tin ka-bin, 1 come again. 

tin la-wuk-ik, 1 am drinking all of it. 

9. Manner or state. By be and the suffix -il with the demon- 
stratives -a, -e, -o: 

be-tal-il-en-o, in that way, 1 came. 

10. Direction of motion, pal, motion towards, pilis, motion away, 

etc.: 

tin-pai-bala-ok-t-ik, 1 am rolling something towards me with the foot. 

11. Negative. By ma: 

m-in (ma-in) qati, 1 do not wish to. 

12. Prepositions (see p. 107). 

t-in na, in my house. 

yoqol in na, above my house. 

Reduplication. This is syllabic in form. The process seems to 
have no effect upon the vowel of the stem. It is employed to ex- 
press the following relations and ideas : 

1. Distant past in the intransitive verb: 
simbal-n-ah-ah-n-en, 1 ran a long time ago. 

2. Iterative or frequentative verbs: 

tin bi-bi qab, 1 tap with my fingers frequently. 

3. Plural with some adjectives: 
ta-tas be-ob, smooth roads. 



34 GRAMMAR 

4. Plural with some participles: ^ 

tsak, to cut with a blow, 
tsak-an, a thing cut. 
tsak-an-tsak, things cut. 

5. Diminutive with nouns and adjectives: ■ 

kah, pueblo. • sa-sak, medio bianco. 

ka-kah, small pueblos. noh or nohots, great. 

sak, white. no-noh or no-nohots, grandecillo. 

Word order. In general the word order does not differ greatly 

from that in English. The Maya, as spoken at the present time, 

generally follows the word order of Spanish. One exception to this 

rule is to be noted, namely, the subject of the verb when expressed 

by a noun follows the verb : * 

u kim-s-ah Juan Pedro, Peter killed John. 

u luum kah-I-ik in yum, good is the land in which my father lives. 

SYNTAX 

The Noun 

Fundamental place in Language. The noun should be con- 
sidered first as it plays a far greater part in the development of the 
language than has been supposed in the past. The important place 
has always been given to the verb.* It is not true to say that all 
verbs were originally nouns but the relation between the verb and 
the noun is very intimate. There are a far greater number of verbs 
made directly from nouns than there are nouns from verbs. ^ 

1 Compare Seler, p. 111. 

2 Beltran (§ 128) writes, "Pero se ha de notar tamhien, que no siempre esta 
reduplicacion significa el frecuente ejercicio del verba 6 nombre, porque a veces con 
ella se minora su significacion, v.g.: tsuhuk, lo didce, tsulsuhuk, lo que no estd 
dulce, ts'ots', lo salado, ts'otsots', lo poco salado: tsokow, lo calienie, tsotsokow, 
lo poco caliente 6 lo tibio. Ay otros vocablos que aunque tienen reduplicacion no 
son frecuentativos, porque ab origine se pusieron para significar aquella cosa sin 
frecuencia, v.g.: o'uD'uki, lo blando, tsatsak, lo encarnado, sasak, lo bianco &c." 

For other forms using reduplication, see Palma y Palma, p. 150-156. 

' Compare Seler, p. 89, 120. 

* Seler writes (p. 6G) "derm der Kern der ganzen Sprache {el bianco de este 
idioma) liegt, wie der Grammatiker Beltran mil Recht bemerkt, in dem Verbum. 
Wer das Verbum versteht, versteht die Sprache." 

^ Seler (p. 89) explains all transitive verbs with objects as "nominal themes 
of passive significance." 



THE NOUN 35 

Stems which seem to occupy this half-way position have been 
called neutral (Class III) : 

From los, fist, tin (tan-in) los-ik, 1 am hitting something with my fist, 
literall}-, present time my fisting it (present time). 

The essentially nominal character of the Maya is seen not only in 
the verbal stems made directly from nouns but also in words de- 
noting action or state and the effect of this action or state on the 
subject (Class I). This class of verbs are really predicated nouns. 
The objective pronoun often conveys the verbal idea. 
Directly from nouns we have: 

From mis, a broom; mis-en, 1 am a sweeper, literally a broomer; mis-n- 

ah-en, 1 was a sweeper, or 1 swept. 
From o'ib, ^VTiting; o'ib-en, 1 am a writer. 

From verbs of action or state, 

From kimi, death; tin kim-il, 1 am dying, or my being affected by death; 
tin kim-s-ik, 1 am causing something to die, or my killing something; 
kim-en, 1 died; tin kim-s-il, 1 am being caused to die, or my being 
killed. 

Kim-il is the stem of the intransitive, present, passive relation- 
ship, kim-s-il of the intransitive, present, passive, and kim-en, the 
past of the intransitive, active, wiih. the verbal pronoun. As will 
be pointed out later (p. 64), the distinction made in Spanish be- 
tween the active and passive voices is not found in Maya. 

Another feature of the nominal character of Maya is seen in the 
fact that the nominal pronoun used with predicative verbal ex- 
pressions is fundamentally a nominal expression showing possessive 
relationship : ^ 

tin mis-t-ik, I am sweeping, literally, my brooming something. 

Incorporation in Verb. A noun, the object of a transitive 
verb, may become incorporated in the verb and the unity of the 
two made so close that the verb passes from the form of the 
transitive with its object to an intransitive in form. This is found 
especially in words whose meanings express some habitual action as 
chop- wood, carry-water, spend-money, etc: 

tin tsa-ik ha, 1 am carrying water, less common, tsa-ha-in-ka, 

tin tsa-ah ha or tsa-ha-n-ah-en, 1 carried water. 

hen tsa-ik ha-e or bin tsa-ha-n-ak-en, 1 shall carry water. 

1 Compare Seler, p. 66. 



36 GRAMMAR 

The transitive form is usually found in the present and future 
tenses and the intransitive in the past.^ 

Incorporation to ex-press the agent. Another type of incorporation 

is seen when the noun is used to denote the agent by which the 

action of the verb is accomplished : ^ 

tin pai-bala-ok-t-ik, 1 am jelling something towards me with the foot (ok). 

tin wuo'-tse-t-ik, 1 am bending somethmg with a stick (tse). 

tin wop-tunits-t-ik, 1 am breaking something with a stone (tunits). 

Classification. There is no classification of nouns with the ex- 
ception of those used with numerals where there is a broad division 
of those animate and inanimate together with many minor classes 
(p. 103). 

Abstract Nouns. These are made by adding the suffix -il to 
the stem : ^ 

kohan-il, sickness. 
kimako-il, happiness. 
noh-il, greatness. 

Collective Nouns. There is a class of collective nouns made 
from the preceding abstract forms by prefixing the possessive pro- 
noun of the 3d person singular. The root in -1 is used when verbs 
are thus used: 

u-kohan-il, the sick. 
u-y-oooil-il, the poor. 
u-kim[i]l-il, the dead. 

Gender. No gender is expressed with one exception. In the 
"nomen actoris" male and female are shown by the prefixes H, for 
male, and s, for female.* The palatal spirant is rather difficult to 
pronounce correctly. It is a weak breathing and, in many cases, 

1 Beltran (§ 58) notes the incorporation of the object in this form and also 
the fact that the form is made intransitive in the past tense. He finds fault 
with San Buenaventura who (fol. 6 oh.) makes the past in ni (.3d person) and 
not in n-ah. 

^ Compare Palma y Palma (p. 324) who writes, "Hay verbos que a mas del 
ado, expresan el objecto con que se lleva a cabo": 
mas-tun-te, machdcalo con piedra. 
peo'-tun-te, apesgalo con piedra. 
peD'-qab-te, apesgalo con la mano. 
3 Compare Seler, p. 113. 
* Beltran (§ 23) gives the particles as ah and is (ix) but he adds that the 



THE NOUN 37 

passes almost unobserved. It is the only case where this sound is 
found : 

H-men, the shaman, Hterally, one who knows, 
s-men, the female shaman. 
H-ooqot, the male dancer, 
s-ooqot, the female dancer. 

Gender is also shown, especially in the names of animals, by 
word composition using the words sibil, male, and ts'upul, female. 
These forms are also used in some cases with words denoting human 
beings: ^ 

sibil-pal, boy. ts'upul-pal, girl. 

Number. The singular and plural alone are found in the noun. 
The plural ending is usually -ob as seen in the third person of the 
verb : 

na, house. na-ob, houses. 

When a noun ends in -al, plurahty is shown by a duplication of 
the last sjdlable: 

ts'upal, girl. 

ts'upal-al, contracted to ts'upl-al, girls. 

The usual plural ending, -ob may be used in these forms in addi- 
tion to the -al : - 
ts'upal-al-ob. 

Case. There is no case expressed with nouns. ^ 

more elegant {mas garhosamente) forms are h and s (x). ban Buenaventura 
and Coronel do not mention the feminine prefi.x s. Compare Seler, p. 100. 

Palma y Palma (p. 221) finds fault with Beltran for calling these particles 
"articulos." He writes (p. 221) "No determinan nunca equivaliendo a el, un; 
de modo que si se les quiere llamar articulos por darles algiin yiomhre como las 
demds partes de la oracion, son articulos sui generis cuijo oficio apenas se asemeja 
en algo al de los castellanos." 

1 1 failed to find the term in -ton given by Lopez (§ 27) to indicate the mas- 
culine sex of animals; 

ton wakas, the bull. ton peq, the dog. 

2 Lopez (§ 23) does not recognize the unccntracted form except when the 
regular plural ending, ob, is used in addition to -al. 

3 Beltran (§ 18) states that there is no sign for the nominative and accusa- 
tive. He gives the genitive of possession as u but this is really the possessive 
pronoun, 3d person. He gives a dative in ti or tial, a vocative in e, or bee, 
and ablatives in oqlaJ, men or menel, ti, and yetel. These are not true cases as 
the dative, vocative, and ablative relations are expressed by prepositional 
particles. 



38 GRAMMAR 

The different relationships such as instrument, location, etc. are 
expressed by adverbial prepositions. The phonetic connection be- 
tween these suffixes and the words they modify is weak. They 
are considered under prepositions (p. 107). The indirect object is 
sometimes expressed by the particle t: 
tin wal-ah-t-ets, 1 told something to you. 

Attributive Relationship. This is expressed by means of the 
suffix -il : ^ 

u tunits-il qaq, the stone of the fire, or, the fire, its stone. 

u o'on-il ke, the gun for deer. 

u na-il winik, the house for the men. 

u ha-il o'onot, the water of the cenote. 

Gentilitious Relationship. This is shown by the suffix -il : 

Ho-il, a Meridano, a man from Merida (Ho). 
Saki-il, Sak-il, a man from Valladolid (Saki). 

Habituality. Nouns denoting accustomed condition or state 

are made from other nouns by means of the suffix -tal. There is 

some reason to believe that this -tal is the same suffix as that 

seen in verbs of Class II and seen again in the inchoative verb: 

kohan, a sick man, kohan-tal, a sickly man. 
kalan, a drunken man, kalan-tal, a drunkard. 

Diminutives. This idea in nouns and adjectives may be ex- 
pressed by reduplication: 

kah, pueblo. ka-kah, small pueblo. 

A more common form of diminutives with nouns is the use of the 
adjective tsan, little; ^ 
tsan peq, small dog. 

THE PRONOUN 3 

The pronominal forms are added directly to the root-stem. 
They do not lose their identity when thus added but they are often 

' Compare Seler (p. 78, 113) where he considers the attributive relation- 
ship with adjective forms and also with nouns. 

San Buenaventura (fol. 28 ob.) mentions this use of -il as follows; "/(o propia 
de persona, sino que por razon de algiin oficio se apropia la cosa." 

2 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 161-162. 

' A portion of the material contained in this section was published as 
"Some notes on the Maya Pronoun" in Boas Anniversary Volume, New York, 
1906, p. 85-88. 



THE PRONOUN 39 

phonetically changed. The pronouns do not occur as individual 
words with one exception (p. 42). 

Forms of the Pronoun. There are two forms of the pronoun, 
the real pronoun called "verbal" and used as a suffix and the pos- 
sessive pronoun called " nominal " and used as a prefix. These 
forms are as follows: ^ 



Singular 


Verbal Pronoun 


Nominal Pronoun 


1st person, 
2d person, 
3d person, 


-en 

-ets 

---(i) 


in- 
a- 
u- 


Dual 

1st person, inclusive, 
exclusive. 


-on 
-on 


k- 
k- -on 


Plural 

1st person, inclusive, 
exclusive. 


-ones 
-ones 


k- -es 
k- -ones 


2d person, 
3d person, 


-es 
-ob 


a- -es 
u--ob 



Distinctive Features. The Maya pronoun presents some dis- 
tinctive features. Among these is the use of two different sets of 
pronouns for active or transitive verbs and neutral or intransitive 



3. M 


'ixed 


in 


ka 


a 


a- -es 


u 


u- -ob 



1 Beltran (§§ 32-47) gives the following pronouns: 
1. Demonstrat'lci 2. Demonstrative 

ten toon en on 

tets te- -es ets es 

lai lo- -ob lailo ob 

4. Mixed with vowel stems 5. Reciprocal 

w ka inba kaba 

aw aw- -es aba aba- -es 

y y- -ob uba uba- -ob 

It will be seen that these five narrow down to the two given here, the two 
Demonstratives being the verbal pronoun and the verbal pronoun compounded 
with t, the two Mixed being the nominal pronoun with consonant and vowel 
stems and the Reciprocal being the nominal compounded with ba. He makes 
a distinction (§ 61) in the nominal pronoun in the 3d person singular between 
that used in the present tense where he uses lai and in the preterit and future 
where he has the usual form, u; 
lai kambesik 
u kambesah 

bin u kambes 
1 see no reason for this change which he calls " mi nueva correccion." 



40 ■ GRAMMAR 

forms. There is an irregularity of usage of the two sets of pronouns 
dependent, in many cases, upon tense. Another uncommon feature 
is the association of forms characterizing different types of verbs. 

Number. In both pronouns there is a singular, dual, and plural.^ 
In actual conversation the distinction between the dual and plural 
is very seldom made. 

When the verbal pronoun is used as an object there is no form 
to express the 3d person singular. When this form is used as the 
subject of an intransitive verb in the past tenses an i is used to 
express the 3d person. 

kim-en, 1 died. kim-i, he died. 

A demonstrative (leti or leeti) is sometimes used when special 
emphasis is laid upon the 3d person. ^ 

Persons Expressed. In the nominal pronoun all three persons 
are expressed. The inclusive and exclusive forms of the dual and 
plural of the verbal pronoun are not differentiated whereas in the 
nominal pronoun there are different forms marking the inclusion 
or the exclusion of the person addressed : — we, meaning you and 
I, or we, meaning he and I. As in the case with the dual and plural 
the distinction between the inclusive and exclusive forms is made 
very seldom in actual conversation.^ 

It will be noted that in the plural of the nominal pronoun both 
a prefix and a suffix are used and that the second and third persons 
plural have the same form prefixed as that of the singular with the 

1 Beltran (§§ 225-227) notes the dual and plural forms in only two cases, 
and he does not fail to mention the difference between the forms of the verbal 
pronoun in -on and the -ones as seen in koon, come (dual) and koones, 
come (plural). There may also be a distinction between the dual and plural of 
the second person as shown by his forms kos (cox) for the dual and koses 
(coxex) for the plural. 

2 The early Spanish grammars have lai for the demonstrative of the 3d per- 
son. Palma y Palma (p. 209, 210) has the form leti. He considers this the 
pronoun of the 3d person which contracts to i in some cases; 

nak leti or nak-i he ascended. 

Lopez (§ 49) has lai, lei or leti, laiob, letiob or leobti for the 3d person, 
singular and plural. 

' The Huasteca has the inclusive and exclusive forms for the nominal pro- 
noun. These forms undoubtedly exist in many of the other dialects of the 
Maya stock. 



THE PRONOUN 41 

addition of the suffix, -es for the second person and -ob for the 
third person. The -es is also used alone in the second person plural 
of the verbal and is found in the first person plural compounded 
with -on, the regular verbal pronoun for the first person, dual and 
plural. 

There is no way to make clear without the use of the demon- 
strative the distinction in the pronoun between a singular subject 
with a plural object and a plural subject with a singular object, as 
"he hit them" and "they hit him." 

Pronoun with vowel stems. When the root or stem begins 
with a vowel a semi- vowel is infixed between the nominal pronoun 
and the stem with the exception of the first person plural. This 
vowel is w in the first person singular and the second person singu- 
lar and plural and y in the third person singular and plural. These 
vowels, when they occur here, may have had a phonetic origin but 
a syntactic relation is shown at the present time by the fact that 
the w changes to y in the third person.^ 

1 Coronel and the other early grammarians give special forms for the pro- 
noun when used with vowel stems. These forms agree in the main with those 
found at the present time. It should be noted that the form for the first per- 
son plural does not differ from the same form used with consonant stems, 
thus agreeing with Beltran in saying that no semi-vowel is added in the first 
person plural. The distinction made by them between the first and second 
person singular by the use of the regular form of the pronoun for the second 
person and the semi-vowel alone in the first person is probably mcorrect as 1 
found the pronoun of the fir.st person singular (in) always retained and used 
with the semi-vowel, w. These points are made clear by the following com- 
parison between the early forms and those used at the present time; 

Coronel, etc. A.M.T. 

w-atan in w-atan 

a w-atan a w-atan 

y-atan u y-atan or y-atan 

k-atan . k-atan 

a w-atan-es a w-atan-es 

y-atan-ob u y-atan-ob or y-atan-ob 

Zavala (p. 13) gives the two forms for the 1st person singular; 
w-atan and in w-atan, w-al, in w-al, 

and two for the third person; 

y-atan and u-y-atan, y-al, vt y-al. 
Palma y Palma (p. 147 and p. 213-21.5) has the same forms as those given 
here, using the u, however, instead of the w. He finds fault and quite correctly, 



42 GRAMMAR 

Verbal Pronoun. This is found in the following places: 

1. Subject of the intransitive verb in the past tense. 

2. Object of intransitive verbs. 

3. With verbs of Class IV. 

It may stand alone only when compounded with t or te as t-en, 
t-ets, t-o(o)n. These forms are used as a demonstrative pronoun 
when emphasis is desired and especially in answer to questions; ^ 

The verbal pronoun may be compounded with ka which, as 
pointed out by Seler (p. 98, 99), serves as a conjunction, a rela- 
tive. This ka combines with the pronoun into k-en, k-ets, etc. : 
ten ken in Nakuk Pech, I, who am here, 1 am Nakuk Pech. 

with the forms of the pronoun given by the early grammarians as used with 
vowel stems. 

Lopez (§ 172) agrees with the forms given here. 

San Buenaventura uses the semi-vowel with vowel verbs even when the 
nominal pronoun follows the verbal stem; 
wokol-in-kah, 

Beltran (§ 45) finds fault with this with good reason. 

1 Beltran (§ 160) uses the same form in answer to a question; 
ma es hantik wah la, who is eating the tortilla? 
ten hantik, 1 am eating it. 
He also (§ 32) makes this form compounded with t his first pronoun which he 
calls Demonstrative. He uses it in his 2d, 3d, and 4th Conjugations as the 
subject of the verb in the present and imperfect tenses; 

ten kambesik ten oikik ten kanantik 

In the Maya as spoken at Valladolid at the present time the nominal pro- 
noun would be used compounded with its time particles for the present and 
past. As noted above, the forms of the verbal pronoun compounded with t 
have the meaning of a demonstrative; 

ten kambe-s-ik, 1 am the one who is showing something. 
The fact that Beltran uses the nominal pronovm in the preterit, pluperfect, and 
his two futures §hows that he has no warrant for using the verbal pronoun in 
the present and imperfect. 

San Buenaventura incorrectly uses the forms ten, tets, etc. as the forms of 
the verb " to be." Beltran (§ 32) does not agree with this. 

Seler (p. 73) notes the use of the verbal pronoun with a " supporter " t or te. 
He (p. 79) points out the mistake of San Buenaventura in considering the te 
as a verb. He bases his objection on the fact that it does not, as a rule, have 
tense characters. 

Lopez (§§ 48, 49) gives the personal pronoun in the nominative as ten, tets, 

etc. 



THE PRONOUN 43 

Nominal Pronoun. This is found in the following places: 

1. Subject of all transitive verbs. 

2. Subject of the present and future of intransitive verbs. 

3. Possessive pronoun. 

Time Particles. These time particles of the pronoun have 
not been recognized as such in any of the Maya grammars. ^ It is 
not without ample verification of the data collected in Yucatan 
and among the Lacandones that I venture to suggest the presence 
of a full set of time particles for the nominal pronoun. These are 
prefixed to the forms of the pronoun and are sometimes so closely 
joined to the pronoun by phonetic changes that it is difficult to 
separate them from the form of the pronoun. In general, it can 
be said, that the uncontracted forms are most common among the 
Mayas as well as among the Lacandones. The uncontracted forms 
seem to have been earlier than those where contraction has re- 
sulted. Among the Mayas near Valladolid the contracted forms 
were used almost exclusively. 

The time particles seen in the 1st person, dual and plural, usu- 
ally remairx unchanged. The contractions of these particles with 
the pronoun are shown here. 

Contraction of time particles. Present, tan, may contract with 
the pronoun as follows: 

Consonant Stems Vowel Stems 

tan-in into t-in tan-in w-atan into t-in w-atan, my wife, 

tan-a into t-an - tan-a w-atan into t-an w-atan. 

tan-u into t-un tan-u y-atan into tan y-atan. 

tan-k remains tan-k tan-k atan remains tan-k atan. 

Ki or k contracts with the pronoun as follows : 
ki-in into k-in. 
ki-a into k-a. 
ki-u into k-u. 
ki-k into q. 

1 Lopez (§ 72), speaks of the ki- used with the pronoun for the present and 
ti- for the past, giving, respectively, kin, ka, ku and tin, ta, tu. 

2 Lopez (§ 163) makes this contraction ta instead of tan, tu instead of tun, 
resulting in the same forms as the contraction seen in the past tense of t or ti 
and the pronoun into ta and tu. In the 1st person, singular, the resulting forms 
in the present and past agree, tan-in, and t-in both giving tin. In all the other 
persons the forms in the present and past do not agree. 



44 GRAMMAR 

Past, t, forms with the pronoun the following 

t-in remains t-in or t'-in. 
t-a remains t-a or t'-a. 
t-u remains t-u or t'-u. 
t-k becomes t'. 

D'ok may contract with the pronoun as follows: 

o'ok-in into o'-in. 
o'ok-a into a'-a. 
3'ok-u into o'-u. 
o'ok-k becomes o'oq. 

Future, he, may contract with the pronoun as follows: 

he-in into he-n. 
he-a into b-a. 
he-u into h-u. 
he-k remains he-k. 

A more detailed consideration of these particles will now be 
attempted. 

Present time. This is expressed in the pronoun by the Indians 
with whom I worked by the particle tan.^ The union of this par- 

1 The early Spanish grammars do not recognize these time particles. Bel- 
tran, however (§ 262) notes the particle tan as expressing present time. He 
does not speak cf the contracted forms. The Motul Dictionary has the follow- 
ing entry under tan, " presencia, tin tan, ta tan, tu tan." Perez (1866-1877) 
has the following, "Tan, verbo iniTpersonal: cl ado 6 cajxtcidad de hacer 6 ejecufar. 
Tan u tal, estd vinierido." This would seem to show that the uncontracted 
forms were employed in early times. 

The Ticul dictionary (Perez, 1898) gives the following under tan, "en 
presencia, con tin, ta, tu, se wso'tin tan, en mi presencia, ante mi.'" 

San Buenaventura (fol. 19) gives the particle tan as always prefixed to the 
active verb in ik : 

tan in kambesik, J am showing something. 
This indicates that the uncontracted form was in good use in his time. 

Cruz (1912) frequently uses the uncontracted form of the nominal pronoun 
with tan in his examples of the present tense. He is more inclined, however, 
to employ it with a negative; 

ma tan a betik, you are making nothing. 
baas ten tan u kanik, why does he not learn? 

Palma y Palma (p. 177) uses the forms tin, tan, tun, etc., for his transitive 
verbs in the present tense. These are undoubtedly the contracted forms of 
tan-in, tan-a, tan-u as he specifically mentions (p. 177) these forms compounded 
with taan. His interpretation of tin, however, differs from the one given here. 
He states that it is formed from ti " cuando se dice al por a el. . . . Tin en el 



THE PRONOUN 45 

tide with the pronoun is seen alcove. Tan seems to convey the 

idea of continued action in the present: 

tin (tan-in) sotik tse, 1 am now cutting wood or 1 am now engaged in the 

act of cutting wood. 
tan-k han-al, we are eating, we are engaged in the act of eating. 
tun (tan-u) wen-el, he is sleeping. 

With vowel stems, where y is the semi- vowel added only in the 
3d person, the form of the pronoun of this person with tan shows 
the dropping of the u, the true pronoun, and the tan is retained: 
tan yooqot, he is dancing. 

rather than 

tun (tan-u) yooqot. 

which might be expected. 

The use of tan with the pronoun to express present time seems 
to be less common in many parts of the peninsula than the use of 
the Id- or k- compounded with the nominal pronoun. ^ This form is 



presente de indicativo tavto se puede corsiderar sincopa de ti in, como de taan in. 
Ti in betik. Esto vale lo hago. Taan in betik. Esto vale lo estoy hacienda." 

Lopez (§§ 158, 163), in writing of synalephe, uses as illustrations forms in 
tan: 

tin bin for tan in bin, 1 am going. 

tin hanal for tan in hanal, 1 am eating. 

He makes no mention in any other part of his grammar of this use of tan in the 
present tense. 

1 Beltran (§ 161) gives the form ki as denoting present time when com- 
pounded with the nominal pronoun. He often uses his pronoun t-en, t-ets, etc., 
with this; 

ten ki-in wal-ik, contracting to ten kin walik, 1 am saying it. 

He repeats the same form (§ 34) in the preterit; 

ten kin yakunah, 1 loved someone. 

These sentences should more properly be translated; 

1 am the one who is talking. 

1 am the one who loved someone. 

In § 101 he states that the particle ki appears as if it were a pronoun but it is 
merely used for ornament or for greater signification and denotes present time. 
Here he uses it without the verbal pronoun compounded with t, as above, but 
notes that it combines with the nominal pronoun into k-in, k-a, k-u, etc. 

Palma y Palma uses the forms in k-. He states (p. 171) that it indicates ac- 
customed action; 



46 GRAMMAR 

recognized at Valladolid but is far less common than that with 
tan. 

The forms in k- or ki- seem, in some cases, to express the idea 
of a potential mood when used with the future stem in -e : 

k-in puts-e, 1 may strike it. 

k-in hant-e, 1 may eat it. 

tuus k-a bin, where may you be going, where are you goLag? 

The contrast between the use of tan and k with the nominal pro- 
noun is seen in the following: 

le winik k-u tal, the man is going to come, the man may come. 

le winik t-un (tan-u) tal, tlie man is coming, the man is in the act of coming. 

When k- or ki- is used the idea may in some cases be translated 
by the Spanish term "a veces," sometimes. 

Future time. This may he expressed by the nominal pronoun 
compounded with the particle he. The uncontracted forms are 
found in use among the Mayas as well as among the Lacandones. 
The contracted forms are shown above. Here, as in the case with 
the present particle, tan, the first person, dual and plural, does 
not show contraction. I have been unable to find the derivation 
of this particle. Undoubtedly this he, as in the case of the tan and 
o'ok, is derived from a former stem.^ 

t-in be-t-ik, 1 am doing it. 
k-in be-t-ik, 1 am accustomed to do it. 
k-in bin, 1 am accustomed to go. 
Zavala uses the forms in k for the present, both of the transitive and in- 
transitive; 

k-in naak-al, 1 am climbing. 
k-in kanan-t-ik, 1 am guarding it. 
Lopez follows Beltran and uses the forms in k- or ki- with the nominal pro- 
noun. He uses it always in combination with the verbal pronoun with t-; ten, 
tets, etc. 

Martinez thinks that the k-in is a contraction of ka-in. 
1 This particle for future time may be a late development. Whereas tan, t, 
and o'ok are mentioned by the early wTiters as having some time significance 
1 have found this future time particle, he, given only by several of the later 
authorities. 

Cruz (1912) has the following; 

he in oikti, 1 shall give it. 
Ruz (1844, p. 88) has the following; 
ten he in binel, 1 shall go. k-toon he k binel, we shall go. 

tets he a binel, thou wilt go. tees he a binel, you will go. 

letile he u binel, he will go. leti le-ob he u binel, they will go. 



THE PRONOUN 47 

hen (he-in) bin-[el]-e, 1 shall go. 

he-k han-al-e, wo shall eat. 

hu (he-u) han-t-ik-e (han-t-k-e), he will eat something. 

Past time. This is expressed in the nominal pronoun with the 
particle t. This t unites with the pronoun as we have shown above 
(p. 44). The resulting form for the first person singular t-in is the 
same as that for the present pronoun with tan, tan-in contracting 
to t-in. The history of the two forms is, however, entirely differ- 
ent. It may be possible that the form expressing past time is pro- 
nounced with a slightly more explosive character to the initial t 
than is given to the same form expressing present time. In the 
first person dual and plural there is an unusual change. The pro- 
nominal prefix k is dropped and the sign of the past (t) is changed 
to the fortis (f). There is necessarily a slight hiatus in this form 
before the explosive t and the initial consonant sound of the ver- 
bal stem.^ 

t-in or t'-in puts-ah, 1 hit something, 
t' (t-k) han-t-ah, we ate something. 

This t, expressing a past, is undoubtedly the same as that found 
used directly with the intransitive verb (p. 72) : - 
t-bin-en, 1 went. t-han-en, 1 ate. 

The prefix o'ok is used with the nominal pronoun to convey the 
idea of action just completed.^ This o'ok is the root of the verb, 



Lopez (§ 107) writes; " En vez del futuro imperfecto dc indicativo se usa fre- 
cuentemente el presente, anteponiendole la particula he seguida de los pronombres 
in, a, u, etc. y posponiendole una e: 
he in betike, 1 shall do it. 

Martinez has suggested to me that he is a contracted form of helel, now, 
to-day. He does not consider the forms in he good Maya. 

The Motul and Ticul dictionaries give he as meaning " el que, la que, la que." 

' Palma y Palma (p. 212) accepts this time particle compounded with the 
nominal pronoun. In the 1st person plural, however, he gives k or ka instead 
oft'. 

Lopez (p. 50) has t in this place but makes no mention of it being the fortis. 

Martinez consider this t stands for ten. 

2 Compare Beltran, § 85. This tense sign, t, should not be confounded with 
ti or t, meaning " to " and given in the early Spanish grammars as the sign of 
the dative. 

2 Beltran (§ 85) also uses the verb o'ok for a preterit with transitive and in- 



48 GRAMMAR 

" to finish or complete." This is added directly to the forms of the 
pronoun. Here, again, the Lacandones and many of the Mayas 
use the uncontracted forms. The contracted forms used by some 
are seen above. The only unusual contraction is that for the first 
person dual and plural where o'ok-k becomes o'oq, the two k 
sounds making a velar k (q). The verb is used in the present 
stem with o'ok: 

o'in (o'ok-in) wen-el, 1 have just been sleeping. 

o'oq (o'ok-k) han-t-ik, we have just been eating something, or we have 
finished eating something. 

Case. It is only in the pronoun that we have any suggestion 
of case in Maya and even here there are only three; — subjective, 
objective, and possessive. The oblique cases are all expressed by 
prepositions. 

Subjective. The subject of the verb is always expressed by the 

pronoun even when there is a noun for the subject. This subject, 

the nominal pronoun, is really a possessive: 

winik u puts-ik Pedro, or u puts-ik winik Pedro, the man is hitting Peter, 
hterally, the man, his hitting something, Peter. 

Objective. The forms of the verbal pronoun are used as the 

object: 

tin puts-ik-ets, 1 am hitting you; literally, present time, 1 am hitting 
something, present time, you; or, you are the object of my hitting. 

In the future the -e, the sign of this tense, is placed at the end 
of the form: 

hu puts-ik-en-e, he will hit me. 

transitive verbs. He does not mention the contracted forms made with the 
nominal pronoun; 

o'ok u hantik, he ate it, {ya lo cornio), 
o'ok u lubul, he fell {ya acabo de caer). 
Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 17) show the form o'ok in an example 
which they both give to illustrate the statement that the -ik form is used when 
an active verb follows a neuter and the latter does not denote action; 
o'oki in kanik paialtsi, acahe de aprender a rezar. 
Lopez (§ 106) states that the form in o'ok is used " con mucha frecuencia " 
as a preterit perfect; " que significa terminar, acabar y ya "; 

han-en, yo coml. o'ok in han-al ya comi. 

He has another form with o'ok combined with ili to form the pluperfect. I 
did not find this form. 

o'okili in hanal, 1 had eaten. 



THE PRONOUN 49 

The indirect object is expressed by the particle t and the verbal 
pronoun : 

tin o'ib-t-ik-t-ets, contracted to tin o'ib-t-ets, 1 am writing something to 
you. 

Possessive Pronoun. The nominal pronoun is really a posses- 
sive and is naturally used to express possession. There is little 
doubt that the possessive idea is uppermost even in the use of this 
nominal pronoun with a finite verb.^ 

tin (tan-in) sotik tse, 1 am cutting wood ; literally, in present time, my cut- 
ting something, in present time, wood. 

The forms of the nominal pronoun used to convey the idea of 
possession are attached to the name of the object possessed rather 
than to that of the possessor; 

u-huun Juan, John, his book. 
u peq winik, the man's dog. 

With nouns beginning with a vowel the nominal pronoun of the 
third person (u) is often dropped when the semi-vowel is added. 
There is no cause for confusion in this as y is only added in the 3d 
person : 

u-y-otots, becomes y-otots, his house. 

Natural possession. There is another form indicating possession 
made by prefixing the usual form of the nominal pronoun to the 
name of the object possessed and, at the same time, suffixing the 
particle -il to the same word. This indicates in most cases, not 
so much possession, as a natural and often inseparable relation- 
ship between the possessor and the thing possessed. The possessor 
is very often an inanimate object; - 

' Lopez (§ 56) seems to fail to recognize the idea of possession when these 
forms are used as the subject of the verb. He calls this pronoun "mixed" 
"porque se usa indistintamente como prononibre personal y como adjectivo 
posesivo. 

in qat in hant in wah, quiero comer mi pan, 
donde tenemos el pronombre in empleado, en el primer caso, como personal y en el 
segundo, como posesivo." 

^ Seler (p. 115) writes in this connection, "Im Maya urird dabei, wenn der 
betreffende Gegenstand zu einer dritten Person gehort und diese dritte Person 
ausdriicklich genannt ist, das Possessivprdfix der dritten Person als liberfliissig 
night gesetzt." 



50 GRAMMAR 

u-ha-il ts'en, the water of the well. 

u-na-il Chichen, the houses of Chichen, more properly, u-na-il-ob. 

u-na-il winik, the houses for the men. 

u-o'on-il ke the gun for deer. 

Demonstrative Pronoun. This is found in three forms. There 
is no well developed system defining the noun in relation to the 
speaker, the person addressed, and the person spoken of. The 
demonstrative roughly corresponds to the Spanish, este, ese, and 
aquel. I am inclined to think, however, that this similarity is more 
apparent than real and that there are distinctions in the three 
sets of forms which will come out later. 

The demonstrative is expressed by the suffixes -a, -o, and -e; 
the first denoting " this one here," the second, " that one there," 
and the third, " that one at a distance." When one of these is 
found it is always in connection with the prefix le, itself a demon- 
strative or a sort of definite article. The latter is sometimes used 
alone : 

le winik-a, this man here. 

le winik-o, that man there, pointing to the place. 

le winik-e, that man at an distance. 

The prefix le-, also found in the form leeti or leti, the demon- 
strative of the 3d person, is used, in some cases, in place of the 
personal pronoun with past tenses of the intransitive: 
leeti bini, he went (usually written lay ti): 

The same form is used redundantly with transitive verbs and the 

nominal pronoun: 

leeti tu puts-ob, he hit them, more correctly, puts-ah-ob. 
leeti-ob tu puts-ob, they hit them, 
mas putse, who hit him? 
leeti putse, he hit him. 

The demonstrative particles are also used with le, as te-la, te-lo, 
and te-le contracted, in some cases, into t-la, t-lo, t-le.^ 

Reflexive Pronoun. This is made by adding the particle -ba 
to the usual forms of the nominal pronoun. This is best seen in 

1 The Spanish grammars give only the forms te-la and te-lo. Beltran 
(§ 145) notes the syncopation of the e into t-la, t-lo, and they note that with 
le an e is added to the noun; 
le-peq-e, that dog. 



THE VERB 51 

transitive verbs with the nominal pronoun as subject and the 
same form repeated as the object; 

tin puts-k-im-ba, contracted from puts-ik-in-ba, 1 am hitting myself. 

The n changes for euphony to m as Chilam Balam for Chilan 
Balam. It should be noted that the verbal pronoun is not used as 
the object as might be expected. In a past tense we have 

tin puts-im-ba, 1 hit myself. 
The normal form does not seem to be used. This would be 

tin puts-ah-in-ba. 

The reflexive is also seen in the form 

tin nao'-k-im-ba, 1 approach, hterally, my nearing it, my, myself. 

Reciprocal Pronoun. This relation is expressed by the par- 
ticle tan-ba or ba-tan: ^ 

u ba-tan-ba-ob, e7i(re si viismos. 

tun puts-k-u-tan-ba-ob, they are hitting one another. 

Interrogative Pronouns. These end in s and occur at the be- 
ginning of the sentence: 

mas il-ets, who saw you? 

mas ta-wil-ah, whom did you see? 

baas ta-o'lbol-t-ah, what do you desire? 

tuus ka-bin, where are you going? 

mas meya-n-ah-i, who worked? 

baas ta-mis-t-ah, what are you sweeping? 

THE VERB 

Classification. 
I. Action or state in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul. 
(a) Pure action or state. 
(6) Causal, s. 

Root in be. 

II. " Endowed with " in -tal. 



1 San Buenaventura states that tanba is used as a reciprocal in the 2d and 
3d person plural. Beltran (§ 47) correctly adds that it can also be used in the 
1st person plural. 

Palma y Palma (p. 216) gives the reciprocal pronoun as tam-ba; 
tin qol-tam-ba. 
In explaining this form he writes " No vale, me golpeo a mi, sino me golpeo con 
ofro 6 con otros en pelea." 



52 GRAMMAR 

III. Neuter stems. 

(a) Stem alone. 

(b) Agent, t. 

Roots in kin and kun. 
Verbs in -ankil. 

IV. Auxiliary " to be" (verbal pronoun). 
Root in yan. 

V. Irregular and defective verbs. 

It does not seem necessary to classify the verbs into^ the four 
conjugations according to the methods of the early Spanish gram- 
marians.^ In place of these conjugations it has seemed more wise 
to make the following divisions : ^ 

Class I. Verbs in -al, -el, -11, -ol, and ul, denoting action or 
state. The ending in -1 with a vowel corresponding to that of the 
root denotes the effect of the action or state upon the subject of 
the verb : ^ 

tin lub-ul, I am falling, literally, 1 am affected by the act of falling, my fall. 
tin kim-il, 1 am dying, literally, 1 am affected by the act of death, my 

death. 
tin kim-s-il, 1 am being killed, literally, 1 am affected by someone causing 

me to die, my caused death. 
tin wem-el, 1 am descending, literally, 1 am affected by the descent. 



1 



The 1st Conjugation of Beltran and of the other early grammarians is 
the intransitive verb, and their 2d, 3d, and 4th Conjugations are the active 
or transitive verb. There is a general correspondence between these conjuga- 
tions and the classes given here. The 1st Conjugation is my Class I a, the 2d 
is Class I b, the 3d, composed of monosyllabic stems, is Class Illa^ and the 
4th, made up of polysyllabic stems, is Class III b. 

For a comparison of the forms given by Beltran, San Buenaventura, and 
Coronel with forms found today, see p. 286-289. These tables have been 
taken, for the most jjart, from the paradigms given by the early grammarians 
in question. A few forms have been added from the text of the grammars. 
It should be noted that the forms of the subjunctive, infinitive, and optative 
have been omitted as forms corresponding with these are not generally found 
among the present Mayas. 

2 This classification has been briefly outlined in Tozzer, 1912. 

3 For skeleton paradigms of the various classes of verbs, see p. 283-285. 
Lopez (§§ 70, 76), following the analogy of the three Spanish conjugations 

in ar, er and ir, makes five conjugations of the verb in -1, corresponding to the 
five vowels used with it. 



THE VERB 53 

These verbs may be further divided into two subclasses: 
(a) Pure action or state. The transitive or appUcative form is 
made by dropping the suffix in -1 and adding -ik and other time 
particles directly to the root: 

tin het-el, 1 am performing the act of opening. 

tin het-ik, 1 am opening something. 

tin nao'-al, 1 am approaching. 

tin nao'-ik, •) am approaching something. 

tin nao'-ah, 1 approached something. 

(6) Causal verbs. These make the transitive or applicative 
form by dropping the suffix in -1 and adding the causal s before 
the time particles of the verbal stem: 

tin ban-al, 1 am tumbUng dowTi, my being affected by the tumble. 

tin ban-s-ik, 1 am causing something to tumble down. 

tin kim-il, 1 am dying. 

tin kim-s-ik, ] am causing something to die, 1 am killing something. 

Root in be. There is a subdivision in Class I 6. A large number 
of verbal stems are made by adding be, the root of the verb mean- 
ing " to make " before the causal and the transitive endings, -ik, 
-ah, and -e : ^ 

tui kam-be-s-ik, 1 am teaching someone, 1 cause to make learn someone, 
tin kim-be-s-ik, 1 injure someone, 1 cause to make someone die. 
tin yah-be-s-ik, 1 wound someone, 1 cause to make someone wounded. 
tin qin-be-s-ik, 1 sun something, 1 cause to make something sunned, 1 

warm something. 
tin qis-be-s-ik, I fill something with thorns, 1 cause to make something 
thorny. 

Some of these verbs more properly belong in Class III as they 
are also used with the sign of the agent, t: 

tin qin-t-ik, 1 warm something, 1 do something by means of the sun. 
tin qis-t-ik, 1 make something thorny, 1 do something by means of thorns 

1 These causal verbs with be form the 2d Conjugation of the Spanish gram- 
mars although they are not recognized as causal. The verb used in the para- 
digm for this Conjugation is kambesah which is described below. 

Seler (p. 92, 93) states that t and s (z) are " employed with passive themes 
to render transitive expressions." His examples of the use of s in this connec- 
tion show the causal relationship although this is not mentioned by him. The 
following sentences with his translation make this clear; 
kim, to die, kim-s-ah, to kill. 
aak, fresh, green, aakesah, aksah, to water, to make fresh. 

Lopez (§ 103) has much to say concerning the forms of the neuter verb in -1 
and the corresponding form of the active verb in -s-ik but no mention is made 
that this s is a causal. 



54 GRAMMAR 

This same root, be, is sometimes used with verbal roots or nouns, 
the sign of the agent, and the transitive endings to denote an in- 
transitive idea. The root or noun always precedes the nominal 
pronoun: ^ 

tal tin be-t-ik, 1 am making it to come, 1 am coming. 

qai tin be-t-ik, 1 am singing, 1 am making it by means of song. 

These forms are exactly equivalent to the forms: • 
tal-in-kah or tin tal, tin qai. 

A distinguishing feature of Class I verbs is that the past tense 

of the intransitive is formed by dropping the -1 of the present 

stem and adding the verbal pronoun directly to the roct: 

nao'-en, 1 approached, literally, 1 am an approacher. 

em-ets, he went down. 

kim-i, he died. 

ooq-on, we entered, literally, we are enterers. 

Thus it will be seen that all verbs of Class I may be used either 
in the intransitive or transitive or applicative according to the 
ending employed ; the first, denoting simply the effect of the action 
or state on the subject, and the second, expressing the action or 
state as directed toward an object. In considering the intransitive 
and transitive by themselves this subject will be discussed more 
fully later (p. 64). 

Class II. This class of verbs are those in -tal which have the 
meaning " endowed with." ^ They are intransitive only and form 
the past in 1-ah with the verbal pronoun : ^ 

1 Palma y Palma (p. 172, 173) gives these forms and comments on the fact 
that neither Beltran nor San Buenaventura speak of them. Palma y Palma 
uses the nominal pronoun compounded with k in his form with be. He gives 
three ways of saying, " 1 am going " ; 

bin-in-kah tin bin bin kin be-t-ik. 

and he adds " fodas son muy corrientcs." It is quite possible that the form used 
with be shows a late development in the language. 

^ Seler (p. 81) explains these forms as follows; — " Es liegen hier alte No- 
■ mina vor. kus, das als solches im heuiigen Maya nicht mehr existirt, eigentlich 
k'us zu schreiben, entspricht dem (Ju'tche-Cakchiqiwl k'us und heisst ' Herz.' 
kah ist 'das Gesetzte, Gergriindete, die Ansiedlung, das Dorf." He repeats the mis- 
take of limiting the use of these forms with the verbal pronoun. In the present 
and future tenses the nominal pronoun is used. 

^ Coronel and the other grammatists have a rule that verbs in -tal w^hich 
have an 1 in the root form the past, not in -lah, but in -hi, as kul-tal, kul-hi. 



THE VERB 55 

tin kus-tal, 1 am living; literally, my being endowed with a heart. 

kus-1-ah-i, he lived. 

tin kah-tal, 1 am dwelling; literally, my being endowed with a pueblo. 

kah-1-ah-en, 1 dwelt. 

tin tsui-tal, 1 am hanging. 

The same suffix, -tal, is found with verbs of Class IV and with 
nouns with the same meaning as above: 

keel-en, 1 am cold. 

keel-tal-en, 1 am always cold (" endowed with " cold). 

kalan, a drunken man. 

kalan-tal, a drunkard. 

Class III. This class is composed of those verbs formed from 
stems which are nominal in character and which have been called 
neutral. These verbs may or may not be monosyllabic and they 
have no uniform ending in the present of the intransitive as those 
of the former class. The distinction between this class and Class I 
is seen in these two examples: 

Class 1. tin lub-ul, 1 am falling, my being affected by the act of falling, 

my fall. 
Class 111. tin o'on, 1 am shooting, literally, my gunning. 

Other examples of Class III follow: ^ 

From nai, a dream, tin nai, 1 am dreaming, my dreaming. 
tub, saliva, tin tub, 1 am spitting, my saliva. 
qai, a song, tin qai, 1 am singing, my song, 
baab, a crab, tin baab, 1 am swimming, my crabbing. 

There are a few noun stems which are shortened when used in 
the transitive with -ik. This may be a case of syncope as the t is 
retained : - 



The verb kul-tal, to sit, is an early form of ku-tal. 1 found a past in kul-h-i, he 
sat down, but the more common one follows the general rule above and we have 
ku-1-ah-i. 

' As noted by Beltran (§§ 121, 122), tsibal, to bite, to eat meat, from tsi, 
mouth, belongs in this conjugation. The past is formed in the regular way but 
the passive is irregular; 

tsi-b-il, 1 am being bitten. 

Beltran also notes (§ 124) the possibility of confusion in the verb tukul. 
This is not a verb of Class 1 but a noun meaning " thought, idea " and belongs 
in this conjugation. The past is 
tukul-n-ah-en, not tuk-en. 

2 Compare Beltran, § 124. 



56 GRAMMAR 

p'ulut, smoke, tin p'ulut, 1 smoke, my smoking. 

p'ulut-n-ah-en, 1 smoked. 

tin p'ul-t-ik, 1 smoke something, 1 fumigate, for p'ulut-ik. 

mulut, a wish, tin mul-t-ik, 1 am wishing something, for mulut-ik. 

The distinguishing feature of the intransitive of these verbs is 
that the past tense is formed by adding n-ah and the verbal pro- 
noun to the root : ^ 

nai-n-ah-en, 1 dreamed. qai-n-ah-i, he sang. 

tub-n-ah-ets, you spat. baab-n-ah-on, we swam. 

As with Class I this class may be subdivided according to the 
method of making the present and future stems in the transitive 
or applicative: 

(a) Some make the transitive by adding the -ik of the present 
and the -ah of the past directly to the stem: 

tin o'on-ik, 1 am shooting something, my gunning something. 

tin los-ik, 1 am hitting something with my fist, my fisting something. 

tin puts-Ik, 1 am hitting something with my hand. 

(b) Verbs of agent. These add a t before the ending for the 
transitive: ^ 

1 Seler (p. 83) calls the verbs of Class I "the intransitive verbs proper" 
and those of Class III ''derived intransitives." He points out that the 
" intransitives proper" refer to "bodily activity, position in place, changes 
in time, etc," but he fails to note the main distinction between the verbs of 
these two classes, namely that those of Class I express actions or states and 
those of Class III are all derived directly from nouns. Both may be used in 
the transitive and intransitive. 

Lopez (§ 88) fails also to make the proper distinction between verbs of Class 
I and Class 111 . He recognizes the past as given here for these verbs and states 
that all neuter verbs not ending in -1 make the past in n-ah. 

- These, in general, are the verbs placed by the early grammarians in their 
4th Conjugation. Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 12) are not consistent 
in this for they include in their 3d Conjugation some verbs in t-ik. Beltran 
(§§ 118-120) finds fault with this although he places (§ 298) the monosyllabic 
stems which form the past in t-ah in the 3d conjugation. He also places here 
(§ 59) verbs made up of two nouns. These correspond to the verbs of agent 
with t : 

Juan u bets-qab-t-ah u mehen, Juan called with his hand to his son. 

He also follows the modern practice by making the intransitive form; 
bets-qab-n-ah-i, he called with his hand. 

He explains the t (§ 296), not as denoting agent, but as added for euphony 
{buen sonido). 



THE VERB 57 

tin mis-t-ik, ] am sweeping something, my doing something with a broom, 
tin lats-t-ah, 1 scratched it, from lats, finger nail, 
tin qaq-t-ik, 1 am roasting it, from qaq, fire. 

I have not been able to find any rule to determine which nouns 
made into verbs of Class 111 take the sign of the agent and which 
do not. It must be confessed that the idea of the agent is implied 
in verbs of Class III a quite as much as in those of III b. 

Class 111 a. tin o'on-ik, 1 am doing something with a gun. 

Class 111 h. tin mis-t-ik, 1 am doing something with a broom. 

Root in kin and kun. All adjectives and some nouns are made 
into transitive verbs of Class III by being used with the particle 
kin or ktrn, evidently meaning '' to make,"i the sign of the agent 
and the usual tense endings: ' 



Seler (p. 92) states that the t denotes compulsion; 

alkab, speed. tsuuk, coal, live coals. 

in alkab-t-ah, 1 made him run. in tsuuk-t-ah, 1 wanned something. 

These forms are much better explained by considering the t as agent; 

1 made use of speed for something. 

1 made use of live coals for something. 

1 This root, unlike be, is not found in the Spanish dictionaries in this sig- 
nificance. The San Francisco and Perez give the verb kun,*kun-ah meaning 
" ccmjurar hechizando, encantar." Perez gives kin-il as meaning " herida 
reciente." 

2 Beltran (§ 91) has this form made with kun or yenkun with vowel stems. 
He does not, however, give the sign of the agent, t. He places these verbs in 
hLs 4th Conjugation. 1 could find no present use of the form in yenkun for 
vowel stems. San Buenaventura (fol. 9h, ob.) and Coronel have the form in kun. 
San Buenaventura changes the kun to kin when the vowel of the stem is o: 

t'on-tal, to lower oneself. t'on-kin-ah, to lower something. 

Seler (p. 92, 93) explains these forms made with kun or kin as a means of 
deriving a transitive idea from nominal themes in the same way as using ah 
which has already been discussed (p. 56). All his examples are in the past 
tense, using ah : 

in yaab-kun-ah, 1 multiplied it. in kul-kin-ah, 1 established it. 

If these were to be written in the present we would have; 

in yaab-kun-t-ik in kul-kin-t-ik. 

and they would, therefore, have to be explained quite differently according to 
Seler. 

Lopez (§ 95) has the form in kun-s-ik as well as in kun-t-ik. The first is, of 
course, the causal and the second is that of the agent. He gives only one ex- 
ample of the use of the causal form; 

toh-kun-s-ik, to erect, literally, to cause to make straight. 



58 GRAAIMAR 

tin pim-kun-t-ik, 1 strengthen something, 1 make something by means of 

thickness. 
tin keel-kun-t-ik-ets, 1 make you cold, 1 make someone by means of cold, 

you. 
tin mul-kun-t-ik, ] pile up something. 
tin kal-kim-t-ik, 1 make him drunk, 
tin kal-kin-t-k-im-ba, 1 make myself drunk. 

Verbs in -ankil. There is a class of verbs made from nouns with 
the suffix -ankil/ 

qiq, blood, tin qiq-il-ankil, 1 am afraid, 1 am trembling. 

sisit', leap, tin sisit'-ankil, 1 am leaping. 

al, weight, burden, tun al-ankil, she is giving birth. 

sakal, ant, tun sakal-ankil, he is crawling. 

eel, egg, tun eel-ankil, she is laying eggs. 

The past of these forms is made by dropping the ending k-il and 

adding the sign of the past and the verbal pronoun. 

qiqil-an-ah-en, 1 was afraid, 1 trembled, 
sisit'-an-ah-en, 1 leaped. 

A second, but seldom used, form of the past is made by dropping 
the suffix and following the usual rule for verbs of Class III : - 
qiqil-n-ah-en, sisit'-n-ah-en. 

The future retains the entire suffix: 
hen qiqil-an-k-il-e, 1 shall be afraid. 

Class IV. These verbs are intransitive and express a quaHty 
or condition, having the idea of the auxiUary " to be." They use 
the verbal pronoun.^ 

keel-en, 1 am cold. winik-en, I am a man. 



1 Beltran (§ 87) states that these verbs are in -ankal, not -ankil. He finds 
fault (§ 84) with San Buenaventura for giving the forms in -ankil which is the 
same as that used today. Seler (p. 84) follows Beltran in using -ankal. 1 found 
both forms with that in -ankil more commonly used. 

' Beltran (§ 87) has these forms and also one where only the -il of the suf- 
fix is dropped in the preterit ; 

qiqil-an-k-ah-i, he was afraid. 
3 Beltran has the same forms and he points out (§§ 185, 186) the mistake 
of San Buenaventura in using the verbal pronoun compounded with t as 

batab-t-en for batab-en. 
There is no doubt that the former is incorrect. San Buenaventura uses the 
verbal pronoun without t when the expre.ssion is negative; 
ma en batab or men batab. 



THE VERB 59 

The form of the verbal pronoun compounded with t may be used 
pleonastically with the predicative expression with the simple ver- 
bal pronoun: 

ten batab-en, I am the one who is chief.' 

The past of these verbs is formed by adding an h sound before 
the verbal pronoun : 

keel-h-en, 1 was cold. kohan-h-ets, you were ill. 

It is interesting to compare these forms with those of verbs in 
other classes. The past tense of verbs of Class I are identical 
in form with those of the present tense of Class IV: 
lub-en, 1 fell, 1 am a faller. kohan-en, 1 am ill. 

This h or hi, the sign of the past, with these verbs may be de- 
rived from the same source as the -ah, the sign of the past, with 
the transitive verb of Classes I, and III, and with the intransitive 
of Class 111. 

The suffix -tal, seen in verbs of Class II, may be used with verbs 
of this class to denote an habitual condition : 

keel-tal-en, 1 am always cold. kohan-tal-en, 1 am always ill. 

The verb yan or yantal comes in this class.^ It has the meaning 
" there is " or " there is present." It forms its present by adding 
the verbal pronoun directly to the root, its past with h or hi and 
the verbal pronoun, and its future by the use of the nominal pro- 
noun, -tal, and the sign of the future, -e : 

yan-en Ho, 1 am in Merida. 

yan-h-en Ho, or yan-hi-en, 1 was in Merida. 

hen yan-tal-e, 1 shall be in Merida. 

The future may also be made by use of the particle bin and the 
suffix -ak with the verbal pronoun: 
bin yan-ak-en, or bin yan-k-en-ak. 



1 Compare Seler (p. 74). He would translate this as " 1 am he, 1 am chief." 
San Buenaventura (fol. 37) considers the forms, ten, tets, etc. as the verb " to 
be." Seler (p. 79) points out this mistake. It is quite clear that the verbal 
pronoun alone has the verbal idea. 

, 2 Compare Beltran (§§ 198-200) who gives the form as yanhal. This change 
from tal to hal is the same as that seen in the inchoative forms (p. 90). Com- 
pare also Seler, p. 82. 



60 GRAMMAR 

This verb may also have the meaning to have, to take, to hold. 
In this case the particle t or ti may or may not be used with the 
verbal pronoun : ^ 

yan-en or yan-t-en ke, 1 have a deer, literally there is, to me, a deer. 

When this verb is used with the negative ma, there is a contraction 
in the present. This is not seen commonly in the other tenses: 
ma-yan becoming mi nan, there is none, 
ma-yan-h-i, there was none.^ 

Class V. This is composed of the irregular and defective verbs 
of which there is not a great number. Among them are the fol- 
lowing: 

Bin-el, to go. This verb is usually found without its sufhx -el: 
tin bin or bin-in-kah rather than tin bin-el or bin-el-in-kah. 

Here there is no vocalic harmony between the vowel of the root 

and that of the suffix. All forms are regular, belonging to Class I, 

except the futm-e stem sik, and the imperative sen: 

bin-en, 1 went. 

bin sik-en, or hen bin-e, 1 shall go. 

Tal-el, to come. This verb is usually found without the suffix 
-el. All forms are regular, belonging to Class I, except the im- 
perative which is kot-en. The imperatives 
kon, kon-es, kos, kos-es. 

correspond in meaning to the Spanish " Vamos." These forms 
show the dual and plural endings.^ 

Qat, desire. The verb is really a noun meaning, " a wish." It 
is only found used with the nominal pronoun with no time suffixes. 

1 Both Beltran (§§ 199, 200) and Lopez (§111) make a distinction between 
yan meaning " tener " and yan meaning " haber." With the latter meaning 
yan is defective being used only in the 3d person. 

2 Lopez (§ 113) gives the form for the past as ma t-an-hi= 1 do not recognize 
this form. For the positive form corresponding to this he gives yan-hi, which 
agrees with the one given here. 

3 Compare Beltran (§§ 204-206) for the forms tal-el and bin-el. Beltran 
(§ 207) gives the verb il, to see, as an irregular verb. 1 fail to find any irregular- 
ity in its conjugation. In §§ 225, 226, he discusses the forms kon, kones, etc. 
Among several verbs given by Beltran as irregular appears the verb ken, 1 
say, k-en-h-i, 1 said. 1 found this verb very little used. In its place the noun 
fan, speech or word, is used as a verb of Class 111 with a past in t'an[n]-ali 
and the verbal pronoun. 



THE VERB 61 

This stem should not be confounded with qat meaning " question, 
to question." This latter is found in all forms as a verb of Class 
III. The verb with qat conveys the idea of an optative mode. 

in qat bin (el), 1 desire to go, my wish to go. 

in qat o'ib, 1 desire to write, 

in qat in wil-e, 1 desire to see it. 

in qat in wuq ha, 1 desire to drink water. 

The regular verb o'ibol (Class III h) is also used as a verb mean- 
ing " to desire." In tenses other than the present it is more fre- 
quently employed than the verb qat :^ 

tin o'ibol-t-ah ha, 1 desired water. 

P'ek, dislike. This is used with the nominal pronoun. It seems 
to be found only in the present tense: ^ 
in p'ek bin (el), 1 dislike to go. 

Tak, taktal, desire. The verb made from this noun differs from 
the two preceding forms in the fact that the nominal or possessive 
pronoun is used with the true verb and also that all tenses can be 
expressed.^ The conjugation follows that of verbs in Class IV: 

tak or tak-tal in wen-el, 1 desire to sleep. 

tak-hi in wen-el, 1 desired to sleep. 

bin tal-ak in wen-el, 1 shall desire to sleep. 

There is also a reduplicated form, tak-i-tak which expresses the 
idea of desiring something very much, " tener gana 6 deseo vehe- 
mente de hacer algoy 

Qabet, necessary. This is used either with nouns or with verbs. 

In the first case the verbal pronoun compounded with t or ti is 

used: 

qabet t-en wa, 1 need tortillas; literally, necessary to me, tortillas. 
qabet-hi t-en wa,^ past tense. 



1 Compare Lopez, § 126. 

2 As pointed out by Lopez (§ 128), in other tenses the regular verb, p'ek-t-ik, 
p'ek-t-ah, p'ek-t-e, is used. 

3 The Perez dictionary gives the form as tak-tal. Beltran (§ 224) has the 
past in tal-hi. Lopez (§ 129) writes " A-penas se usa mas que en presente." 

* Lopez (§ 122) uses the inchoative form in tsah for the past. Compare 
p. 90. 



62 GRAMMAR 

When a verb is used, the form takes the nominal or possessive 
pronoun as with tak and the conjugation follows verbs in Class IV. 
The verbal pronoun with t may be omitted: 

qabet in bin(el), 1 need to go, literally, necessary, my going, 
qabet h-in bin(el), past tense. 
qabet in puts-ik, 1 need to hit him. 

Suk. accustom. This has forms similar to the preceding: 

suk t-en in han-t-ik wa, 1 am accustomed to eat tortillas, literally, cus- 
tomary to me, my eating something, tortillas. 

The following irregular verbs are impersonal, using, in most 
cases, the nominal pronoun of the 3d person before the form in- 
troducing the expression. The conjugation generally follows that 
of Class IV: 

Pat, patal, ability.^ 

u pat in bin(el), 1 am able to go, literally, its ability, my going. 

u pat h-in bin(el), 1 was able to go. 

hu pat in bin-e or, 

bin patak in bin, 1 shall be able to go. 

The second verb in each case may take the suffix, -e when it is 

intransitive : 

u pat in han-l-e (han-al-e), 1 am able to eat. 
u pat in qai-y-e, 1 am able to sing. 
u pat in bin-e, 1 am able to go. 

Nama, obligation : ^ 
u nama in bin(el), I ought to go. 

Tuub, tuubul, to forget. I found this verb only in one form: ^ 
tuub ten, 1 forgot. 

1 Lopez (§ 123) has this and several of the following forms used in connec- 
tion with the nominal pronoun compounded with k, as ku. He gives this form 
as: 

ku pah-tal. 
He agrees with me in the past as he drops the suffix -tal and his stem seems to 
change from pah to pat. 

He is inclined to use the stem with the suffix in -1 in the present. My forms 
usually omit the suffix. 

2 Perez (1898) gives the form nah, necessario. Compare a corresponding 
form, nakma, given by Beltran (§ 216). 

^ Lopez (§ 118) gives the following forms for this verb: 



THE VERB 63 

The active verb is: 

tuub-s-ik, tuub-s-ah, tuub-s-e. 

tin tuub-s-ik, 1 am forgetting something. 

Qaah, qaahal, to remember. The verbal pronoun in this and 
several of the following forms takes t- or ti-: 

u qaah t-en, 1 remember, Uterally, its memory to me. 

qaah[h]i t-en, past tense. 

bin qaah-ak t-en, future tense. 

The active verb is : 
qaah-s-ik, qaah-s-ah, qaah-s-e. 

Tsik-pahal. to appear. This is a reflexive verb from the stem 
tsikaan, visible and has the literal meaning, to appear itself: 

u tsik-pahal t-en, it appears to me. 

tsik-pa-hi t-en, past tense. 
bin tsik-pah-ak t-en, future tense. 

Utsul, to succeed, to happen: ^ 
u y-utsul t-en, it happens to me, ?ne sucede. 

uts-hi t-en, past tense. 
bin uts-ak t-en, future tense. 

Verbs with Stems in -al, -el, -11, -ol, -ul. For greater clearness 
it has seemed best to describe these verbs as a whole although 
they are taken up under other headings. This ending in -1 preceded 
by the vowel similar to that of the root signifies that the subject 
of the verb is affected by the action of the verb. 

These forms in -1 are found in the following places: 

(a) Present of the intransitive in Class L 
tin lub-ul, 1 am falUng, 1 am affected by a fall. 

(6) Present of the intransitive in Class III a, showing a passive 
relationship : 

tin o'on-ol, 1 am being shot, my being affected by a gun. 



ku tuubul ten, 1 forget. 

tuub ten, 1 forgot. 

bin tuubuc ten, 1 shall forget. 
Beltran (§ 203) has the form: 

ma in tubul tets or ti tets, do not forget me. 
1 For other irregular forms, see Beltran, §§ 201, 202, 207, 211, 212, 229. 



64 GRAMMAR 

The causal s preceding the form in -1 is found in the following 
place : 

(c) Present of the intransitive in Class I showing a passive 
relationship : 

tin kim-s-il, 1 am being killed, my being affected by someone causing me 
to die. 

(d) Verbs in Class 111 b which form the transitive by using t, 
the sign of the agent, have the form -tal regardless of the vowel 
of the root to show a passive relationship : 

tun mis-t-al in na, my house is being swept, literally, my house is being 

affected by means of a broom, 
tin yakun-t-al, 1 am being loved, my being affected by love. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that syntactically the passive 
relationship for verbs in Class III is exactly similar to the active 
forms of verbs in Class I. 

Intransitive Verb. The preceding classification, as has been 
noted, is made up without taking into consideration whether the 
verb is intransitive or transitive. It is well to consider these forms 
by themselves and endeavor to show how the intransitive and 
transitive are built up. 

Intransitive verbs are found in all classes of verbs and they are 
distinguished from the transitive of each respective class by cer- 
tain differences in the method of conjugation, by different pro- 
nouns or different time suffixes. 

The simplest form of the intransitive verb is seen in the use of 
the verbal pronoun with verbs of Class IV, nouns or adjective-like 
forms : 

batab-en, 1 am a chief. batab-h-en, 1 was a chief. 

In the past of verbs of Classes I-III the stem appears with the 

true personal pronoun, commonly called the objective, but here 

spoken of as the verbal pronoun. This is the same in form as that 

used as the object of the transitive verb: 

1 a. ah-en, 1 woke up. Ill a. nai-n-ah-en, 1 dreamed. 

1 b. kim-en, 1 died. Ill b. mis-n-ah-en, 1 swept. 

11. kus-1-ah-en, 1 lived. IV. keel-h-en, 1 was cold. 

Transitive Verb. This is sharply distinguished from the in- 
transitive. The pronoun used with the transitive is similar to the 



THE VERB 65 

possessive and has been called the nominal pronoun. The connec- 
tion between the possessive and its noun and the pronoun used 
with the transitive is very close: ^ 

tin o'on-ik ke, 1 am shooting with a gun a deer, Hterally, my gunning a deer. 

Two of the classes of transitive verbs may be roughly classified as 
regards instrument and cause. 

The transitive verb is found in Classes I, III, and IV. Class II 
is not found in the transitive. 

Transitive to Intransitive Form. Transitive verbs may pass 

over to the intransitive form when the combined meaning of the 

verb and its object represents habitual action: 

tin sul-ik meya, 1 am finishing work. 

tin sul-ah meya (transitive form), 1 finished work. 

sul-meya-n-ah-en (intransitive form), ] finished work. 

tan sup-ik taqtn, you are spending money. 

tan sup-ah taqin (transitive form), you spent money. 

sup-taqin-n-ah-ets (intransitive form), you spent money. 

Both of these verbs are in Class I as the intransitive forms are 

respectively : 

tin sul-ul, 1 am finishing. 
sul-en, 1 finished. 
tin sup-ul, I am spending. 
sup-en, 1 spent. 

^ Seler (p. 76) makes this same distinction. He writes, ^^nur die absoluten, 
eines direkten Objekts entbchrenden Verbalausdriicke durch Prddikatakonstruk- 
tion mit dem Personalprotwmen (my verbal pronoun) gebildet; die transitiven 
Verba dagegen sind wurzelhafte oder abgeleitete Nomina, die als solche mit dem 
Possessivprcifix (my nominal pronoun) verbunden werden." He fails to state, 
however, that it is only in the past tenses of the intransitive, with the excep- 
tion of verbs of Class IV, that the "personal pronoun" is used. The "pos- 
sessive prefix" is used in the present and future tenses of both transitive and 
intransitive forms: 

tin lub-ul, 1 am falling, 
lub-en, ] fell. 

tin lub-s-ik, 1 am destroying something. 

tin lub-s-ah, 1 destroyed something. 
He elaborates (p. 89) his former statement and writes, "Die Maya-Sprachen 
besitzen also transitive aktive Verben in unserem Sinne nicht. Sie kennen nur 
Nomina und absolute Verba, die einen Zustand des Seins, eine Eigenschaft 
oder eine Thatigkcit bezeichnen, die als Pradikate zu einem Personalpronomen 
oder einer dritten Person als Subjekt konstruirt werden, aber kein direktes Objekt 
zu sich nehmen konnen." 



66 GRAMMAR 

When the verbal stem combines with an object so closely that 
the whole idea is considered as an action in itself and is intransi- 
tive, the verb passes into Class III on account of the method of 
making the past with n-ah and the verbal pronoun.^ This is one 
of the few cases where a verb belonging to one class passes over 
into another. The complete unity of the object with the action of 
the verb is seen in the fact that the object is infixed, coming be- 
fore the sign of the past and the verbal pronoun. The intransitive 
form for the present is practically never found : 
sul-meya-in-kah . 

These compounded forms may remain transitive when an object 
is expressed. In this case they usually go in Class III h, that class 
using t as the sign of the agent : - 

tin bets-qab-t-ik Pedro, I am calling by means of the hand Peter, 
tin tsin-pol-t-ik wLnik 1 am reverencing the man, Hterallj^ 1 am inclining 
(by means of the head) the man. 

Intransitive to Transitive Form. The intransitive verb may 
pass to the transitive in form but it retains the intransitive mean- 
ing by the use of the root, be to make, and the sign of the agent : ^ 

tal tin be-t-ik, 1 am coming, 1 am making it to come. 

qai tin be-t-ik, 1 am singing, 1 am making it by means of song. 

Tense in the Verb. The Spanish grammars have, in addition 
to the present tense of the Indicative, a Preterito Imperjecto, Pre- 
terito Perfedo, Preterito Pluscucunperfecto, Futuro Imperfedo, and a 
Futuro Perfedo. The Present, Preterito Perfecto, and Futuro Im- 
perjecto are the true present, past and future respectively. The 
Preterito Imperfedo, is made from the present by the addition of 
kutsi (cuchi),'* the Preterito Pluscuamperfedo from the Preterito 

1 Beltran (§ 58) has the same form in the past and notes that San Buena- 
ventura makes the past ot these forms by the addition of the verbal pronoun 
to the root compounded with the object: 

tsa-ha-n-en, 1 carried water. 
The correct form is, 
tsa-ha-n-ah-en. 

Beltran adds that the form given by San Buenaventura may have been cor- 
rect at the time the latter studied the language. 

^ Compare Lopez, § 92. 

^ Compare p. 54, and Palma y Palma, p. 172, 173. 

^ The form kutsi is undoubtedly from ka and utsul, utsi, or utsuk given by 
Beltran (§ 222) as an irregular verb meaning "to happen" or "to succeed" 



THE VERB 67 

Perfecto by the addition of ill kutsi, and the Future Perfecto from 
the Futuro Imperfedo by the addition of ill kotsom. The forms 
made by the words kutsi, ill kutsi, and ili kostom seem to me to 
be more or less artificial and are the result, in the main, of the de- 
sire to present every tense known to the Spaniard in his own 
language.^ 

1 foimd the form utsi instead of kutsi could be used to make a 
past from the present stem but it was not the common way of 
expressing this tense. 

The tenses in the Maya, as spoken today, are: present, a past, 
a past denoting action just completed, a past denoting action 
completed some time ago, a future denoting action just about to 
take place and a future denoting action to take place some time 
in the future. ^ 

{acaecer, siiceder, acontecer). The form of the past as given in the early gram- 
mars use this verb as a sort of auxiUary with the present tense to form the past; 

nak-al-in-kah kutsi, 1 cUmbed, hterally, I am cUmbing, it happened. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 15 ob.) make a distinction, using kutsi 
for distant past time and katsi for time just past. 

> Palma y Palma (p. 188, 189) expresses the idea of the artificiality of 
these forms as follows: — "Los tiempos que aparecen aqui como ejemplos, son 
tornados de la gramdtica de Fray Pedro de Beltran. Observando, sin embargo, 
el coniun lenguaje de los mayas, se ve que no todos estdn en uso. iEn qui consiste 
esto? SSerd que ya no es menester emplearlos'i Esto es inadmisible, porque la 
misma causa que obro para establecerlos subsiste: la necesidad de expresar ac- 
ciones que forzosanxente tienen que corresponder a tiempo presente, pasado, 6 
venidero. Y los que indican absolutamente estos, subsisten; los que vienen a ser 
como intermedios, segun la expresion de la Academia, los cuales en castellano se 
forman con verbos auxiliares solamente, son los que no se usan. Pero la razon 
estd en que hay otros medios de expresar los tiernpos correspondienies a estas 
acciones cuando se relacionan con los de otras para significar respecto de ellas 
pasado 6 Juturo, como habia hecho, habri hecho. etc. Lo habia hecho cuando lleg- 
aste. Lo habri hecho cuando llegues. La forma del pretirito pluscuamperfecto, por 
ejemplo, segun el P. Beltran, es binen ili katsi, 6 kutsi como pone y se usaba antes. 
Yo me habia ido. En vez de esta forma los 7nayas usan: " 

o'ook ili in bin ka t quts-ets-e, me habia ido cuando llegasie. 
" Si se dijera ": 

ka t quts-ets-e, binen ili katsi. 
" ningun maya lo entcnderia." 

2 Seler (p. 102) writes, "Das Maya unterscheidet sich von den verwandten 
guatemaltekischen Sprachen sehr bestimmt dadurch, dass die Tempusprdjixe in 
ihm nur eine sehr unbedeutende Rolle spielen. Im Prdterituvi treten, u'ie erwdhnt, 
die Prdfixe t und cauf. Das ist wichtig, weil es uns beweist, dass das Maya der 



68 GRAMMAR 

Tense is expressed by means of suffixes added to the root in ad- 
dition to a time particle used with the nominal pronoun. The 
former differ in the transitive and intransitive. 

An interesting and unusual feature connected with tense in 
Maya is the fact that the forms of the pronoun vary in the in- 
transitive according to the tense employed. 

Tense in the Intransitive Verb. Present Time. This is expressed 
in several ways. The most common is the use of the verbal stem 
with the nominal pronoun compounded with the pronominal sign 
of present time, tan. This is found in all verbs of Classes 1, Jl, HI : 

Class 1 a, tin het-el, I am performing the act of opening. 

b, tin kim-il, 1 am dying. 
Class 11, tin tsi-tal, 1 am lying down. 

tin tsen-tal, 1 am listening. 
Class 111, tin o'on, 1 am shooting. 

tin siit', 1 am jumping. 

tin o'iib, 1 am writing. 

With verbs of motion and a few others a second set of forms for 
the present is found composed of the nominal pronoun and the 
particle -ka or -kah suffixed to the stem. These may be called 

" duratives ": ^ 

Mittel, welche in den anderen Sprachen sich Geltung verschafft haben, nicht ganz 
entbehrt. Aber diese Prdfixe treten durchaus nicht bestimmt und regelmdssig auf. 
Und Prafixe, welche es gestatten, die verschiedenen Tempora zu unterscheiden, 
haben sich nicht herausgebildet. Dieses Sprache ist daher genothigt, zu anderen 
Aushiilfsmitteln zu greifen, um die nothige Prdzision in der Tetnpusbezeichnung 
zu erreichen, und siefindet solche in periphrastischen Konstruktionen." It seems 
to me that Seler is quite incorrect in this statement. The Maya has very defi- 
nite tense signs. Seler fails in several cases to recognize the ik and the ah of 
the transitive verb as tense signs. He mentions the prefix t as a sign of the past 
in the intransitive only in the 1st person with k for the 3d person. The t is 
used in all persons as a sign for the past and the k is never found. 

1 These forms are given by Coronel, San Buenaventura, and Beltran in 
their 1st Conjugation. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura in their paradigms and Seler (p. 102), also 
give the forms in -kah for the present of the transitive verb (2d, 3d, and 4th 
Conjugations): 

kambes-ah-in-kah Pedro, 1 am teaching Peter. 

This form in in-kah is not used in the transitive. San Buenaventura (fol. 2 ob.) 
recognizes the proper form in his discussion of the pronoun, ten: 
ten yakun-ik (properly, yakun-t-ik), 1 shall love someone. 

Both Coronel and San Buenaventura use the form in -ik rather than in in-kah 



THE VERB 69 

Class 1, lubul-ln-kah, contracted to lub-1-in-kah, 1 am falling. 

nakal-in-kah, contracted to nak-1-in-kah, 1 am ascending. 

bin[el|-in-kah, 1 am going. 
Class 11, a'on-in-kah, 1 am shooting. 

It should be noted that in these forms the pronoun has no time 
particle. This -kah is probably the root of a defective verb mean- 
ing, " to do." The literal translation of the form lubul-in-kah 
would probably be, "affected by the act of a fall, my doing." ^ 

in asking a question when the pronoun is used as the object of the transitive 
verb: 

mas kambes-ik-ets, who is showing you? 
The -ik form is also used by them when one verb follows another, especially 
is this so (fol. 72) when an active verb follows a neuter and the neuter does not 
denote an action: 

tal-u-kah in boo-t-ik in p'as, 1 am on the point of paying my debt. 
In the discussion of the pronoun en, ets, etc. (fol. 3) San Buenaventura gives 
the form in in-kah: 

yakun-ah in kah ets, 1 love you. 
But in fol. 16 ob. he states that the form in -ik is used if a noun preceded the 
verb: 

Pedro kambe-s-ik Juan, Peter is showing John. 
There is therefore great inconsistency in these statements. Beltran points out 
(§§ 153-157) at length why San Buenaventura is wrong in giving the form in 
in-kah as a transitive, thus making no distinction between the transitive and 
the intransitive. The same criticism also applies to the forms of Coronel and 
of Seler (p. 102). 

The latter (p. 103) writes that he has followed the more ancient authority 
of San Buenaventura rather than " sein jungerer Kollege," Beltran, and he ac- 
cepts the use of the form in in-kah for transitives as well as intransitive verbs. As 
pointed out above, San Buenaventura, Coronel, and Seler are incorrect here. 

1 Beltran (§ 209) gives -kah as the root of the verb meaning " to do." He 
points out that it is found only in the present stem, the past being made by the 
addition of kutsi. He finds fault with San Buenaventura for giving kibah and 
kib for the past and future of the form kah. Buenaventiu-a is inconsistent in 
his forms for the future as these forms in his 3d Conjugation are made with ib 
added to the root. 

Seler (p. 102) explains the -kah in an entirely different way. He derives it 
from kah, " a village or settlement " and translates it in the verb as "to be 
stationary." This is probably incorrect as the form is found especially with 
verbs of motion. 

Lopez (§ 132) seems inclined to accept Beltran's explanation that this kah 
is a defective verb, meaning " hacer." It is perfectly true, as Lopez points out 
that the form in -kah may be replaced by be-t-ik (see p. 54), but in the latter 
form we find the transitive ending, the sign of the agent, and the root of a 
regular verb. 



70 GRAMMAR 

The present tense in verbs of Class IV from noun or adjective 

stems is made by the simple addition of the verbal pronoun; ^ 

keel-en, 1 am cold. 

kohan-ets, you are ill. 

UD-ob, they are good, or the good ones. 

winik-en, contracted to winken, 1 am a man. 

Future Time. In the intransitive of verbs in Classes I, II, and 
III, future time is expressed in much the same way as in the tran- 
sitive. The forms of the nominal pronoun are compounded with 
the future time particle, he, and a final -e is suffixed to the present 
stem: 

Class 1 a. hen (he-in) nak-al-e, contracted to nak-l-e, 1 shall climb. 
Class I b. hen kim-il-e, contracted to kim-l-e, 1 shall die. 
Class 11. he-k kus-tal-e, we shall live. 
Class 111 a. hen qai-y-e, 1 shall sing. 
hen o'on-e, 1 shall shoot. 
Class 111 b. hen mis-e, 1 shall sweep. 

Indefinite time in the future is expressed by prefixing the root, 

bin, of the verb " to go." When this is used with verbs of Class I 

the shortened stem without -1 is employed and the suffix -ak added 

before the verbal pronoun :2 

Class 1 a. bin nak-ak-en, contracted to bin nak-en,' 1 am going to 

climb. 
Class 1 b. bin kim-ak-en, contracted to bin kim-k-en, 1 am going to die. 

^ These are the verbs given by the Spanish grammars which use the auxi- 
liary " to be." Beltran shows the same forms as those given here and he notes 
(§ 195) that San Buenaventura is incorrect in giving the auxiliary as the 
verbal pronoun compounded with t as t-en, t-ets, etc. Beltran is entirely cor- 
rect in noting this mistake. San Buenaventura uses the verbal pronoun alone 
when a negative expression is employed. 

2 This is the form for the Futuro Imperfecto given in the old grammars for 
the 1st Conjugation. The preceding form in he is not mentioned. 1 was not 
able to find the form of their Futuro Perfecto in ili kutsom. This seems to me 
to be an impossible form as the past stem is used with ili kutsom to express a 
future. 

Palma y Palma (p. 189-190) dees not accept this form. He gives as a sub- 
stitute ; 

o'ook in bin or D'ook ili in bin wal kaan qutsketse, me habre ido cuando 
llegues. 
He writes, " Si se dUera 

kaan qutsketse, binen ili kotsoom 
ningun may a lo entenderia." 

2 Seler (p. 110) has some very significant remarks on the particle -ak. He 



THE VERB 71 

Class 111 a. bin o'on-ak-en, contracted to bin o'on-k-en, 1 am going to 

shoot. 
Class 111 b. bin mis-ak-en, contracted to bin mis-k-en, 1 am going to 

sweep. 

The future of adjective and nominal verbs of Class IV is not 
made, as one might expect, simply by using the nominal pronoun 
and the suffix -e, but it is expressed by the inchoative form by 
adding the suffix -tsal or -tal and the final -e. The nominal future 
pronoun is used with these forms: ' 

he-k kohan-tsal-e, we shall be sick, we shall become sick. 

hu (he-u) keel-tsal-e, he will be cold. 

Past Time. In verbs of Class I, this is expressed by the stem 
alone compounded with the verbal pronoun. This form is really a 
verbal noun : ^ 

lub-en, 1 fell, literally, 1 am a faller. 

bin-ets, you went. 

tal-i, he came. 

kim-ob, they died. 

The form of the imperative is similar to the first person singular 
of the past tense, as lub-en, fall, or I fell. To distinguish between 

translates this form on the basis of a participial meaning as "it goes (will be) 
raising itself I, i.e. it is in the notion to raise itself, 1 = 1 will raise myself." 
Compare Beltran (§ 137) for the contraction. 

1 Coronel, followed by San Buenaventura (fol. 7 oh.) gives a future in cm for 
neuter verbs. Beltran (§ 96) is entirely correct in pointing out that these forms 
are not found. By the examples given both by Coronel and San Buenaventura 
it is clear that they have mistaken the on of the 1st person plural, written by 
them, in this case, as cm for a sign of the future. 

2 This is given by the Spanish grammars as the Pretcrito Perfedo. 
Friedrich Miiller (1882, v. 2, p. 309) considers this form and others like 

it as exhibiting " the predicative power of the true verb." Adam (1878a, p. 155) 
says, " The intransitive preterit nak-en may seem morphologically the same 
as the Aryan ds-mi; but here again, nak is a verbal noun, as is demonstrated 
by the plural of the 3d person nak-ob, ' the ascenders.' Nak-en comes to mean 
' ascender [formerly] me.' " Brinton (1882, p. 31), who quotes these authori- 
ties, writes, " 1 am inclined to think that the French critic is right, and that, in 
fact, there is no true verb in the Maya, but merely verbal nouns, nomina 
actionis, to which the pronouns stand either in the possessive or objective re- 
lations, or, more remotely, in the possessive relation to another verbal noun in 
apposition, as kah, kutsi, etc. The importance of this point in estimating the 
structure of the language will be appreciated by those who have paid any at- 
tention to the science of linguistics." 



72 GRAMMAR 

the two an initial t sound, usually glottalized, may be used be- 
fore the verbal stem : ^ 

t'-lub-en, I fell. 
t'-bin-en, I went. 
t'-tal-en, I came. 

The t' is the same form as that used with the nominal pronoun as 

a time particle for the past. The t' is often retained throughout 

all forms for the past : ^ 

t'-bin-i, he went. 
t'-tal-on, we came. 

As has been noted, the Spanish grammars all give a Preterito 
Imperfedo using the form of the present followed by kutsi (cuchi). 
This is really the past of the verb utsul, to happen. It is recognized 
at the present time but is not commonly used. The Preterito 
Pluscuamperfedn in ill kutsi 1 was not able to find.^ 

Past time in verbs of Class II is expressed by adding to the stem 



1 Beltran (§ 85) gives the two forms for the past, lub-en and t-lub-en. He 
states that the latter form is the better. He makes no mention, however, of 
the fact that this t is usually glottalized. 

Seler (p. 98, 99) seems to limit the use of the t as a sign of the preterite to 
the 1st person. The t is used in all persons as a sign for the past in the intran- 
sitive. Beltran (§ 81) gives his examples of the use of t in the 3d person. 
Palma y Palma (p. 185-187) uses an h in place of the t: 

h-bin-en, I went. 
He writes, "A binen se adiciona una ache sin poderse holier una rozon mani- 
fiesto. Acoso sea contraccion de hi-binen, pariicidc que se emplea en el modo 
optativo para significar irlo, segun el P. Beltran." On p. 209 he also uses the 
form in t, as given above. In connection with this he writes, " Pare distinguir 
el preterito perfecto de indicativo del preset te de imperativo ' nacen ' sube, se 
antepore una te al primero como se he visto antes, y a veces una ache con sonido de 
jota. Asl se dice: " 

t naken 6 h naken, suhi. 

t nakets 6 h nakets, subiste. 

2 Seler (p. 98), as already pointed out, limits the use of t as a sign of the past 
to the 1st person and states that a k (c) is used for the same purpose in the 3d 
person. He seems to base this statement on the fact that kutsi, from utsul, 
begins with a k. 

3 Palma y Palma (p. 189) also fails to find this form. He gives as a sub- 
stitute; 

o'ook ill in bin ka t qutsetse, me habia ido cuando llegaste. 
Lopez (1914) follows Palma y Palma in giving the same forms in o'ook ili 
(see p. 67). 



THE VERB 73 

the sign of the past, -ah, as seen also in the past of the intransitive 

verb, and the verbal pronoun : 

tsi-tal-ah-en, I lay down, 
kus-tal-ah-en ti Ho, I lived in Merida. 

These forms are usually contracted into : 

tsi-1-ah-en.i kus-1-ah-en. 

Past time in verbs of Class III is made by adding to the stem 
the sign of the past, ah, and the verbal pronoun. An n is inserted 
between the stem and the pronoun. ^ 

qai-n-ah-en, 1 sang. o'ib-n-ah-on, we wrote. 

baab-n-ah-ets, you swam. o'on-[ii]-ah-ob, they shot. 

tukul-n-ah-i, he thought. 

Verbs of Class III h, forming the present of the transitive in 
t-ik, do not show the sign of the agent (t) when used in the in- 
transitive: 

tin o'ib-t-ik, 1 am writing something. 
o'ib-n-ah-en, 1 performed the action of writing. 

1 Beltran (§ 93) does not give the uncontracted forms. He gives only the 
forms in 1-ah. Beltran follows Coronel in stating that verbs in -tal which 
have an 1 in the root form the past by substituting h for 1-ah. From the verb 
kul-tal he would get the past kul-hi instead of kul-lah-i. The complete un- 
contracted form would be kul-tal-lah-i. According to the present method of 
speaking this would be contracted into kul-ah-i, not kul-h-i according to 
Beltran. There is, therefore, no need to make an exception to verbs in -tal 
with an 1 in the stem as the rules for contraction would attend to this. 

Seler (p. 81) explains this form by saying that a t is added in the present 
and an 1 in the preterit and future. 

2 Beltran (§ 83) gives this same form for his verbs of the 2d, 3d, and 4th Con- 
jugations when they are changed to the intransitive. He points out (§ 53) the 
mistake of San Buenaventura who (fol. 6 ob) makes these forms by using ah-n 
with the verbal pronoun instead of n-ah as kambe-s-ah-n-en for kambe-s-n- 
ah-en. Beltran (§ 8.5) speaks of the forms in n-ah as the " elegant " (garboso) 
way of expressing the past. 

Seler (p. 83) states that the suffix -n has the meaning "to be engaged in the 
activity in question," "to exert the activity in question." Later (p. 110) he 
states that the -n is used to derive intransitive verbal themes from nouns. 
On p. 119 he gives the forms in n-ah for the past of the intransitive. He calls 
thLs -ah (p. 122) the " second ah." He notes that this is the " new formation " 
as San Buenaventura gives only the n for the past. This is the case where 
San Buenaventura (fol. 6 ob) incorporates a noun with the verb as a unit. 
(See discussion of this, p. 29.) Seler overlooks the fact that in the preceding 
paragraph San Buenaventura gives the form with -ah and -a, as noted above, 
although he states that the past is made with n. 



74 GRAMMAR 

This form of the past is the one used when a transitive with 
its object is turned into the intransitive in form: 

tin sot-ah tse, 1 cut wood (transitive form). 

so[t]-tse-n-ah-en, 1 cut wood or 1 performed the action of cutting wood. 

A form of the distant past with verbs of Class III is expressed by 
the duphcation of the -ah, the sign of the past : 
simbal-n-ah-ah-n-en, 1 walked a long time ago. 

An n is added between the final ah and the pronoun for euphony . 
This form is seldom used. 

Past time with verbs of Class IV is made by adding an h or hi 
between the stem and the verbal pronoun: 

keel-h-en, 1 was cold. kohan-h-on, we were ill. 

uD-h-i, he was good. tsupal-h-i, he was a boy. 

It is quite probable that the actual time particle for the past with 
these verbs is hi, contracting with the pronoun to h-en, h-ets, and 
h-i. The Mam dialect shows hi as this tense sign.^ 

There are a few verbs ending in -mal and -pal which belong in 
this Class IV although at first sight they would be placed in 
Class 1:2 

tepal, ruler, king. 

tepal-h-en, 1 ruled, 1 was a ruler, (also tepal-n-ah-en possible). 

ol mal, to coagulate, probably from olom, blood. 

ol mal-h-i or ohna-h-i, past tense, 3d person. 

nol mal, to blunt. 

nol mal-h-i, or nol ma-h-i, past tense, 3d person. 

muts mal, to fade. 

muts mal-h-i or muts ma-h-i, past tense, 3d person. 



1 Beltran (§ 193) states that the past is formed by adding hi which combines 
with the pronoun into h-en, h-ets, and h-i. Seler (p. 79) follows San Bue,na- 
ventura and Beltran in this but he states that the sign of the past and the 
future really belong with the noun. The verbal character of the pronoun is 
sufficiently clear to justify the statement that the time particles belong, not 
with the noun, but with the verb. 

2 Lopez (§ 89) gives nol-mal and muts-mal as exceptions to the rule that 
all verbs in -1 make the past by dropping last syllable and adding the verbal 
pronoun. He recognizes that most verbs in m-al form the past in the regular 
way; 

ulm-al, ulm-en o'am-al, o'am-en lam-al, lam-en. 



THE VERB 75 

There is a tense representing completed action made with the 
root of the verb o'ok, to finish. This is found in the transitive as 
well as the intransitive in all classes of verbs: ^ 
o'in (o'ok-in) hanal, 1 have finished eating. 

Tense in the Transitive Verb. Tn addition to the time particles 
attached to the nominal pronoun, tense in the transitive verb is 
expressed by suffixes. 

Present Time. This is shown by the suffix -ik which represents 
the object in present time or something directed toward something 
in present time.^ When there is a pronominal or nominal object, 
this object is in apposition to the idea contained in -ik.^ 

Class 1 a. tin puts-ik, 1 am hitting something. 

tan tsul-ik, you are wetting something. 



1 1 failed to find the forms of the pluperfect in o'okili given by Lopez (§ 77) ; 
o'okili in hanal, 1 had eaten. 
It is interesting to note that this form is also given by Palma y Pahna (p. 189) 
in place of the artificial form in ili katsi of the early grammars. 

- Compare Beltran, § 235. 

3 Seler (p. 80, 120, 121) regards the -ik as showing a relative or an infini- 
tive idea. It is certainly true that in some cases the relative idea seems to be 
present as when ik is compounded to make a form like likil (p. 93). But as 
ik'is found only with transitives it seems to denote an objective relation. One 
of the forms given by Seler, ten-oik-ik, " 1 obey him or 1 am the one who obeys 
him," shows the relative idea but this is probably expressed in the t or ti com- 
bined with the verbal pronoun -en, making ten, and not by the -ik in oikik. 
On page 74 he comments as follows on the form in ik, " die Forrnen auf -ik sind 
echte genmdivische Forrnen, die die su Bedeutung eines ganzen Relativsatzes oder 
Umstandssatzes haben." 

Beltran (§ 172) gives the form in -ik but uses the verbal pronoun com- 
pounded with t or ti: 

t-en kambes-ik Pedro, 1 am teaching Peter. 
The forms of the pronoun compounded with t or ti, giving ten, tets, toon, te-es, 
are used in answer to the question, " Who is doing this? " The verbal idea 
is brought out in the answer as in the sentence above, " 1 am the one who is 
teaching Peter." A more usual way to express this idea, however, is the use of 
the verbal pronoun compounded with t together with the nominal pronoun 
compounded with k: 

t-en k-in kambes-ik Pedro, 1 am the one who is teaching Peter or 1 am 
the one who is about to teach Peter. 
Beltran (§ 168) also gives this form. 



76 GRAMMAR 

Class 1 b. tan-k lub-s-ik na, we are destroying the house; literally, in 

present time, our causing something, in present time, to 

fall, the house. 
tun kim-s-ik ke, he is killing the deer, Hterally; in present 

time, his causing something, in present time, to die, the 

deer. 
Class 111 a. tin o'on-ik ke, he is shooting the deer; literally, in present 

time, his gunning something, in present time, the deer. 
Class HI b. tun mis-t-ik na, he is sweeping the house; literally, in present 

time, his doing something with a broom, in present time, 

the house. 

When the verbal pronoun is used after the suffix -ik, there is an 
ehsion of the i in -ik : ^ 

tun kam-be-s-ik-en becomes tun kam-be-s-k-en, he is showing me 
something. 

Future Time. In the transitive this is much the same as the im- 
perative. It is expressed by the present stem in -jk with the final 
-e together with the usual forms of the nominal pronoun com- 
pounded with the sign of the future, he-. The causal s and the 
instrumental t are retained in Classes I h and III h respectively. 

Class I a. hen het-ik-e, 1 shall open something. 

Class I b. hen kim-s-ik-e, 1 shall kill something. 

Class 111 <7. hen o'on-ik-e, I shall shoot something. 

Class 111 b. hen o'ib-t-ik-e, 1 shall write something. 

The omission of the sign of the present transitive, -ik, is often 

made, or the i of the suffix -ik is lost by syncope: 

hen kim-s-e, or kim-s-k-e, 
hen o'on-e, or o'cn-k-e, 
hen o'ib-t-e, or o'ib-t-k-e. 

When there is an object expressed, either by a pronoun or a noun, 

the final -e may be added after the object: 

hu (he-u) puts-ik winik-e, or wink-e, he will hit the man. 
hu puts-ik-en-e, or puts-k-en-e, he will hit me. 

Indefinite future is expressed by prefixing the root of the word 
bin, " to go," to the forms of the nominal pronoun and suffixing 
the final -e to the root.^ 

1 Compare Beltran, § 140. 

^ Beltran gives the form in bin as the regular future in the transitive; 

bin-in-kambes, 2d Conjugation. 

bin-in-oik-e, 3d Conjugation. 

bin-in-kanan-t-e, 4th Conjugation. 



THE VERB 77 

It should be noted that the stem in -ik is never used with bin 
nor does the pronoun have a time particle: 

Class la. bin in het-e, I shall open scmething, I am going to open 

something. 
Class III a. bin in o'on-e, I am going to shoot something. 
Class III b. bin in o'ib-t-e, I am going to write something. 

The final -e of the future may be lost by apocope when a noun 
or pronoun is used as the object. If it is retained it is added at 
the end of the form : 

bin in yakun-t-ets or bin in yakun-t-ets-e, I am going to love you. 

bin a hant-wa or bin a hant-wa-e, you will eat the tortilla. 

In verbs of Class I b, using the causal s, the future sign -e may 
occur either before or after the s. The latter is more common at 
the present time.^ 

bin a nak-s-e or nak-e-s, you are going to climb something. 
bin a kim-s-e or kim-e-s, you are going to kill something, you are going 
to cause death to something. 

Beltran's forms in the 3d and 4th Conjugations agree with corresponding 
forms given here, using the final -e as the sign of the future. He shows the -e 
before the causal s in the 2d Conjugation which corresponds to our rule as the 
verbs in this conjugation belong to our Class I b. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura show forms similar to those of Beltran in 
the 2d and 4th Conjugations. In the 3d all give a form in b preceded by a vowel 
similar to that of the root: 

bin-in-tal-ab, bin-in- oik-ib. 

I was not able to find this form used at the present time. Beltran (§ 112) 
notes that the form in -b is found but the more common form for the future 
is that in -e for verbs of the 3d Conjugation. 

Seler (p. 104, 107) follows San Buenaventura in giving the future in -b. 
He explains the more common future in -e as having been derived from -eb. 
I see no justification for this as Beltran distinctly states that the form in -b is 
not common and he limits it to the 3d Conjugation. Seler (p. 109) makes the 
following literal translation for the future; 

bin-in-kambes, it goes (it is in the work, it will be) that by me is taught = 
I shall teach him. 
1 The early Spanish grammars give as the form of the 2d Conjugation 
bin in kam-be-s. 
This probably corresponds to the alternate forms above. It might possibly 
be explained as formerly, 

bin in kam-be-s-e, 
the e being lost after the e of the root be. 

Palma y Palma (p. 185) gives the form agreeing with the latter: 

bin in kam-be-s-e. 
Lopez (§ 91) recognizes the two forms of the future in these verbs. 



78 GRAMMAR 

These forms in bin may be used in the subjunctive sense, show- 
ing a future possibility. 

I was not able to find the forms in ill kotsom given for the Futuro 
Perfecto in the early grammars. I question them as they are made 
from the past stem in -ah and are used to express a future. 

Past Time. In the transitive this is expressed in several ways 

according to the degree of the distance in the past when the action 

took place. The idea of past time is brought out by the particles 

t or o'ck attached to the forms of the nominal pronoun or by suf- 

fixes on the verbal stem or by both. The usual suffix expressing 

past time is -ah which is added to the stem.^ This -ah for the past 

takes the place of -ik for the present and is the same form as that 

used for past time in the intransitive for verbs of Classes II-III. 

With this form in -ah the nominal pronoun is usually compounded 

with t : 2 

Class 1 a. t-in sul-ah in-meya, 1 finished my work; literalh', in past 

time, my finishing something, in past time, my work. 
Class 1 b. t-a kim-s-ah in yum, you killed my father.' 
Class 111 a. t-u o'on-ah ke, he shot the deer. 
Class 111 h. t-a o'ib-t-ah huun, you wrote the letter. 

1 It has already been pointed out (p. 68) that Coronel and San Buena- 
ventura make no distinction in the present between the form of the transitive 
and that of the intransitive. In the past tense, however, both make the same 
distinction between the transitive and intransitive as that made here and in 
Beltran. Coronel changes the -ah of the past to i when a question is asked; 
mak kambesi palalob, who showed (it to) the boys? 

Seler (p. 91, 92) has much to say about this -ah. He considers this is used 
with the original passive nominal roots to express a transitive idea. He fails, it 
seems to me, to recognize that this -ah, as a sign of the past, is exactlj' equiv- 
alent to the -ik as the sign of the present with transitive verbs, although later 
in his paper (p. 118) he recognizes the -ah as used " in the preterite of the 
transitive root conjugation." 

- In a few cases when the verbal pronoun is used as an object this sign of 
the past is omitted: 

tu puts-en, he struck me. 
As will be pointed out later (p. 94) the -ah is usually omitted in response to 
questions. 

^ Seler (p. 86) gives this form excepting the time particle of the pronoun and 
translates it literally, " thy dead one is my father." He writes, " Immerhin 
kann man sich der Anschauung nicht verschliessen, dass den transitiven und den 
passiven Verbalausdriicken dieselbcn Nominolthemata passiver Bcdeutung zu 
Grunde liegen, die zur Bildung der passiven Aiisdrucke nach den Regeln der 



THE VERB 79 

As in the present there is a syncopation of the a of the ending 
-ah when the verbal pronoun beginning with a vowel is used as the 
object : 

tu kam-be-s-ah-en becomes tu kambe-s-h-en, he showed something to me. 

Action just completed is expressed by the nominal pronoun com- 
pounded with the root of the verb, o'ok, to finish. The verbal 
stem takes the -ah for the past: ^ 

o'ok-a puts-ah-en, contracted to o'a puts-h-en, you have just finished hit- 
ting me. 
o'ok-k kim-s-ah ke, contracted to o'oq kim-s-ah ke, we have just finished 
kiUing the deer. 

There is a form of the past in -ki. This is used in clauses with 
the idea of " since " or " after." ^ 

Distant past in the transitive is expressed by the suffix m com- 
pounded with the usual sign of the past, -ah.^ In most cases the 
temporal sign with the pronoun is omitted in these forms: 

prddikativen Aussage mil dem Personalpronomen verbunden werden, zur Bildimg 
der tronsitiven Ausdrucke mit dem Possessiuprdfixe versehen werden." 1 readily 
admit the passive relationship shown in verbs of Class 1 (p. 63) but this form 
is to be explained as follows; — my causing (s) someone in past time (ah) to 
die (kim) my (in) father (yum). The use of the causal emphasizes the activity 
of the subject. 

' Beltran (§ 85) gives the form in o'ok. He also uses it with the intransitive 
verb. 

Ruz (1844) has the form in o'ook for the future perfect, the preterit perfect 
and the pluperfect tenses. 

Lopez has the form in o'ok uncontracted with pronoun and a form in o'okili 
for the pluperfect. 

2 Compare Seler (p. 121, 122). Beltran (§§ 174, 175), notes the statement 
of San Buenaventura regarding variations in his 4th Conjugation in using the 
-ki and not -ah for the past. Beltran states that the form in -ki may be used 
with all verbs but he limits the use to the meaning, " despues que 6 desde que." 

kim-ki in yvmie oqomuol, after my father died, 1 was sad. 
Coronel uses the -ki form for the past with reservation regarding clauses. He 
also has the form iki when the verbal root has two consonants preceding this 
ending; 

kokint-iki. 
The forms of the past made by adding kutsi to the forms of the present 
which are given in all the Spanish grammars are not commonly employed at the 
present time. 1 was unable to find the forms given in the early grammars for 
the Preterito Pluscuamperjecto in ili kutsi. 

3 Ruz (1844, p. 81, 82), in his preterit perfect and pluperfect, has a form 
in -ma following the -ah of the past rather than preceding it as above; 



80 GRAMMAR 

in puts-m-ah-ets, 1 hit you a long time ago. 

u o'cn-m-ah-en, he shot me a long time ago. 

a kim-s-m-ah, you killed it a long time ago. 

u het-m-ah-ob, they opened it a long time ago. 

u yal-m-ah tan-il-ob, he spoke these words a long time ago (Xiu ms.). 

Modes. There is no sharp distinction between the different 
modes in Maya. The Spanish grammarians in their endeavor to 
find corresponding forms for everything in the Latin grammar 
give forms for the different modes which are, in many cases, most 
artificial. 

Indicative Mode. There is no occasion to comment on this. 

Subjunctive Mode. This is really lacking in Maya.^ The idea of 
a future possibility is expressed by certain forms of the future and 

ten in sah-t-ah-ma, 1 have feared, 
ten in sah-t-ah-ma katsi, 1 had feared. 
Lopez (§ 98) has the same forms as Ruz, calling them a preterito indifinido. 
He gives examples for both intransitive and transitive verbs; 
u-hant-ma-ob, lo han comido. 
in-hant-ah-ma-wah, yo he comido pan. 

1 Beltran and his predecessors use the form of the Futuro Imperfecfo with 
various modifications for all tenses of the Subjunctive. The bin is dropped, 
as observed in my form, and Beltran gets the following forms; 

ten nakaken, 1st Conjugation. ten in oike, 3d Conjugation. 

ten in kambes, 2d Conjugation. ten in kanante, 4th Conjugation. 

It will be observed that he prefixes the verbal pronoun compounded with t. 
This verbal pronoun is quite unnecessary. As the form stands with Beltran 
the meaning of ten nakaken would be, "1 am the one who may ascend." 
For the Preterito Imperfecto of the Subjunctive Beltran uses hi or hiwil as a 
prefix to the forms for the present; 

hi or hiwil nakaken. 
These forms for the past of the subjunctive are the same as those given by 
Coronel and San Buenaventura for the present of this mode, Coronel using hij 
for hi. The use of this form in hi or hij is clearly incorrect as h conveys the 
meaning of past time. 

Beltran in his text (§§ 73, 74) states that the better form of the subjunctive 
of transitive verbs adds a final -e. This seems to agree with my statement 
that the subjunctive is a future. He also gives forms for the subjunctive in 
-ina: 

naka-k-en ina, or in nah nakal, yo subiera. 

in kambes ina, or in nah in kambes, yo lo ensendra. 
It should be noted that Coronel and San Buenaventura give forms in ka-ina 



THE VERB 81 

I have regarded these forms as belonging to a potential mode. A 
conditional statement is usually introduced by the particle wa, 
if. The verb has no special form in the conditional clause. The 
future is usually employed in the main clause: 

wa (or wai) yan taqin, hen bin-e, if I had money I should go. 

Potential Mode. The idea of a future possibility is expressed by 

certain forms of the future. The most common is the use of the 

nominal pronoun compounded with k- (p. 46). The suffix of the 

future, -e, may or may not be retained in intransitives : ^ 

k-in puts-e, I may strike him. 
k-in qai or k-in qai-y-e, I may sing. 
k-m a'on ur k-in a'on-e, I may shoot. 

The defective verb, utsak, has the meaning, " it is possible, per- 
haps " and it is sometimes used in connection with the preceding 
forms. ^ 

The future in ak and the verbal pronoun are also used to express 

a future possibility The prefix, bin, is usually omitted:'' 

lub-n-ak-en, I may fall, 
bin-n-ak-ets, you may go. 
3'on-[n]-ak-i, he may shcot. 

Imperative Mode. In the intransitive this is usually formed by 
adding the suffix -en to the shortened stem or root : * 

for the Optative. I consider all these forms in hi, hiwil and ina alone or com- 
bined with kutsi, ili kutsi, and ili kotsom as artificial in their formation. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura give only the present and the imperfect of 
the subjunctive. Beltran has, in addition, the preterit and two futures. 

Palma y Palma (p. 190) in criticizing these forms of Beltran writes very 
truthfully, " Y as'i formas del snbjuntivo. Yo no sabr^ decir de una manera fija 
cual es la causa de esto; pero sospecho que consiste en el afdn de calcar las formas 
verbales de las tiempos mayas a las de los verbos castellanos y latinos empleando 
para esto particidas del futuro, del pasado 6 del futuro y pasado para hacer los 
tiempos llamados mixtos como habri ido." 

1 These forms correspond to those given by Lopez (p. 51) for the subjunc- 
tive of active verbs. 

2 Compare Lopez (§ 120). 

Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 18 ob.) give the form utsak or utsuk 
with the meaning " to be able " ; 

utsuk in beeltik, lo, I am able to do this, 
utsuk a binel, you are able to go. 
^ These forms correspond to those given by Lopez (p. 39, etc.) for the sub- 
junctive of neuter verbs. 

■* The Spanish grammars have the imperative in -en for verbs of their 1st 



82 GRAMMAR 

Class I. nak-en, climb, 
lub-en, fall. 
ah-en, wake up. 
em-en, come down. 

These forms for verbs of Class I are the same as the first person 

singular of the past tense of the intransitive. It has previously 

been pointed out (p.' 71) that the latter may be preceded by a t 

or t' to distinguish it from the imperative. This similarity is not 

seen in the imperative in verbs of Class III which form their past 

in n-ah : 

Class III. D'on-en, shoot, 
sut-en, jump, 
qai-y-en, sing. 
mis-en, sweep, broom. 

It should be noted that the causal sign or the sign of the agent 
is not found in the imperative of the intransitive in Class I h and 
III h respectively. 

In verbs of Class II in -tal, the same rule holds, to add -en to 
the stem. The typical ending for verbs of this class, -tal, is con- 
tracted to 1 : ' 
Class II. tsi-tal-en becomes tsi-l-en, lie down, 
kus-tal-en becomes kus-l-en, live.^ 

This contraction of the stem in -tal suggests the possibility that 
the imperative of verbs of Class I above was formerly made from 
the stem in -1 : 

nak-al-en becoming nak-en. ah-al-en becoming ah-en. 

lub-ul-en becoming lub-en. em-el-en becoming em-en. 

conjugation. Beltran gives nothing but the present tense of the imperative. 
Coronel and San Buenaventura give a future imperative compounded with the 
root of the verb qat, to desire. 

Seler (p. Ill) in his interpretaion of the imperative in -en writes, "Ich bin 
also in der That geneigt, aiich der zweiten Person des Imperativs der Verba neutro- 
passiva die ursprilngliche Bedeutung eines Participii Perfecti zuzuweisen, welche 
imperativische Bedeutung in derselben Weise bekommen hat, wie etwa unser 
Kavalleriekommando ' Aufgesessen! ' — Fine Differenzirnng des Imperativs und 
des Partizijnum kommt in einfacher Weise durch den Accent zu Stande, indem 
der Imperativ in eindringlicher Weise die letzte Silbe betont, das Participium den 
Ton auf der Stammsilbe behalt." In this he tries to trace a similarity between 
the -en of the imperative and the -an of the past participle. 

1 Seler (p. 106) gives the imperative of this form as 
kus-1-ah-en. 



THE VERB 83 

The imperative in the transitive, as already pointed out, is very- 
similar to the future. It ends in -e when no pronominal object is 
expressed. The sign of the present -ik is never found as it is some- 
times in the future : ^ 

Class I a. puts-e, hit it. 

Class I h. kim-s-e, kill it, cause something to die. 

Class III a. o'on-e, shoot it. 

Class III h. mis-t-e, sweep it. 

mis-t-e na, sweep the house. - 

It should be noted that the -e is not attached to the object as in 
the case of the future tense expressed with the same suffix. This 
-e is lost by syncope when a pronominal object or the sign of the 
plural is used.^ 

' This form is similar to those used with the 4th Conjugation of the Spanish 
grammars and of the 3d of Beltran as well. In the latter conjugation Coronel 
and San Buenaventura use a vowel corresponding to that of the root explain- 
ing this as formed from the future stem in -ab, -eb, -ib, -ob, -ub with the loss 
of the final b. Beltran (§ 112) does not accept this form and makes the im- 
perative of his 3d Conjugation as is done here. 

Seler (p. 104) follows San Buenaventura and gives the imperative of 
monosyllabic roots ending in the vowel corresponding to that of the root. He 
recognizes (p. 104, 105) the imperatives of some verbs as ending in -e but 
incorrectly derives these from a future in eb. 

In the 2d Conjugation of the early grammars the imperative ends in es 
(ez). This conjugation corresponds to Class I h, the s being causal. It is prob- 
able that the imperative of these verbs formerly followed the rule of the transi- 
tive and added an e. This e was then elided, as stated before, in connection 
with the future of these forms; 
kambe-s-e becoming kambe-s. 
Seler (p. 106) in his attempts to explain all transitive forms as passives 
gives the following translation; 

u kambe-s Pedro Juan, John shall teach Peter or by him taught Peter 
(namely by) John. 
- Palma y Palma (p. 179) drops the e when an object is used; 
kanan-t-e, cuidalo. 
kanan-t le oimno, cuida ese caballo. 
He adds " Nunca se dice." 
kanan-t-e le oimno. 
3 Beltran (§§ 114, 144) also notes this and gives the form; 

oik-en for oike-en. 
Seler (p. 87, 109) gives the imperative in i after San Buenaventura. He 
explains the preceding form as follows; 

oiki-en or oik-en, derived from oiki-b-en, obey me, or " that one to whom 
(by thee) obedience shall be, am I." 



84 GRAMMAR 

Optative. The idea expressed by the Spanish, Ojala, forming an 
optative, is shown in Maya by the root of the verb qat, to desire 
with the future stem.^ This form is considered under the irregular 
verbs (p. 60). 

The Passive. It has ah-eady been pointed out (p. 63) that 
syntactically many of the forms expressing the passive relation- 
ship cannot be separated from those expressing the active voice .^ 
It has seemed best to consider the passive voice here as as whole 
however. 

Present Time. In the sense of action still going on, this is ex- 
pressed by the suffix in -al, -el, -11, -ol, -ul which gives the idea of 
the subject as being affected by the action of the verb. This 
suffix in -1 is found either alone, with the causal s, or with the in- 
strumental t. 

Class I a and I b both use the causal s with the suffix -1 to ex- 
press a passive relationship: 

Class I a. tun het-s-el, it is being opened, literally, its being affected by 

someone causing it to open, 
tin nao'-s-al, I am being approached, literally, my being affected 

l)y someone causing a nearness to me. 
tin ah-s-al, I am being awakened, literally, my being affected 

by someone causing me to wake. 

I cannot agree with him in this as the passive relationship is in no way ex- 
pressed by the simple root of the verb nor can this form be derived from 
oiki-b-en. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura give forms for a future imperative with the 
root of the verb kat, possibly from the root qat, " to ask "; 

1st Conjugation, kat a nak-ak-ets. 

2d Conjugation, kat a kambes. 

3d Conjugation, kat a oik-ib. 

4th Conjugation, kat a kanant-e. 
These forms are similar to the future exchanging the bin for kat. Seler (p. 106) 
seems to recognize these forms in ak only in the 3d person. 

1 Coronel in his paradigms makes an optative by prefixing kahi to the future 
stem. This is undoubtedly the root of the verb qat. In his text he states 
that the optative is made by prefixing kaina to the Fiituro Imperfecto. San 
Buenaventura gives the form in kaina for the optative in addition to the form 
in kahi. Beltran does not show the optative in his paradigms. 

2 Seler endeavors to make out, as previously shown, that all transitive ex- 
pressions are passive in construction. I think he is incorrect in making this 
sweeping statement. He admits (p. 86, 90) there are various features which 
upset this theory. 



THE VERB 85 

Class I b, tun ban-s-al, it is being thrown down, literally, its being affected 
by someone causing it to tumble down, 
tin kim-s-il, I am being killed, literally, my being affected by 
someone causing me to die. 

It is interesting to note that, whereas in the passive both sub- 
divisions of Class I use the causal, in the active, transitive, of 
verbs of Class I h the causal is still retained but in Class I a it is 
not found : 

Class I a. tun het-ik, he is opening something. 

tin nao'-ik, I am approaching something, 
tin ah-ik, I am awakening someone. 
Class I b. tun ban-s-ik, he is destroying something. 
tin kim-s-ik, I am killing something. 

There are some cases in the passive where the vowel of the root 
does not agree with the vowel of the suffix. There is a tendency to 
use -al as the suffix even where the vowel of the root is not a : ^ 

Class in. These verbs from neuter stems express the passive 
relationship by adding -1 either directly to the stem in Class III a 
or to the stem with the sign of the agent, t, in Class III b; - 

Class III a. tin los-ol, I am being hit, literally, my being affected by a fist. 

tin haa'-al, I am being whipped. 
Class III b. tun mis-t-al,^ it is being swept, literally, its being affected by 
means of a broom, 
tun han-t-al, it is being eaten. 

When the stem ends in a vowel a b is prefixed to the suffix : ^ 

tun oa-b-al, it is being given. 
tan-k tsi-b-il, we are being bitten. 
tin ts'a-b-al, I am being taken. 

1 Beltran (§ 56) makes the passive of verbs of his 1st Conjugation by adding 
-sal or -tal to the root. He makes no mention in these verbs of an agreement 
between the vowel of the root with that of the suffix. The s of his suffix -sal 
is undoubtedly the causal and the t of the suffix -tal is the instrument. 

Palma y Palma (p. 180) has the same rule. 

2 Beltran (§ 57) gives these same forms for the passive and notes the agree- 
ment between the vowel of the stem and that of the suffix. All state that verbs 
in the passive go in their 1st Conjugation. 

3 The same tendency to use the suffix -al even when the vowel of the stem 
is not a is seen here as with verbs of Class I. 

* Coronel and his followers have this same form. Beltran (§ 57) has the 
form in -bal tor the passive for verbs of his 2d and 4th Conjugations; 
From kambesah he gets the passive, kambesabal. 
From kanantah he gets kanantabal. 



86 GRAMMAR 

Future Time. In the passive this is expressed by the same stems 
as in the present with the time particle of the future used with the 
nominal pronoun and the sign of the future, -e : 

Class I a. hu (he-u) het-s-el-e, it will be opened. 
Class I b. hen (he-in) kim-s-il-e, I shall be killed, literally, in future 
time, my being affected by someone causing me to die in 
future time. 

hen kam-be-s-al-e, I shall be shown. 
Class III a. hen kat-al-e, I shall be asked. 

hen wal-al-e, I shall be mentioned. 

hen o'on-ol-e, I shall be shot, literally, I am affected by a gun 
Class III b. hu o'ib-t-il-e, it will be written. 

hu han-t-al-e, it will be eaten. 

There is a second form for the future in the passive correspond- 
ing to the form in bin in the active : 

Class I 0. bin man-s-al-ak-en, contracting to bin man-s-ak-en, I am 
going to be passed (on the road). 
bin nak-s-al-ak-en, contracting to bin nak-s-ak-en, I am 
going to be climbed. 
Class I b. bin kim-s-al-ak-en, contracting to bin kim-s-ak-en, I am go- 
ing to be killed, literally, I am going to be affected by 
someone causing me to die. 
Class III a. bin kat-al-ak-en, I am going to be asked. 

bin al-al-ak-en, I am going to be awakened. 
bin o'on-ol-ak-en, I am going to be shot. 
Class III b. bin mis-t-al-ak-i, contracted to bin mis-t-ak-i, it is going to 
be swept, it will be swept. 

It should be noted that verbs in Class III a, if contracted in 
these forms, would have the same forms in the future of the pas- 
sive as in the intransitive active. There is no chance of confusion 
in the contracted forms of verbs in the other classes as the causal 
s is not found in the intransitive active in verbs of Classes I a and 
I h, and the agent t is not found in the corresponding forms in 
verbs of Class III 6. 

I consider the passives ot these verbs should be kambe-s-al and kanan-t-al. 
The form kambesabal is the passive participle. 

Beltran (§ 116) objects to some of the forms of San Buenaventura in the 
passive of verbs of the 3d Conjugation where the latter states that a b is added 
together with a vowel similar to that of the root; 

San Buenaventura gives yey-b-il, Beltran gives yey-al. 

San Buenaventura gives nuk-b-ul, Beltran gives nuk-al. 
The forms of Beltran agree with those given here. 



THE VERB 87 

Past Time. This is expressed in the passive in all verbs which 
have a passive by adding a b to the sign of the past and the verbal 
pronoun directly to the stem in verbs of Class III a, to the stem 
with the sign of the agent in Class III h, and to the stem with the 
causal s in verbs of Class I : 

Class I. ah-s-ah-b-en, I was awakened. 

nao'-s-ah-b-en, I was approached. 
Class III a. nats-ah-b-en, I was bitten. 

o'on-ah-b-en, I was shot. 
Class III b. han-t-ah-b-i, it was eaten. 

It is not clear how these forms have been derived. The usual sign 
of the past is ah. The b is seen in the present tense of the passive 
between two vowels, as already pointed out (p. 85). 

The b is often exchanged for a n and we get other forms express- 
ing the same ideas as above: 

nats-ah-n-en, I was bitten.^ 
o'on-ah-n-en, I was shot. 
ah-s-ah-n-en, I was awakened. 

This form in n is seen in the past participle : 

nats-an, a thing bitten. 

o'on-an, a thing shot. 

kim-s-an, a thing killed, literally, a thing caused to die. 

There is another form expressing distant past in the passive 
made by duplicating the sign of the past, -ah: 
o'on-ah-ah-n-en, I was shot a long time ago. 

Verbal Nol'ns. There is a large class of verbal nouns made 
directly from the stem by the use of the verbal pronoun. This pro- 
noun always carries with it the verbal idea, "the one who does 
something" or "the one affected by the action of the verb." It is 
never found in the present tense with verbs. It is used with no 
sign of the past in verbs of Class I to express past time. These 
forms are really verbal nouns; 

1 It is interesting to compare these forms with the intransitive, active, past 
tense ; 

nats-n-ah-en, I performed the action of biting, 
nats-ah-n-en, I was bitten. 
o'on-[n]-ah-en, I shot, literally, I was a gunner, 
o'on ah-n-en, I was shot, literally, I was gunned. 



88 GRAMMAR 

Class I. lub-en, I fell, I am a faller, I am one who falls. 

man-en, I bought, I am a buyer, I am a merchant. 

han-en, I ate, I am an eater. 

nak-en, I climbed, I am a chmber. 

kim-s-en, I am a matador, I am one who causes something to die. 

With verbs of Class III verbal nouns are made in the same way; 

o'on-en, I am a gunner, 
qai-y-ets, you are a singer. 
ooqot-en, 1 am a dancer. 

It should be noted that, unlike verbs of Class I, these forms in 

Class III are not the same as those used for the past tense. The 

past of verbs in Class III is made by infixing n and the sign of the 

past, -ah, between the root and the verbal pronoun : 

o'on-[n]-ah-en, I shot. 
qai-n-ah-ets, you sang. 
ooqot-n-ab-en, I danced. 

The prefixes of gender, H for male, and s for female, are used 

with the verbal nouns: 

H-man-en, I am a male merchant, 
s-qai-ets, you are a female singer. 

There is a chance for confusion in the 1st person of the verbal 
pronoun especially with verbs of Class I as the same form is used 
for the imperative of the intransitive as well as for the past tense. 
As already pointed out (p. 72), the form for the past usually has 
an initial t or t' and the verbal noun has the sign of the gender. 

There is a class of nouns made from verbs by means of the suffix 
-b preceded by the vowel corresponding to that of the stem.^ This 
suffix denotes the instrument with which the action is performed. 
This b undoubtedly is the same as that found in the past tense of 
the passive. 

bah-ab, a hammer, from bah, to nail. 

he-eb, a key, from he, to open, the instrument by which something is 
opened. 

Past Participle. Verbal nouns having the meaning usually as- 
signed to the past participle end in -an.^ This is added to the root ; 

^ Compare Seler, p. 107. 

2 Lopez (§ 101) states that this participle is formed in aan or ahan: 

mentaan or mentahan, hecho. 

p'oaan, lavado. 



THE VERB 89 

neither causal sign nor that of the agent appear in Classes I b and 
III b respectively. In verbs of Class II the t of the suffix -tal may 
be retained, giving -tan, or the form may be made in -Ian.' 

Class 1 a . nak-an, a thing fallen. 

Class I b. kim-an, a thing dead.' 

Class II. kus-t-an or kus-l-an, a thing living. 

Class III a. o'on-an, a thing shot. 

Class III h. mis-an, a thing swept.^ 

The plural of the participle follows the same rule as that for the 
adjective, adding the suffix, -tak or -ak. This may be used with 
or without the regular plural ending -ob. The latter may also be 
used alone : 

o'iban-ak, o'iban-ak-ob, o'iban-ob, things written. 

Passive Participle. The passive idea in verbal nouns is brought 
out by means of the suffixes -bal or -bil added to the passive stem.* 
When the stem ends in a consonant an a is added for euphony 
between the consonant of the stem and that of the suffix: ^ 

Class I a. nak-s-a-bal, a thing to be climbed. 

Class I b. kim-s-a-bal, a thing to be killed. 

Class III a. o'on-a-bal, a thing to be shot. 

Class III b. mis-t-a-bal, a thing to be swept. 

Infinitive. There is no infinitive in Maya.« The infinitive con- 
struction, used in Engfish, after verbs denoting purpose, desire, 

1 Beltran (§ 126) and Lopez (§ 101) give the participle of these verbs as 
ending in -Ian. I am rather inclined to agree that this is a better form than 
the one in -tan. 

' Lopez (§ 101) gives this form as kim-en. 

3 Beltran (§ 179) states that the participle of verbs corresponding to those 
of Class III b may have the t as well as the -an: 
o'ib-t-an or o'ib-an, a written thing. 

^ These forms correspond to the future passive participle of the Spanish 

grammars; 

nak-s-a-bal. kam-be-s-bil or kam-be-s-bal. 

5 In verbs of Class I the stem would always end in a consonant as the pas- 
sive stem takes the causal s. In verbs of Class III b, it also ends in a consonant 
as this class takes the sign of the agent, t, as a part of the stem in the passive. 

6 Much is made in the early Spanish grammars of the infinitive. In their 
1st Conjugation the present of the infinitive is the stem in 1 (nakal). The past 
infinitive in Beltran (naki il) is undoubtedly incorrect as it is inconsistent with 
the past forms he gives in the other conjugations. Coronel and San Buena- 
ventura have a past in nakijl which shows the h (j) sound which is the usual 



90 GRAMMAR 

ability, etc. is expressed in Maya by a future and is really in the 
nature of a clause introduced, in many cases, by the particle ka 
(p. 92). 

Inchoative or Inceptive Verbs. These are made by adding 
the suffix -hal or -tal to the verbal stem with the nominal pro- 
noun.^ It should be noted that these inchoative verbs are prob- 
ably distinct from verbs of Class II in -tal which make their past 
in 1-ah, although the suffix -tal is common to both forms; 

tin winik-tal or winik-hal, I am becoming a man. 
tin kana-tal, I am increasing in height. 
tun yek-tal, it is growing dark. 

The future is formed in two ways, by using the time particle of 
the future with the nominal pronoun and the suffix -e, retaining 
the -tal, or changing the sign ah of the past in the particle ts-ah 
to al, obtaining the form ts-al : 

method of showing past time. In the 2d Conjugation, Coronel and San Bue- 
naventura have forms ending in -ah. These are clearlj^ incorrect for the present, 
as pointed out by Beltran (§ 105), and San Buenaventura seems to recognize 
this as he gives a second form for the present which corresponds with that of 
Beltran. In the 4th Conjugation, Coronel and San Buenaventura are probably 
incorrect as they give the past participle, kanan, for the present of the infinitive. 
Beltran in this conjugation gives for the past infinitive a passive form, kanan- 
tabil. Martinez says there is an infinitive in -al, -el, -il, -ol and -ul when 
"taken in a general sense" : 

u tanlah-il Dies, el servir a Dios, 
u han-al pisan, el comer de los almas. 
u o'on-ol ke, el cazar venados. 

' Beltran (§ 90) uses the term neuter in describing these verbs in -hal. He 
does not mention the corresponding form in -tal but gives a form in -hil. He 
states that the past is made in hi, the future in ak. 

Ccronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 9b, oh.) have only the forms in -tal. This 
is one of the cases where the two older authorities agree with the modern usage. 

Seler (p. SO) states that the forms in -hal, used by Beltran, are older than 
the forms in -tal. It is difficult to reconcile this statement with the fact that 
Coronel and San Buenaventura give the forms in -tal. Furthermore Seler 
endeavors to connect the form in -tal with the t or te used as a demonstrative 
with the verbal pronoun. He correctly points cut the limitations of meaning 
when -tal is used as that of an inchoative. He uses the form in kah with these 
verbs ; 

winik-hal-in-kah or winik-tal-in-kah. 
I did not find this form in common use. The nominal pronoun with the time 
particle is used as shown below. 



THE VERB 91 

hen winik-tal-e or winik-ts-al-e, I shall become a man. 
hek kohan-ts-al-e, we shall become ill. 

The past tense seems to be seldom used with these verbs. When 
found the suffix -tal changes to ts and the sign of the past, ah, 
with the verbal pronoun is used : 

winik-ts-ah-ets, you became a man. 
kana-ts-ah-en, I increased in height. 

There seems little doubt that, originally, both -tal or -hal and 
-ts were used to express the inchoative idea with no distinction as 
now observed between the use of -tal in the present and -ts in the 
past. This supposition is strengthened by the fact that both -tal 
and -tsal are found in the future.^ 

Attention may be called again to the nouns denoting accustomed 
state or condition in -tal (p. 38). 

Iterative or Frequentative Verbs. These are made by du- 
plicating the first syllable: ^ 

tin bi-qab, I tap with the fingers. 

tin bi-bi-qab, I tap frequently with the fingers. 

tin la-k-ets, I strike you with the palm. 

tin la-la-k-ets, I strike you several times with the palm. 

Reflexive Verbs. There is a class of verbs used with the 
particle -pahal, which are reflexive: ^ 

1 Seler (p. 81) gives both the forms in -hal or -tal and -tsahal for the present; 
winik-hal or winik-tal to be a man, to prove himself a man. 
winik-tsah-al, just now to be a man, to become manly, attain a position. 

I consider that the -ah of his infix -tsah is the sign of the past and should not 
be used in the present tense. The proper form would be; 
tin winik-ts-al. 
Seler (p. 84, 85) has much to say regarding the use of h which " added to 
nouns forms neutral themes with the meaning ' made for this and that,' ' be- 
ing this and that,' e.g.; 

eeq-ha-al, to be black, to become black." 
This is really the inchoative verb and the more usual form is not -hal but -tal. 

2 Beltran (§ 127) states that this type of verbs almost always is found in 
the 4th Conjugation. He adds that the adverb o'eo'etak, signifying a menudo 
6 con frecuencia is used with verbs of his 1st Conjugation; 

lubul, to faU. 

o'eo'etak lubul, to fall frequently. 
Palma y Pahna (p. 163-167) describes these forms very clearly. 
^ See also verbs used with the reflexive pronoun, p. 50. 



92 GRAMMAR 

tsun, begin, 
tun tsun-pa-hal, it begins itself. 

tsun-pa-hi, it began itself. 
tun tsun-pa-hal qin, the day is beginning, 
tim lots-pa-hal, it bends itself. 

Reciprocal Verbs. See under Reciprocal Pronoun, p. 51. 

Clauses. Final clauses expressing purpose or motive. These are 

made by using a future construction. The nominal pronoun takes 

no time particle but the -e of the future is retained : ^ 

tin bin in bet-e, I go to make something, literally, in present time, my 
going, my making something in future time. 

The form in -kah can also be used to express the same idea; 
bin-in-kah in bet-e, contracted to bin-in-k-in bet-e. I am going to make 

it. 
bin-in-kah utial in wil-e, 1 go in order to see it. 
bin-in-kah in wil-e, contracted to bin-in-k-in wil-e, I go to see it. 

When the object is expressed, the -e of the future is usually 
dropped ; 

bin-in-kah in bet na, I go to build a house. 

Object clauses expressing ability, knowledge, desire, fear, compul- 
sion, command, etc. These also take the future construction. In 
some cases the time particle is omitted with the nominal pronoun; 

in qat in wil-e, I desire to see it. 

u pat in o'ib-t-e, I am able to write it. 

in wohel in be-t-e, I know how to do it. 

As in the preceding examples, when the object is expressed by a 

noun, the -e is usually dropped: 

in qat in hant wa, I desire to eat tortillas. 

u pat in o'ib-t huun, I am able to ^\Tite a letter. 

The particla ka often introduces these clauses especially with the 
form of the indefinite future in ak and the verbal pronoun: 

in qat ka uo-s-ak-ets, I desire you to be good. 

leeti u qat qai-n-ak-en, he (demonstrative) wishes me to sing. 

in qat tets ka wal-ik-t-en, I msh you to tell me. 



1 Beltran (§§ 99, 100) notes that the future forms are used in some cases 
after the verb, to desire, where one would expect the infinitive to be 
used. 



THE VERB 93 

or in qat tets ka wal-t-en. 

tin al-ik ka alkab-n-ak-en, I say that I shall run. 

saken ka kohan-(n)-ak-en, I fear I shall be ill. 

tin al-t-ets or al-ah-t-ets ka sik-ets, I told you to go. 

Relative clauses. There is no special difference between the verb 

in a relative clause and that in any other place: 

le winik qai-n-ah-i kim-i, the man who sang is dead, literally, the man 
sang, he died. 

There is a relative relation introduced by the particle lik or likil 
denoting in which, by which, for which, etc: ^ 

likil in wenel, (the object) in which I sleep, my hammock, 
likil in meya, (the object) with which I work, my pencil, 
likil q kus-tal, (the object) by which we live, maize, 
likil in puts-ik, (the object) with which I strike, my stick. 

There is a relative idea conveyed in the compound formed of the 

particle t or ti and the verbal pronoun : 

mas puts-ah-en, who hit me ? 

t-en puts-ets, I am the one who hit you. 

Temporal Clauses. These are usually introduced by the par- 
ticle ka : 

tin wal-ah-t-ets ka kuts-en, I told it to you when I arrived. 
k-in qai k-en sik-en-e, I may sing when I arrive. 

Sometimes the particle is repeated before the main clause as well 

as before that of the temporal: 

ka tal-ets-e ka kohan-h-en, when you came, I was ill. 
le ka D'ok in qai-y-e ka bin-en, after I had sung, I went. 

Conditional Clauses. These are usually introduced by the par- 
ticle wa, if, or kes, although. The verb in these clauses does not 
differ from that in the main part of the sentence : 

1 Beltran (§§ 94, 95) has the form in lik or likil and states that it denotes en 
que, con que, de que, por donde, porqiie, etc., also " que suele hacerse lo que el verbo . 
significa." : 

uo yaab qan likil a wenel, good is the hammock in which you are accus- 
tomed to sleep. 
uo luum kus lik in yum, good is the land in which my father lives. 
Beltran (§ 240) has another mutanza with intransitive verbs in the past when 
used in a clause meaning "en que " etc. In his example he adds a k in the 3d 
person ; 

iai ts'en lub-k-i, Juan, this is the well into which John fell. 
Seler (p. 120, 121) identifies this suffix, -lik as a combination of -ik, our 
sign of the present transitive verb, and the suffixes -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul. 



94 GRAMMAR 

wa ka al-ik-t-en k-in bin, if you tell it to me, I shall (may) go. 

kes tal-i bin-en, although he came, I went. 

kes tun qai sut-on t'-na-i, although he is singing, we returned to our house. 

Interrogative. In general there seems to be no particular 
form of particle marking the interrogative. The rising voice alone 
seems to indicate a question. This may be a convention of later 
times. The particle wa is sometimes used as an interrogative with 
the meaning " by chance " or " perhaps " and comes as the final 
suffix : ^ 

ooqot-n-ah-ets-wa, did you, by chance, dance? 

t-a-puts-ah-wa, did you, by chance, strike him? 

When the interrogative is used with the transitive verb in the 
past tense the sign of the past is sometimes omitted both in the 
question and in the answer. A final -e is found in the 3d person in 
these forms: 

mas puts-en, who struck me? 

t-en puts-ets, I was the one who struck you. 

mas puts-e, who struck him? 

t-en puts-e, I struck him, I am the one who struck him. 

mas mis-t-e na, who swept the house? 

t-en mis-t-e na, I swept the house. 

When the answer to a question is in the negative the suffix .-i or 
-11 is usually found with the negative ma. The use of this same 
suffix is noted (p. 104) with the adverbs : 

bin-ets, did you go? , kohan-ob, are they ill? 

ma bin-en-i, no, I did not go. ma kohan-ob-i, no, they are not ill. 

The interrogative pronouns, mas, tus, bas, etc are considered 
under the pronoun (p 51). 

In questions asking permission which are expressed in the future 
an affirmative answer is given in the imperative: 

mis-nak-en, may I sweep? kul-en, yes, sit down. 

mis-n-en, yes, sweep. niis-(t-e) na, may I sweep the house? 

kul-ak-en, may I sit down? mis-t-e, yes, sweep it. 

When permision is not given and the answer is negative the root 
alone is used in the transitive with the proper ending and the root 
alone in the intransitive: 

mis-nak-en, may I sweep? mis-(t-e) na, may I sweep the house? 

ma, mis, no, do not sweep. ma, mis-t-ik, no, do not sweep it. 

' Compare Palma y Palma, p. 178, 179. 



THE ADJECTIVE 95 

THE ADJECTIVE 

There is no real adjective in Maya. Words which have usually 
been considered as adjectives are really intransitive verbs. The 
term adjective has however been retained as describing these forms •} 

keel, he is cold, it is cold, or something cold, 
keel winik, the man is cold or the cold man. 

kohan winik tun tal, the man is sick, he is coming, or the sick man is 
coming. 

The attributive and predicate relationship are not distinguished ;2 

le na bos, this house is black or the black house. 

These adjective-like forms have been put into a class by them- 
selves in the treatment of the verb as their past tenses are made in 
a different way from that used in the regular intransitive forms. 
This is one of the many places where an arbitrary ruling must be 
made in regard to the place where forms should be considered 
which are on the dividing line between two categories. 

It has been thought best to retain the heading "adjective" for 
the sake of clearness and to consider number and comparison here 
rather than under the verb. The idea of time, however, is taken 
up under Class IV of the verbs (p. 59). 

Order. The adjective usually precedes the noun but there are 
many e.xceptions to the rule; 

u lak winik, the other man. u winik san, the same man. 

Number. The plural ending is usually expressed only in the 
noun used with the adjective. Some cases, however, occur where 
both the adjective and the noun have the sign of the plural. 
Plural in the adjective is not usually shown by the same form, 
-ob, as with nouns, but by the suffixes -ak, -tak, or -lak, the same 
as those used for participles : ^ 

1 For a good discussion of the adjective, see Palma y Palma (p. 160-162.) 

Lopez (§§.30-33) has two classes of ad jectives : — qualifying and determi- 
native. 

Martinez insists that there is an adjective and, hke the English adjective, 
it precedes the noun. 

^ Seler (p. 77) makes an attributive expression by means of the suffixes -al, 
-el, -il, -ol, -ul: 

uo-ul winik-ob, the good men. oak-il na, the white house. 

3 Coronel notes the plural in -tak as used for participles. 

Seler (p. 114) is incUned to interpret the plural ending -lak as related to the 



96 GRAMMAR 

uo na, a good house, or the house is good, 

uo-tak na-ob, the good houses, or the houses are good. 

Reduplication. This is sometimes employed to express the 
plural in adjectives: 

tas be, a smooth road. ta-tas be-ob, smooth roads. 

There are a few adjectives which have different forms for the 
singular and plural : 

nohots tunits, a large stone. nukuts tunits-ob, large stones. 

Comparison. Comparative. The comparative is made bj'^ add- 
ing the suffix -il to the adjective form: 
uo, good, UD-il or u-yuo-il, better. 
nats, far, nats-il, farther. 

This may be a case where there was at one time a vocalic harmony 
between the vowel of the stem and that of the ending in -1.^ 

Superlative. This is formed by prefixing the word hats meaning 
" much, very, or many " to the comparative: ^ 

passive or intransitive stem in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -til, the suffix vowel of which is 
eUded with the collective or plural suffix -ak, -ik. As a matter of fact the -lak 
suffix for the plural is very uncommon, -ak or -tak are much more common. 
Seler (p. 122, 123) considers the suffix -ak as identical with -ah as a sign of 
the past. His authority for this is evidently Perez who gives the forms and 
translations noted by Seler; 

alabil, what is or shall be said. bahun-ak, how much were they? 

alabil-ak, it was said. biqin, biqins, when? 

bahun, how much? biqins-ak, when was it? 

The Motul dictionary seems to make no distinction between bahun and 
bahun-ak. It does not give the form biqins-ak and distinctly states that 
biqin is used for the present and past. The San Francisco dictionary gives 
bahun and bahuns using them in both the present and past. It does not give 
bahun-ak. I am rather inclined to consider the -ak in these forms of Perez as 
denoting a plural although the Motul gives an example of the use of bahtin 
with a plural noun. 

1 Strength is given to this supposition by the fact that Beltran (§ 27) gives 
the form yuo-ul (yutzul) for better, nohol, greater, qasal, worst, but he also 
notes that the Indian in talking usually uses the suffix -il. 

Lopez (§ 36) does not accept this way of making the comparative at the 
present time. He writes, " Antiguamente, segun asegura el P. Beltran, seformaba 
el comparativo repitiendo la ultima vocal y anadi^ndole una ele . . . pero actual- 
mente no se usa. Tambihi, dice que se forma anadiendo al positivo la particida 
il; pero a mi modo de ver, mejor se le llamaria superlativo relativo." Lopez forms 
the comparative by using the particles, asab, mas, or masab with the positive. 

- Lopez (§ 37) also uses sem or semkets, lem or lemkets, het, bahan and 
kalam to form the superlative degree. 



THE ADJECTIVE 97 

hats uo-il na-ob, the best houses, 
hats nats-il, the farthest. 

The form hats is often used directly with the adjective to form the 
comparative : 

in na hats ud ket a na, my house is better than your house. 

Diminutives or diminution of the idea. This is expressed by re- 
duplication : 

noh or nohots, great. sak, white. 

no-noh or no-nohots, gronclecillo. sa-sak, medio bianco. 

A more common way of expressing a diminution or an increase of 
the idea expressed by the adjective is by the words, hats, very, 
and the word qas meaning bad.^ : 

tsitsan, small. 

qas tsitsan, rather small, medio chico. 

hats tsitsan, very small. 

Numerals. The numeral system is vigesimal. 2 There is a con- 
sistent treatment so that there is practically no number that can- 
not be expressed in Maya. 

Terms given by the early Spaniards. These are as follows: 

20 units = 1 qal, 1 X 20 = 20. 

20 qal = 1 baq, 20 X 20 = 400. 

20 baq = 1 pik, 20 X 20 X 20 = 8,000. 

20 pik =1 kalab, 20 X 20 X 20 X 20 = 160,000. 

20 kalab = 1 qintsU, 20 X 160,000 = 3,200,000. 

20 qintsil = 1 alaw, 20 X 3,200,000 = 64,000,000 (?). 

Terms used in the hieroglyphic writing. It is clear from a study of 
the hieroglyphic writing that the early Mayas were accustomed to 
deal with very large number series, numbers running into the mil- 
lions, especially the long number series in the Dresden Codex .^ 

The system now commonly used in the hieroglyphic writing is as 

follows : 

20 Kin =1 Uinal, 20 days. 
18 Uinal = 1 Tun, 360 clays. 
20 Tun = 1 Katun, 7200 days. 
20 Katun = 1 Cycle, 144,000 days. 
13 or 20 Cycle = 1 Great Cycle, 1,872,000 or 2, 880,000 days. 

^ Compare Palma y Palma, p. 161, 162, and Lopez, § 38. 
2 For a complete discussion of the numerals, see Thomas, 1897-1898. See 
also Part III, p. 181. 

' For a discussion of these number series, see Bowditch, 1910, Chapter VI. 



98 GRAMMAR 

It is not certain regarding all the names given by the early 
Mayas to the different divisions. The numbers were expressed 
very simply in the hieroglyphic writing by a system of super- 
imposed bars and dots. 

There is a certain unity between the numeral system now used 
and that on which the ancient calendarial reckoning was based. 
In the latter, however, 18 units of the 2d order made one of the 
3d. There is also a question whether in the stone inscriptions 20 
of the 5th order made one of the 6th or 13 of the 5th made one of 
the 6th. The change in the 2d order from 20 to 18 was probably 
due to a desire to bring about some degree of accord between the 
actual length of a year and a unit of the 3d order, a Tun being 
360 days. 

Terms used at present time. The Mayas of the present time 
naturally have Uttle occasion for large numbers although some 
are capable of counting up into the thousands. The Lacandones, 
on the other hand, seem entirely unable to use numbers higher 
than three or four. They point to the fingers and toes when they 
desire to signify higher numbers. 

Taking into consideration the ancient Maya method of expres- 
sing numbers by bars and dots, a bar representing five and a dot 
one, we might expect a quinary system with multiples of five up 
to twenty. This is not so, however, as the change in nomenclature 
is made at ten. There are different words used for the numbers 
from 1 through 9. The word for 10, la hun, probably means " all 
of one count." La is the particle denoting totality.^ 

The word for 11, buluk, is quite different from the word for one. 
It is to be noted that in the face numerals the hieroglyph for 11, 
as far as can be made out at present, does not show any of the 
characteristics of the number for one. 

The words for the numbers 12 to 19 correspond in meaning 
with the words for 2 to 9 with the addition of the particle lah, signi- 
fying "all": 

lah ka, all of 2. lah os, all of 3, etc. 

1 Compare Thomas, 1897-98, p. 891. He points out that Henderson in his 
manuscript Maya-English dictionary has as the meaning of lah, " whole 
hands." 



NUMERATION 



99 



It is suggested, as another possibility, that la is to be derived from 
laq meaning " the other " or " the accompanying," giving the 
idea of first counting the fingers up to 10 and then starting with 
the toes up to 20. This suggestion would have more value if la 
was found with the number 11 and not with 10. 







NUMERATION 


Tozzer 




Beltran 


1. htin- 




htin- 


2. ka- 




ka- (ca) 


3. os- 




OS- (ox) 


4. kan- 




kan- (can) 


5. ho- 




bo- 


6. wak- 




wak- (uac) 


7. wuk- 




wuk- (uuc) 


8. wasak- 




wasak- (uaxac) 


9. bolon- 




bolon- 


10. lahun- 




la hun- 


11. buluk- 




buluk- (buluc) 


12. la ka- 




lah ka- (lah ca) 


13. la os- 




OS la hun- (ox la hun) 


14. lakan- 




kan la hun- (can la hun) 


15. la ho- 




hoi hun- 


le, la wak- 




wak la hun- (uac la hun) 


17. la wuk- 




wuk la hun- (uuc la hun) 


18. la wasak- 




wasak la hun- (uaxac la hun) 


19. la bolon- 




bolon la hun- 


20. hun qal- 




hiin qal- (hun kal) 


21. hun qal yete hun- 


hun tu qal- (hun tu kal) 


22. hun qal yete 


ka- 


ka tu qal- (ca tu kal) 


30. hun qal yete 


la hun- 


la hu ka qal- (la hu ca kal) 


31. hvin qal yete 


buluk- 


buluk tu qal- (buluc tu kal) 


32. hun qal yete 


la ka- 


lah ka tu qal- (lah ca tukal) 


40. ka qal- 




ka qal- (ca kal) 


41. ka qal yete hun- 


hun tu yos qal- (hun tu yox kal) 


50. ka qal yete la hun- 


la hu yos qal- (la hu yox kal) 


60. OS qal- 




OS qal- (ox kal) 


70. OS qal yete la hun- 


la hu kan qal- (la hu can kal) 


80. kan qal- 




kan qal- (can kal) 


90. kan qal yete 


la hvui- 


la hu yo qal- (la hu yo kal) 


100. ho qal- 




ho qal- (ho kal) 


101. ho qal yete hun- 


hun tu wak qal- 


110. ho qal yete la hun- 


la hu wak qal- 


111. ho qal yete la hun yete 


hun- buluk tu wak qal- 


120. wak qal- 




wak qal- 



100 GRAMMAR 

Numeration {continued) 

Tozzer Beltran 

130. wak-qal yete la hun- la hu wuk qal- 

140. wuk qal- wuk qal- 

160. wasak qal- wasak qal- 

180. bolon qal- bolon qal- 

200. la hun qal- la hun qal- 

220. buluk qal- buluk qal- 

240. la ka qal- lah ka qal- 

260. la OS qal- os lahu qal- 

280. la kan qal- kan lahu qal- 

300. la ho qal- hoi hu qal- 

320. la wak qal- wak lahu qal- 

340. la wuk qal- wuk lahu qal- 

360. la wasak qal- wasak lahu qal- 

380. la bolon qal- bolon lahu qal- 

400. hun baq- hun baq- 

Beltran's numeration. There is little doubt that the Maya num- 
eration for the higher numbers has fallen into disuse at the present 
time.i It is significant that practically all late grammars give the 
numeration of Beltran rather than the numbers used at the present 

time.'^ 

The reader is given a chance on p. 99-100, to compare the num- 
bers as given by Beltran with those collected by the writer. I have 
given the numbers only to 400 .^ I present these with some 
hesitation. 

Beltran has the same form for 12 as that given here but for the 
numbers 13 to 19 he gives: 

OS la hun, 13 (3 and 10). kan la hun, 14 (4 and 10), etc. 

The form for 10 is thus carried through all the numbers from 13 to 
19. Attention should be called to the analogy here between these 



1 Compare Cruz (1912, p. 110) who writes, "El sistema de numeracion maya 
puede dedrse que ha caido en desuso, Iserd posible volverlo a su primitivo estado 
hoy que estd mezdado con el espanoH Es de dudarse. Dia ha de llegar en que 
hasta el projno idioma quede sepultado eternamente. Nosotros no auguramos a 
la lengua maya, que jui. gloriosa, ningun porvenir, y si presentimos que tarde 6 
temprano caiga en desuso eterno. Pueda que fracasemos en nuestros pronosticos 
pero lo dudamos." 

2 See Lopez § 180. Note, however, the numbers given in Appendix IV, 
p. 301. 

3 For the numbers above 400, the reader is referred to the list in Beltran, 
"Articulo Undedmo," Thomas, 1897-1898, p. 861, 890-893, or Lopez, § 180. 



NUMERATION 101 

forms using 10 as a foundation and the face numerals in the hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions for the numbers 13 to 19. These latter show, 
in most cases, a fieshless lower jaw signifying 10 in addition to the 
glyph for the numbers from 3 to 9. 

In the forms given here yetel, with, is used with all numbers 
not multiples of 20: 

hun qal yete hun, 21 (one 20 with one). 

These correspond to forms given by Perez (1866-1877) and Brin- 
ton (1882, p. 39) in katak. Both yetel, and katak have the mean- 
ing " and," " with." Brinton uses the form in katak as an 
alternative in numbers above 40: 
ka kal katak ka, 42 (2 score and 2). 

Perez gives the example: 

hun qal katak ho, 25 (one score and 5). 

Beltran's numbers for 30 and 35 : 
la hu ka qal hoi hu ka qal. 

and all numbers above 40 use the unit of qal above rather than 
below the number expressed: 

hoi hu ka qal, 35, literally, 15, 2 qal or, freely, 15 toward the 2d qal (40). 

The numbers from 31 to 34 and 36 to 39, on the other hand, use 
the unit of qal beloio the number expressed: 
wak la hun tu qal, 36 (16 on the [one] qal). 

All numbers above 40 correspond in form with those for 30 and 35, 
using the unit of qal above the number expressed: 
hun tu yos qal, 41 (one on the 3d qal). 

It seems clear that there is some mistake here in Beltran's num- 
eration, although all writers have followed him in giving the 
same forms. The same particle, tu, is used both in those forms for 
numbers below 40 which add the number to the preceding unit of 
qal, and also in the forms for 30, 35 and those above 40, where the 
number is really added, if we accept the meaning of tu, to the sue 
ceeding unit of qal : ^ 

ka tu qal, 22 (2 to qal). 

ka tu yos qal, 42 (2 to 3 qal, not 2 to 2 qal) . 

' In this connection, Thomas (1897-1898, p. 891) writes, "Perez, as quoted 
by Dr. Brinton, says, in an unpublished essay in the latter's possession, that 
Beltran's method of expressing the numbers is erroneous; that 41 should be 



102 GRAMMAR 

Under the same rule, after 380 is reached, Beltran starts with 

381 counting towards the next higher unit of baq, 400: 

hun tu hun baq, 381 (1 to [1] baq). 
ho tu hun baq, 385 (5 to [1] baq), etc. 

A point, not previously mentioned in connection with Beltran's 
numeration, is that tu is not used with the forms adding 10 and 
15 to each qal unit, namely, 30 and 35, 50 and 55, 70 and 75, etc. : 

la hu ka qal, 30. la hu yos qal, 50. 

hoi hu ka qal, 35. hoi hu yos qal, 55. 

This omission of the tu is to be noted in the same relative places ' 
until 190 is reached when it is found again: 

la hu tu la hun qal, 190. hoi hu tu la hun qal, 195. 

The tu is then found in the same relative places until 370 is reached 
when it is dropped again : 

la hu bolon la hu qal, 370. 
It is found with the next number when 15 is added to the unit: 

hoi hu tu bolon la hu qal, 375. 

and it is dropped again for the next 10 added to the qal: 
la hu hun baq, 390. 

and added for the next 15: 
hoi hu tu hun baq, 395 

I cannot explain this irregularity in these two places in the nu- 
meration. The fact that, with the exception of the even qal and 

hun-tu-kaqal; 42, ka-tu-kaqal; 83, os-tu-kanqal, etc. Nevertheless, as Dr. 
Brinton has pointed out, the numerals above 40 are given in Perez's Diction- 
ary of the Maya Language according to Beltran's system, which appears from 
other evidence to be correct. Leon de Rosny suggests that hun-tu-yosqal 
should be explained thus: 60-20 + 1. However, the correct rendering ap- 
pears to be 1 on the third score, or third 20. It is possible that an old and a 
new reckoning prevailed among the Mayas, as apparently among the Cakchi- 
quels. According to StoU the latter people had an old and a more recent 
method of enumerating . . . Perez says that tu is an abbreviation of the num- 
eral particle tul, but Rosny says, ' Je crois que ce n'est -point, conune il [Ban- 
croft] le suppose, la simple conjoncHon et, mais une phrase des mots ti-u, da7is 
S071, a lui, sien; u est un pronom appele par les grammairiens Espanols mixte 
et qui forme la copulation, comme en Anglais Vs du genitif.' Dr. Berendt adopts 
the same opinion, which is probably correct." 

1 That is, 70 and 75, 90 and 95, 110 and 115, 130 and 135, 150 and 155, 170 
and 175. 



NUMERATION 103 

baq, tu is always found except in some of the forms adding 10 and 
15 to the units seems to show some definite purpose when it is 
omitted.^ 

The unit above qal is baq which is equivalent to 20 X 20, 400. 
This word has the meaning " to roll up, to tie around." It has 
already been noted that the baq unit comes in first with 381. 

Beltran's numbers above 400, except even multiples of this unit, 
baq, are evidently abbreviated. Otherwise they are uninteUigible. 

ho tu baq, 500 = ho qal tu baq. 

la hu tu baq, 600 = la hun qal tu baq. 

Above 800, in the same way as before, the next higher unit is 
used: 

ho tu yos baq, 900= ho qal tu yos baq (100 on 3d baq). 

The unit of the 3d place (20 X 20 X 20, 8000) is pik, meaning 
" cotton cloth or a kind of petticoat." As pointed out by Thomas 
(1897-1898, p 893), Henderson gives the significance of pik as " a 
bag made out of a petticoat " which corresponds with the Mexican 
term for 8000. 

Beltran points out (§ 312) that the Mayas in his day used the 
term pik as meaning 1000 rather than 8000. 

The unit of the 4th place (20 X 20 X 20 X 20, 160,000) is 
kalab and that for the 5th place (20 X 20 X 20 X 20 X 20, 
3,200,000) is qintsil, and that for the 6th place is alaw.' 

Numeral Classifiers. There is a large number of classificatory 
suffixes in use with the numerals. The latter can never stand alone. 
These suffixes quahfy the term and show into what class the ob- 
jects counted fall. At the present time all nouns are broadly 
classified into two classes, animate and inanimate, by the two 
suffixes -tul and -p'el: 

os-tul winik, three men, os-p'el na, three houses. 

Apart from a few other classifiers there is not much attention paid 
by the Mayas of the present time to the finer distinctions formerly 
made by these suffixes. Some, however, are always used. 

1 There is one exception to this rule. Beltran's form for 171, buluk bolon 
qal, omits the tu. 

2 For a discussion of the meaning of these terms, see Thomas, op. cit. p. 894, 



104 GRAMMAR 

A list of suffixes used as classifiers for the numeral as given, for 
the most part, by Beltran (§ 313) and translated by Nuttall (1903) ^ 
is given in Appendix III, p. 290-292. 

THE ADVERB 

Position. Adverbs, especially those formed from the intran- 
sitive verb-adjective, have two positions in regard to the verb and 
its subject. They may be placed either at the beginning before the 
nominal pronoun or between the nominal pronoun and the verb: 

seeb tin konil, I sell it easily. tsambe tin o'ib, I write slowly. 

qas tin o'ib, I write badly. tin tsits simbal, I walk fast. 

I cannot state any rule for the position of the adverb in these 
forms. Some seem always to be placed before the pronoun and 
others after the pronoun. 

In verbs where the verbal pronoun rather than the nominal is 
used the adverb comes at the beginning; 
tsambe D'ib-n-ah-en, I wrote slowly. 

Forms used with the verbal pronoun may have the particle -il 

or -ik inserted between the root and the pronoun : 

tsits simbal-n-ah-il-en, I walked fast, or tsits simbal-n-ah-ik-en. 
tsits simbal-n-ah-ah-n-il-en, I walked fast a long time ago. 
suk kohan-il-en, I am always ill. 
suk keel-il-en, I am always cold. 

The adverbial particles are very numerous in Maya. No attempt 
has been made to exhaust the list.^ The most important are as 
follows : 

Negation. This is shown by the particle ma which precedes the 
nominal pronoun and comes immediately before the verb when the 
verbal pronoun is used: 

1 Mrs. Nuttall makes a very pertinent "suggestion to Maya scholars" as to 
the identity between the significance of some of these classificatory particles 
and portions of the hieroglyphic writing appearing with the series of numbers. 
These number series, worked out up to the present time, all relate to periods 
of time. There is no reference whatever to objects of various classes being 
counted. It is especially desired that something may be done in this line of 
research. 

2 The reader is referred to the lists given in Beltran and in San Buenaven- 
tura. See also Lopez, Chapter VIII. 



THE ADVERB 105 

mi-nan, contracting from ma-yan, there is none, 
ma-in bin, I am not going, 
ma-bin-ets, you did not go. 

The particle -il,, noted above, may be used with the negative com- 
ing, however, after the verbal pronoun: 

ma sak-en-il, I was not afraid. 

The final 1 is often lost and we get : ^ 

ma sak-en-i. ma bin-en-i, I did not go. 

It will be noted that the forms of the nominal pronoun are not 
compounded with a time particle in these examples. The sign of 
the past, -ah, may also be omitted with the negative. The nomi- 
nal pronoun usually contracts with the negative and the final -1 is 
lost as noted above : ^ 

ma-in into min. 

ma-a into ma. 

ma-u into mu. 

ma-u puts-ah-en-il, becoming m-u puts-en-i, he did not hit me. 

ma-in puts-ah-il, becoming m-in puts-i, I did not hit him. 

Repetition. This may be expressed in the action of the verb 
by the particle -ka : 

tin ka-bin or ka bin-in-kah, I am going again. 
ka tal-ets, you came again. 

Totality. This idea is shown by the particle ia or lah, probably 
derived from the word tulakal, all: 

tin la-uk-ik or tin la wuk-ik, I am drinking all of it. 
tan la-hant-ik wa, you are eating all of the tortillas. 
tun la-qai-ob, they are all singing. 

1 Lopez (§ 172) has this final i with the negative forms; 

ma in qati, I do not desire. 

ma in qat hanali, I do not desire to eat. 

^ Lopez (§§ 97, 99) makes a negative preterit expression by means of the 
future form without bin and a negative future expression by means of the pre- 
sent form with tin, ta, tu in place of kin, ka, ku: 

ma tal-ak-en, I have not gone. 

ma tin han-al, I shall not eat. 

I cannot understand these forms. 



106 GRAMMAR 

The la seems to modify either the subject or the object of the verb. 
I cannot find that there is any differentiation in the forms accord- 
ing to the thing modified.^ 

• A repetition of the particle la is sometimes noted after the root. 
This intensifies the meaning: 

tin la-hant-la-n-t-ik, I am eating absolutely everything. 

This particle is also used with the idea of totality with ad 

jectives: 

kohan-ob, they are ill. 

kohan-tak-ob, many are ill. 

la-kohan-tak-ob, all are ill. 

tun la-kohan-tal-ob, they all become ill. 

tun la-kohan-ob, they are all ill. I 

Manner or State. The particle denoting these ideas is be. 
This adverb takes the -il or -ik forms noted above (p. 104), 

be tin puts-ah-il-ets or be tin puts-il-ets, thus, I hit you. 
be tal-il-en or be tal-ik-en, thus I came. 

Demonstrative. Suffixes similar to the demonstrative pronoun, 
a and o, with the meaning " this or that way " are often used with 
the adverb be (usually written bey) : ^ 

be tal-il-en-a, thus I came this way. 
be tal-il-en-o, thus I came that way. 

The form in a is used when the method of coming is shown by some 

action, the form in o when the method of coming is described by 

words : 

be puts-il-en-a, thus I was hit (showing how). 
be puts-il-en-o, thus I was hit (telhng how). 

When these forms take the nominal pronoun the suffix -il is not 

used: 

be-in wal-ik-a, I say it like this. be-in beet-ik-a, I make it like this. 

be-in wal-ik-o, I say it like that. be-in beet-ik-o, I make it like that. 



1 Seler (p. 81) includes the particle -la with the inchoative foms in -hal, 
-tal, and -tsa-hal and infers that la is used only with intransitive verbs. 

2 Perez (1866-77) makes much the same distinction between the suffixes -a 
and -o in the following examples; 

he le oimn-a, aqui esta el caballo. he le Dimn-o, alii esta el cahallo. 



PREPOSITIONS AND POSTPOSITIONS 107 

PREPOSITIONS AND POSTPOSITIONS 

These are interesting as they are used in place of the oblique 
cases in Maya. When used with nouns all are prefixed: 

yalan poq, below the hat. yetel winik, with the man. 

A distinction is seen, however, when these forms are used with 
the pronoun. They are then divided into two classes, those pre- 
fixed to the forms of the verbal pronoun and those suffixed to the 
nominal pronoun. It is not clear how this distinction is governed. 

To the first class belong: 

yetel, with, yetel-en, with me. 
nao', near, nao'-ets, near you. 
yoqol, above, yoqol-i, above him. 

To the second and larger class belong: 

men or menel, by, t-in-men, by me. 

tial, for, in-tial, for me. 

oel, beside, a-oel, beside you, Uterally, my side. 

walan, below, in-walan, or t-in walan, below me. 

ti, in, from, and to, tin bin t-in na, I am going to my house.i 

tin tal t-in na, I am coming from my house. 

It seems clear that the idea of a noun with its possessive pronoun 
is uppermost here but this does not explain why we have, 
in walan, below me and yoqol-en, above me. 

1 The t or ti corresponds to the forms given in the early grammars as the 
dative case. 



PART II 
MAYA TEXTS 



PART II 
MAYA TEXTS 

INTRODUCTION 

Material Available. The reader will gain some idea of the 
vast amount of literature in the Ma3'a language from the discussion 
of the Maya texts available for study (Part III, p. 182). These 
documents date from the days following the Conquest and con- 
tinue down to the present time. They vary much in content and 
in value as faithful transcriptions of the language as spoken at the 
time when they were written. 

Grammatical Structure. It is pertinent to ask how much 
help in translating the early texts is to be derived from a grammar 
such as the present work. The thesis has been advanced in this 
paper that it is probable the grammatical structure of the language 
has not changed appreciably from early to late times. If this is 
the case, and the ancient as well as the modern texts were written 
grammatically, there would be little difficulty, as far as the 
grammar is concerned, in understanding the early examples of 
written Maya. Observations have led me to believe, however, that 
the early texts were not written with much regard for grammar, 
even the Maya grammar built upon a Latin model. It is unusual 
to find in the early texts examples of the greater part of the ex- 
pressions given by Beltran and the other early grammarians. Their 
illustrations are, of course, in most cases grammatical but they are 
not taken from texts but are isolated sentences made up to 
illustrate the special points to which references are made. 

It seems probable that the early Maya texts are generally lack- 
ing in the finer shades of meaning which it is possible to express in 
Maya and, furthermore, it is not to be expected that forms not 
recognized by the early grammarians would always find expression 
in the texts. 

The Books of Chilam Balam, that most fertile source of texts in 
Maya, furnish examples of this lack of precise grammatical struc- 

111 



112 MAYA TEXTS 

ture. As I have written elsewhere (1917, p. 183), "It must be re- 
membered that the manuscripts themselves are, no doubt, copies of 
earlier works, collected from different individuals and often copied 
by several different hands. Some of the manuscripts seem to have 
been the work of those who did not know Maya. Several different 
spellings of the same word occur and common Maya words are 
frequently misspelled. On the other hand, some of the pages seem 
to show a surprising ignorance of Spanish — Iglesia, for example, 
is spelled in one place "Iglayci." As for the Latin words occurring 
sporadically in the text, one is not surprised to find forms difficult 
to recognize." 

It seems safe to say that these famous texts are often illiterate 
in the sense that they are probably copies of copies and have been 
garbled in passing from hand to hand to say nothing of the fact 
that in the beginning they probably did not express precisely in 
every case all the forms of the spoken Maya. We return then to 
the question asked at the beginning of the section, how much help 
is a grammar in the translation of these texts. It seems to me that 
a grammar renders surprisingly little aid in deciphering the 
documents. 

Lexicography. It is in respect to the vocabulary that the 
Maya has changed most. Words have become obsolete. New 
words have been coined and Spanish words have been introduced 
in greater or lesser numbers.^ In spite of the tremendous advantage 
of possessing three early Maya dictionaries it is often not possible 
to determine accurately the meaning of many of the words in the 
early texts. Several of the vocabularies give examples of Maya 
construction. These forms are helpful in many cases in determin- 
ing homonyms. 

Even where there are parallel texts in Spanish and Maya as in 
the Doctrinas, there is often little help in elucidating the Maya as 
these translations are usually poorly done, not necessarily because 
of an ignorance of the proper words but from a general lack of 
forms in Maya to express properly the ideas contained in the 
"hiperholes y alegorias" of ecclesiastical Spanish or Latin.^ 



1 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 145, 146. 

2 Perez (1844) writes very pertinently on this point as follows, "Si considera- 
mos igualmente que los antiguos escritores de doctrina y pldticas eran unos seniles 



INTRODUCTION 113 

On the other hand, the Xiu Chronicles, the Libro de Calcalchen 
and other secular texts furnish some excellent examples of parallel 
accounts in the Maya and Spanish of wills and other legal docu- 
ments. Martinez Hernandez writes substantially as follows in a 
personal letter concerning the collection of documents in the Libro 
de Calcalchen, "The Maya is very old and is a splendid specimen 
of Maya literature. Some expressions are unusual and are to be 
translated only after very diligent research. As we are familiar to 
a certain extent with the forms of the Ordenanzas, they would help 
us to translate properly and pave the way for other future transla- 
tions. I am fully convinced that the Books of Chilam Balam can 
be translated after translating all these documents. Before this 
literature came into my hands there were many words in the vo- 
cabularies the use of which I did not know." 

The later Maya texts are naturally far easier to translate on ac- 
count of the fewer changes in the vocabulary. 

The ''particles of adornment" are many in Maya.^ They add 
to the pleasure of the spoken Maya but they cause no little con- 
fusion in deciphering the written language. 

There is a large number of words in Maya with a comparatively 
large number of onomatopoeic words.- 

Orthography. The spelling of the Maya words is often far 
from consistent. This is especially true of words with the glottal- 

traductores de las hip4rboles y alegorias de la lengua castellana y latina, vendr6mos 
en conocimiento que estos modos de decir no podian generalizarse entre los indios, 
conio ajenos y distintos a los que el genio de su lengua demandaba; asi es que la 
expresion figu-rada de llamar a este mundo un ' voile de Idgrimas,' 7io es ^isada entre 
los indios, y cuando la encuentran traducida literalmente en la Salve, la encuentran 
pesada y no hacen de ella aplicacion alguna, y si alguno muy ladino quiere aplicar 
la idea, lo hace como muchas veces lo he oido, con las palabras de ucahal nuniya 
{pueblo 6 lugar de miserias 6 trabajos), que para ellos tienen igual fuerza, es el 
mismo sentido, y diferentes las voces. Hay algunas figuras castellanas que no 
pueden traducirse literalmente al idioma sin ridiculez." 

1 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 144 who writes, "No obstante, las particulas 
compositivas que no modijican el sentido, son muchlsimas, las cuales, efectiva- 
mente, solo contribuyen a la variedad de las formas de la expresion consfituyendo 
asi, como el indicado padre Beltran dice, ' particulas adornativas ' que facilitan 
giros de estilo de que resulta un lenguaje elegante y artlstico cuando se habla bien el 
idioma." 

2 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 133-134, 258-269, 307. 

See discussion of the various dictionaries in Part III (p. 169). 



114 MAYA TEXTS 

ized consonants and those with doubled vowels. In several eases 9 
is used for z or s and in these instances the omission of the cedilla 
with the c is a cause of great annoyance, changing, for example, 
f igal (sisal) to cical (kikal) . The omission of the bar with the h 
and p also adds to the confusion. In the early texts there is no 
proper division into words and sentences. Just as a word may be 
spelled in several different ways on the same page so a word may 
be divided in many different ways in succeeding hnes.^ This lack 
of consistency in writing and spacing the Maya is a cause of 
great confusion.- The Berendt copies of many of the Chilam 
Balam texts are very useful in this respect .^ The punctuation as 
used in the early documents is of no value whatsoever and the 
very common failure to capitalize proper names is still another 
cause of difficulties. 

Chirggraphy. The handwriting in these early texts is often 
very difficult to make out. There is usually a complete failure to 
distinguish between v and b. Several different varieties of hand- 
writing are often seen in the same manuscript. 

Possibility of Translation. I have already discussed in an- 
other place the possibility of a faithful translation of the ancient 
Maya texts, especially those of the Chilam Balam Books (Tozzer, 
1917). I am still of the opinion that many parts of the early docu- 
ments will defy translation.^ These portions are, for the most part, 

1 On a single page in the Chumayel manuscript within six lines the following 
varieties of spelling and spacing are found : 

uhool u poop u hoi pop 

uhol u pop u holpop 

u hoi u poop 
Compare the different versions of the same prophecy as given in the Tizimin, 
the Chumayel and the Lizana texts (p. 122). 

2 In the Chumayel version of one of the prophecies (Chilam Balam de 
Chumayel, p. 106) there is found, for example, the following division of words: 
ytzam = nakauil for ytzamna kauil. As Ytzamna is a main god of the Mayas, 
one would think that the copyist would have known how to write this name 
properly. 

3 Compare Tozzer, 1917, p. 183. 

* I have submitted this portion of the manuscript, as well as a great part of 
the remainder, to Senor Juan Martinez Hernandez and he agrees with me in 
all the statements contained in Part II. He writes, "The parts dealing with 
their ancient mythology and the esoteric language of the Maya priests may 



THE INDIANS OF CHAN SANTA CRUZ 115 

those dealing with Maya ritual and, in a figurative way, with the 
coming of the new religion and the change to the worship of the 
true God.^ 

Many parts are translatable but only after the most careful 
study. There is a great opportunity for mistakes and there are 
many places where more than one rendering of the text is possible. 
It is in such places that time and patience are needed. 

There follow some examples of Maya texts with translations, 
starting with the modern Maya and going back to the Maya of the 
Prophecies and of the Books of Chilam Balam. 

1. THE INDIANS OF CHAN SANTA CRUZ^ 

Tu haab-il 1847 liqil u-ka-pul le-wink-ob leeti 

In the year 1847 arose for second time these men (Indians) this 

u-haab-il tal-ob u-took-ob Saki tan nohots kah: 

its year they came to burn ValladoHd in the midst of a large pueblo : 

yaab pal-al tu-kim-s-ob : ' be-san tulakal kah-ob tu-took- 

many boys they killed: thus also all the habitations they 

ah-ob ku ' o'ok-ol ka-bin-ob Santa Cruz u-qaba 

burned when its completion again they went (to) Santa Cruz its name 

tak helae ti-an-ob ^ ti buk-ah haab yaab : yet wink-il-ob 

until now there they are there so many years many: and men 

o'oki u-kim-s-ik-ob : luum utsuk man-ob nohots: 

they have just finished kiUing: the land where they pass is great: 

yaab-ob san: helae u-yum oik benil Mexico 

(there are) many "(of) the same ones: now their lord, his Honorable Mexico 

tun sup-ik u-taqin yetel u-meq-tan-ob yoklal u-o'ok-s-ik 

he is spending his money and his dependents so that they cause to end 



prevent or defy translation. ... It is by the abundance of these examples 
(Maya constructions given in the vocabularies) that we can find our way in 
ascertaining so many homonyms of the brief and concise monosyllabic Maya. 
Compound verbs are difficult to make out. These are often conjugated as 
simple verbs with additional words completing the same." 

1 Compare in this respect the variation in the Maya of the same text (p. 122) 
as well as the different possibilities in translating the Maya. 

2 This text was collected by the author in 1900 at Uayma, near Valladohd, 
Yucatan, from an Indian named Marcelino Tas. 

^ Or tu-kim-s-ah-ob, they caused to die. 

* Ku, a contraction of ka-u. 

^ This is really a contraction of ti-yan-ob. 



116 MAYA TEXTS 

le-batel-o: utial le-wink-ob-o hu-hum-p'it-il tuno'ok-ol: 

that war: in order that those men one by one may be exterminated : 

tan san u-boot-k-ob tulakal baas u-meya-m-ob 

they also are paying (the penalty for) all which they worked 

ti Yucatan: yan u-o'ok-ol tumen o'u-quts-ul tu haab-il 

in Yucatan : there is its ending because it has arrived the year 

u-o'ok-ol: le-buk-ah luum yan-il-ob bin-u-kah p'atal 

its completion: all that land where they are they are coming to leave 

yalan u-qab yum halats winik tu sebal : behelae yaab 

under his arm the lord great man as quickly: now many 

mak o'ok u-kah-al te Santa Cruz: u-tsikul tuo'oko[l] 

persons finished (making) their town in Santa Cruz : its sign of its ending 

tumen mi-nan u-o'on le-wink-ob hebis le bin-s-ah 

because there are no guns the men like (the ones) they raised 

yoqol-ob leeti utsben baal: kin sut-in-wal-e utsben o'on-ob 

above them this (in )former custom: I return to say the former guns 

ma tan u-pat-al-ob ma be utsi: quts tu haab-il 

they are not serviceable (it was) not thus formerly : there came the year 

tu yalkab-an-s-ob o'ul tumen masewal ku o'ok-ol 

they caused to run the strangers tor the Indians after the completion 

ka-sut-n-ah-i yoqol-ob ma tu met-h-ob misbal tak behelae : 

when they returned above them they did not do anything until now : 

uo san yoqlal u-yan-tal ka-p'el hol-be utial yookol koon-ol 

it is well also because they have two doors in order to enter to sell 

tile wai laqin: tak behelae ooo-il u-kah-il-ob utsik 

by here the east : until now are the poor the ones of the pueblo formerly 

u-took-(i)k-ob yaab baal: utsi qas-ob tumen tu 

they burn many things : formerly they are bad because they 

qas-kun-t-h-ob behelae tune tun yil-k-ob bas u-o'ok 

bad things they did now finally they see it what its end 

lobil-il bisa wa uo-h-oob misma bin me-t-ik san 

to the wickedness how" if they are good nothing comes to cause the same 

lob-ti-ob: behelae misun noq-ob misun han-l-ob: yan tsen 
evil things : now nothing clothes nothing to eat : there is only 

tu tsun-tse ku wen-l-ob tei yahal-kab-ti-ob : 

the branches of the tree where they sleep there they wake up in the morning : 

be-ku-kas-t-ob ha yuq-ob be tei ku-kim-1-oob u-huts 

thus then they seek water to drink thus there they die in the greater 

yaa-h-il leeti le-ooD-il pal-al ku-kim-1-ob tak tun leeti-ob boo-t-ik 
misery these poor children they may die until they these pay 



THE INDIANS OF CHAN SANTA CRUZ 117 

u-sipil u-tata-ob u-han-1-ob tsen u-moD'-tse yetel 

their sins their fathers they cat only the roots of the trees with 

yits-tse mi-nan siim: utial u-man-s-ik u-kus-tal-ob 

the fruit of the trees there is no maize : in order to carry on their lives 

yetel tutsi qaanab tei- ku-kas-t-ik u-kus-tal-ob. 

and gifts of the sea there they seek it their lives. 

Free Translation 

For the second time, in the year 1847, these Indians rose in arms. 
That is the year in which they came to burn ValladoKd, the large 
city. They killed many people. They also burned all the houses. 
After they had finished, they returned to the place called Santa 
Cruz where they are now and where they have been for many years. 
They have just been killing men of their own race. The land 
where they live is large. There are many of them there. Now their 
master is the President of Mexico. He is spending his money and 
his people also in order to put an end to the war, in order that these 
men, one by one, may be exterminated. They are paying the 
penalty for all they did in Yucatan. It has to end because the 
time for the ending has come. All that land where they are is 
about to come under the rule of the President. Many persons have 
already gone to hve in Santa Cruz. This is a proof of the ending 
of the war because those Indians do not now have guns like the 
ones they formerly carried. I repeat, the old guns are now good 
for nothing, nothing like the former ones with which they put to 
flight the Spaniards (strangers) . After the Indians had finished the 
attack, they have done nothing up to the present time. This is 
also well because they have two avenues to sell their wares here 
in the east. Even to-day the villagers are poor because they for- 
merly burned many things. Formerly they were bad because they 
did bad things. Now, finally, they see the result of their wicked- 
ness; now, if they are good, nothing comes to cause the same evil 
things. 1 Now they have neither clothes nor food. They have only 
the branches of the trees under which to sleep where morning 

1 Martinez, who has been good enough to offer many suggestions, has 
translated this still more freely as follows: — "Formerly they were bad be- 
cause they had bad examples set before them, now, then, they can discrimi- 
nate better what is right and what is wrong and will no longer do any harm to 
them." 



118 MAYA TEXTS 

awakens them. They seek water to drink. They thus die in the 
greatest misery, this poor people. They may die until they pay for 
the sins of their fathers. They eat only the roots of the trees and 
the fruit of the trees. There is no maize to nourish them. In order 
to find nourishment they go to the shores of the sea. 

2. LACANDONE CHANT 

Fifty-one chants were collected by the writer in 1902 and 1903 
among the Lacandones of Chiapas, Mexico. These people, as 
already pointed out, speak practically the same dialect of the Maya 
stock as that of the natives of Yucatan. The language of these 
chants is generally simple. Syllables are often added at the end 
of words to preserve a rhythm. The single chant given here has 
already been pubhshed (Tozzer, 1907, p. 171-172). I have given a 
more literal translation than that previously printed. The reader 
is referred to the former paper (p. 169-189) for the other chants. 

When Copal and Posole are Distributed in the 
Ceremony of Renewing the Incense-Burners 

Tan in kub-ik in pom k-ets tiala kub-ik 

I am restoring it my offering of copal to you for you to restore it 

t-ik 1 yum tiala nas-ik - t-ik yum. Hen boo-t-ik-ets 

to the father, for you to raise it up to the father. I will pay it to you 

in tsula t-ets uhel a kunya tiala kub-t-ik 

my offering of posol to you again (for) your welfare for you to restore it 

yum. Hen boo-t-ik-ets in tsula t-ets tiala tl-lili. 

to the father. I will pay it to you my offering of posol to you for you yourself. 

Tan in mee-t-ik in sil t-ets-ki uhel a kunya. Bin-in-kin ^ pok 

I am making it my gifts to you again (for) your welfare. I am about to dry 

in sil t-ets ma tu buh-ul ma u lak-al 

my gifts to you, may they not be affected by crumble may they not separate 

u-hol in sil t-ets. Ma tu wak-al in sil t-ets. 

(as to) their heads my gifts to you. May they not crack my gifts to you. 

Ma tu pas-al in sil t-ets. II in mee-t-ik in sil t-ets, 

May they not break my gifts to you. See my making them my gifts to you, 

1 Kub-ik t-ik is equivalent to kub-t-ik. 
- nas-ik is the same as nak-s-ik, 
3 Literally, I am going to. 



A MAYA WITCH STORY 119 

yume. Ma tu lub-ul tsak-wil-ki. Bin-in-k-in pul-ik ets 

oh father. May not be affected by a fall fever. I am about to place you 

yoke tumu lak. II in mee-t-ik in sil t-et§ uhel 
(the idol) in the new hrnscro. See my making them my gifts to you again 

a kunya. II in mee-t-ik in sil t-ets tia yol 

(for) your welfare. See my making them my gifts to you for the health 

in pal-al. Ma u nak-tan-t-ik yah-il, ma u 

my children. May not trample them under foot harm, my not trample 

nak-tan-t-ik keel, ma u nak-tan-t-ik tsak-wil. Ooken 

them under foot cold, may not trample them under foot fever. Enter, 

ta §imbal a wil-ik in pal, a-kun-e in pal. 

walk you see my son, cure my son. 



3. A MAYA WITCH STORY 

The original text was collected by Berendt in Peten in 1866. 
The manuscript is now in the Berendt Linguistic Collection (Br. 
498. 21. M. L. 545). The text and an Enghsh translation of Be- 
rendt's German translation were published by Brinton (1883 and 
1890) . A few changes have been made and a literal translation has 
been added. The simple tale shows certain features which seem to 
be of European origin. 

Hun-tul H-sib o'ook-u-bel yetel hun-tul s-ts'up ma tu-yohel-t-ah wa 

One man married with one woman not did he know her as 

s-wai. Hun-p'e qin tu yal-ah-ti, " Huts'e ka-p'el mut taab." 
a witch. One day he said to her, " Grind two measures of salt." 

Tu huts'-ah paibe ka tu qat-ah, "Baas tial tets? " 

She ground them first when she asked him, " Why [do] you [wish it?] " 

Hun-p'el aqab pisaan H-sib-e ka tu yil-ah u-hoq-ol u-yatan. 
One night awoke the man when he saw she goes out his wife. 

Ka tu-tsa-ah u maskabe, ka tu mukul t'ul-bel-ah tu pats ti 
When he took his axe, when he secretly followed her behind to 

qas. Ka qutsi-ob ti tsitsan tsaqan, yan u sas-il 

the wood. When they arrived at a httle pasture, there is its brightness 

uh. Ka tu muk-u-b-ah H-sib tu booy nohots yas-tse. 

a moon. When he hid himself, the man, in the shade of a great seiba tree. 

Ka tu pul-ah u noq s-ts'up tu pats waan 

When she threw her clothes, the woman, behind her standing 



120 MAYA TEXTS 

s-ma-buk tu tan uh; ka tu o'ip-ah u-yot'el, 

she without covering in its face the moon ; when she stripped off her skin, 

ka kul-hi tsem-bak: ka nak-i ti kaan: ka 

when she remained mere bones: when she arose to the sky: when 

em-i tu-ka-ten, ka tu-yal-ah-i: " Sao'aba sta-kaan? " 

she descended again, when he said to her, "stretch yourself to the sky? " 

Hemak ma utsak u nak-al tu-ka-ten tumen tu t'oot'-al taab. 

But not possible her ascending again because he sprinkled salt. 

Free Translation 

A man (once) married a woman. The man did not know that 
his wife was a witch. One day, he said to her, "Grind two meas- 
ures of salt." She ground them and then she asked him, "Why do 
you wish this?" One night he awoke and saw his wife go out. 
Taking his axe, he secretly followed her to the wood. They arrived 
at a little pasture in the bright moonlight. The man hid himself in 
the shadow of a great seiba tree. The woman threw her clothes 
behind her, standing naked in the moonlight. When she stripped 
off her skin she appeared mere bones. Then she arose into the sky, 
returning again (to the earth). Then the man said to her, "Would 
you reach the sky? " But she could not ascend a second time as he 
sprinkled salt. 

4. PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 

This is one of the Maya prophecies which are discussed in Part 
III (p. 192). 1 The text is given of the Chumayel version (Chilam 

1 This prophecy is undoubtedly the one referred to by CogoUudo (1688, 
p. 199) and also in the Relacion de la Ciudad de Merida, dated 1579 and signed 
by Caspar Antonio Xiu among others. This Relacion is reprinted in Coleccion 
de Documentos InMitos, v. 11, p. 37-75. As Martinez Hernandez has pointed 
out, this statement in the Merida report is so very important that I reprint it 
here. 

" Uho algunas provincias que nunca dieron guerra, sino que rrescibieron a los 
espanoles de paz, en especial la provincia de Tutulxiu cuya cabegera era y es el 
pueblo de Mani, catorce leguas de esta ciudad al sueste, donde uho pocos anos antes 
que los espanoles viniesen a conquistar esta tierra un yndio principal, que era 
sacerdote, llamado Chilan-halam, que le tenian por gran profeta y adivino, y este 
les dixo que dentro de breve tiempo vernia de hazia donde sale el sol unajente blanca 

barbada, y que traerian levantada una seFial como esta *t<, ala qual no podian 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 121 

Balam de Chiimayel, p. 105-107), the Tizimin version (Chilam 
Balam de Tizimin, Gates reproduction, p. 17, 18), and the Lizana 
version (Lizana, 1633; ed. 1893, p. 38-39). I have added a read- 
ing of the Maya text as interpreted by Martinez Hernandez. 

The variations in the four versions should be noted, not only in 
the speUings but in the words themselves. The Chumayel version 
has frequent interpolations by the author of the copy. The trans- 
lation of Lizana which, in general, is that followed by Carrillo y 
Ancona and many others is given in English together with the 
Spanish text.^ I have attempted a new translation, following in 
the main the Martinez text. In a few cases a rendering of portions 
of the text into English by Martinez is given. 

It will be noted that there are several passages which still remain 
far from clear in spite of the different authors who have worked 
upon them. Lizana's translation, which is very good as a free 
rendering, does not follow the text at all closely in several places. 
He has left out many words and particles. 

This passage is given in order to illustrate some of the difficulties 
spoken of in the introduction to this section. It should be remem- 
bered that these Maya texts are transcribed into the system of 
writing Maya adopted in this work. The division into syllables 
is the work of the author. 



llegar sus Dioses, ij huyan della, yque estajente avia de seFwrear la tierra, y que a los 
que los rrecibiesen de paz no les harian mal nynguno, y a los que les hiziesen guerra 
los rnatarian, y que los naturales de la tierra dejarian sus ydolos y adorarian un solo 
Dios, que ellos adorahan y avian de predicar, y les serian tributarios, e hizo tejer 
una mania de algodon y les dixo que de aquella suerte avia de ser el tribulo que les 
avian de dar, y mando al sehor de Many, que se llamaba Mochanxiu, que ofreciese 
a los ydolos aquella manta para que estubiese guardada y quedase por memoria, y 
aquella serial de cruz y otras hizo hazer de piedra labrada y ponerlas en los patios 
de los templos donde pudiese ser vista de todos, y dixo que aque] era el arbol verde del 
mundo, e yvan aberla muchajente por cosa nueba, y parecia que la beneraban desde 
entonzes, y despues quando vinieron los espaiioles y supieron que trayan la serial 
de la santa cruz, que era como la que su prof eta chilam balam les avia figurado, 
tuvieron por cierto lo que les avia dicho, y determinaron de rrecebir a los espaiioles 
de JMZ y no les hazer guerra, sino ser sus amigos, como siempre lo han sido despues 
que poblaron estas provincias, y les ayudaron con mantenimientos e jente de guerra 
ide servicio para conquistar e pacificar otras provincias." 
1 For bibliographical notes on editions of this Prophecy, see p. 192-194. 



122 



MAYA TEXTS 



Tizimin: u profesia Chilam Balam tis kayom ' kabal tsen Man: 

Chumayel: u profeciado de Chilam Balam de sis koyom ka-wi tsen Mani: 

Lizana: profecias de Chilan Kalam de sis kayon ka-wi tsen Mani: 

Martinez: u profecia Chilam Balam tis kayon ka-wits ts'en Mani: 

Tozzer: His prophecy Chilam Balam of singer Cawich Chen- of Mani 

Martinez : Kayom 

Tiz.: oslahun Ahau u-heo'i-wil Qatun walak-wil 

Chu.: oslahun Ahau u-hiho'-wil Qatim-e walak-wil 

Liz.: oslahun Ahau u-heo'i-wil Qatun walak-wil 

Mar.: oslahun Ahau u-hea'i-wil Qatun walak-wil 

Tozzer: In 1.3 Ahau its established Katun at this time 
Lizana: At the end of the 13th epoch being in power 

Martinez : it may be 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana: 

Martinez : 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana: 



Itza walak-wil tan-kahe yum u-tsikul hunab 

Itza walak-wil tan-kah-e yum-e u-tsikul hunab 

Itza walak-wil tan-kats-e yum u-tsikul hunab 

Itza walak-wil tan-kah-e yum-e u-tsikul hunab 

the Itzas at this time in Tancah oh Father his sign the only 

the Itzas (and )Tancah ^ the sign of a 

ye Itzas it may be ye citizens * Sirs, 



qu kanal u-lom 

qu kanal hu-lom 

qu kanal hu-lom 

qu kanal hu-lom 

God on high his cross 

God (who is) on high (will come) the cross 



u-aom-tse 
u-aom-tse 
u-alom-tse 
u-ahom-tse ^ 
his cross of wood 



Martinez : will come from heaven (to us) 



the cross 



yoqol 
yoqol 
yoqal 
yoqol 

above 



Tiz.: etsah-om ti kah-e u-tsebal u-sas-hal 

Chu. : etsah-an ti bal-kah-e u-tsebal u-sas-hal 

Liz.: etkah-an ti kats-e u-tsewal u-kas-hal 

Mar.: etsah-an ti bal-kah-e u-tsebal u-sas-hal 

Tozzer: a demonstration to the world with which day breaks 

Lizana : will show itself to the world with which was lighted 

Martinez : will be shown to the world so that be enlightened the 

1 The verb, to sing, is qaL The text is clearly kay which is translated by 
Martinez as a proper noun. 

2 There is a town of this name near Mani. 

' Lizana interpolates. See his translation, p. 129. 

^ Martinez translates this ciudadano 6 el que vivo en el centra 6 medio del 
pueblo (Ticul, p. 164). He notes that Tancah had been destroyed with Maya- 
pan many years previously. 

^ Martinez writes, " u-ahom-tse is the tree of life, arbol de miestra subsis- 
tencia and wa-om-tse is picota, horca, the cross of Jesus, his punishment." 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 



123 



Tiz.: 


kab-e yum 


o'um 


Chu.: 


kab-e yum 


-e uts o'uni to 


Liz.: 


kab-e yum 


o'uni 


Mar. : 


kab-e yum 


uts o'uni 


Tozzer: 


the earth, oh Father a long time ago there began 


Lizana : 


the earth, 


there will be 


Martinez : 


world. Sirs, 


for a long time there has been 


Tiz.: 


mok-tam-ba 




o'uni 


Chu.: 


mok-tan-ba 


uts 


o'uni 


Liz.: 


mok-tan-ba 




o'uni 


Mar. : 


mok-t'an-ba 


uts 


o'uni 


Tozzer: 


fighting with one another a long time ago 


there began 


Lizana: 


a division 






Martinez : 


political divisions for a long time 


there has been 


Tiz.: 


sawinal 


ka tal-on ti pul 


tsikul 


Chu.: 


sawinal 


ka tal-on ti pul 


tsikul 


Liz.: 


kawinal ^ 


ka tal-om ti pul 


tsikul 


Mar. : 


sawinal 


ka tal-on ti pul 


tsikul 


Tozzer: 


confusion 


when we came carrying the sign: 


Lizana : 


among the wills 


; - when is brought 


the sign (in the future) 


Martinez : 


: discord 






Tiz.: 


quutsmal 


ah qin winik-e yum 


hun-awat ^ hun 


Chu.: 


utsmal-e 


ah qin-i winik-e yum-^ 


e hun-awat hun 


Liz.: 


utsmal 


ah qin winik-e yum 


hun-awat hun 


Mar.: 


utsmal-e 


ah qin winik-e yum-^ 


e hun-awat hun 


Tozzer: 


at another time 


: the priest of the men the Father one quarter (of) one 


Lizana: 


before arriving 


the priests, men 


a quarter (and) a 


Martinez : 


: in that time 


ye priests of the idols 




Tiz.: 


lub-i wil 


u-tal 




Chu.: 


lub-i wil 


u-tal a-wil-ik-es mut-i 


B u-tip'il yetel 


Liz.: 


lub-i wil 


u-tal a-wil-k-es mut-i 


e u-t'ipil yetel 


Mar.: 


lub-i wil 


u-tal a-wil-k-es mut-i 


e u-tip'il yetel 


Tozzer: 


league so that it comes you will see fame 


appearing with 


Lizana: 


league 


you will see 


appearing 


Martinez 




quet2 


lal bird ^ 



1 This reading of Lizana is doubtless due to the omission of the cedilla 
under the c making it k instead of s. 

2 The Spanish is voluntades. 

^ This is literally, one grito, a numeral suffix used to count miles and quarters 
of a league. 

* The idea, as interpreted by Martinez, is that the quetzal will appear with 
the Maya cross as it is represented on the bas-reUefs at Palenque. 



124 



MAYA TEXTS 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar. : 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez: 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar.: 
Tozzer : 
Lizana : 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer 

Lizana 



u-aom-tse 

u-aom-tse 

u-ahom-tse 

his cross of wood 

the cross 



ahom 1 
a ho-hom 
ahom 
ahom 

illuminate 
illuminate 



wil kab 
kab 

wil kab 
wil kab 



hun 
hun 
hun 
hun 



the earth one 



saman 
saman 
saman 
saman 

south 



from pole 



hun tsiqin 

hun tsiqin 

hun tsaqin 

hun tsiqin 

one west 

to pole 



the Maya cross will illimiinate the world in the four cardinal points. 



ahom Itzamna qawil : 

ahom Itzamna qawil 

ahuom Itzamna qawil: 

ahom Itzamna qabwil: 

illuminate Itzamna, KabwiP; 

(the worship of) vain gods will cease; 



a yum Itza 
ka yum Itza 
ka yum Itzaa 
ka yum Itza 

your father, Itzas 



iozzer: your lauiei, AL/.iis 
Lizana : your father, oh, Itzas 
Martinez : 



tal-el u-kah u 

tal-el u-kah ka 

tal-el u-kah a 

tal-el u-kah a 

he is coming 
he is coming 
they are coming 



tal-el u-kah 
tal-el u-kah 
tal-el u-ah 
tal-el u-kah 
he is coming 
he is coming 

sas-kun 
su-kun 
su-kun 
su-kun 



your brother, 
your brother 
your brothers 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Tiz.: 
Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar. : 
Tozzer: 
Lizana : 



tan tun-e : 
ah tan tun-e : 
tan tunk: 
ah tan kun-e : 



qam 
qam 
qama 
qam 



a-wula 
a-wula-ob 
a-wula 
a-wula 



ah-mes-ob 
ah-mes-ob 
ah-u-mes-ob 
ah-mes-ob 



place him ahead of others; receive your guests the bearded ones 
oh, Tantunites; receive your guests the bearded ones 



ah 



liqin 
liqin 
liqin 
liqin 

the east, 
(of) the east 



kab-ob 
kab-ob 
kab-ob 
kab-ob 

the villagers 



ah-pul-ob 

ah-pul 

ah-pul 

ah-pul 

the carriers 

(who come) to carry 



tu tsikul 
tu tsikul 
tu tsikul 
tu tsikul 

his sign 
the sign (of) 



1 ahom from ahal. 

2 Martinez has pointed out in Lizana (1633 ed. 1883, f. 4 ob) the following 
quotation in reference to this place in the text, " Falso Dios Ytsmat vl, donde 
pusieron lafigiira de la mano, que les servia de memoria; y dizen que alii le llevaban 
los muertos, y enfermos, y que alii resucitaban, y sanaban tocandolos la mano, y 
este era el que esid en la parte del Puniente, y assi se llama y nombra Kal ul, que 
quiere desir, mano obradora." 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 



125 



Tiz.: 


qu yum 


uoqa 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Chu.: 


qu-e yum-e 


uoqa 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Liz.: 


qu-e yum 


uoqa 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Mar.: 


qu-e yum 


uoka 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Tozzer: 


God the Lord 


to arrange his word 


God who may come 


Lizana : 


God 






(It is) God who comes, 


Tiz.: 


qiknale 




tal-el u-kah 


u-t'an-il u-qin 


Chu.: 


kiknale 




tal-el u-kah 


u-qin 


Liz.: 


kiknale 




tal-el qa-u-kah 


u-qin 


Mar. : 


yiknale 




tal-el u-kah 


u-t'an-il u-qin 


Tozzer: 


in (your) company, 


he is coming 


(to bring) order the time 


Lizana : 


(he is) gentle and pious, 


he is coming 


the new 


Martinez: 








to establish the day 


Tiz.: 


ka kus-tal-e 


ma a sa 


h-t-ik 1 


yoqol-kab-e ^ yum 


Chu.: 


ka kus-tal-e 


ma a sah-t-ik 


yoqol-kab-e yum-e 


Liz.: 


ka kus-tal-e 


ma ak a sah-t-ik 


yoqol-kab-e yum 


Mar. : 


ka kus-tal-e 


ma ah sah-t-ik 


yoqol-kab-e yum 


Tozzer: 


again living: 


you do not fear him above the earth Father, 


Lizana: 


in our life : ' 


you have nothing to fear from the earth 


Martinez: 


: of resurrection 








Tiz.: 


lets hunab qu 


ts'ab-t-i 


koon uo-tum-ba 


Chu.: 


tets hunak qu 


ts'ab-t-i 


ken uh-tun-bak 


Liz.: 


tets hunak qu 


tsab-t-i 


kom u-uo-tun-bak 


Mar. : 


tets Hunab qu 


ts'ab-t-ik 


: koon uo-tan-ba 


Tozzer: 


j-ou the c 


)nly God 


created 


us good for themselves 


Lizana: 


you (are) the o 


inly God (who) created 


us good 


Tiz.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum 




Chu.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum-e y(etei; 


) ah-kan-ul ka 


Liz.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum 




Mar.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum 


ah-kam-ul ka 


Tozzer: 


his words, God 


) 


Father and 


the caretaker (of) our 


Lizana: 


(are) Ihe words of God * 







1 Martinez suggests that this may be read, a despertar 6 iluminar al mundo, 
He thinks the rendering given here by Lizana and by the author is more prob- 
able however. 

2 Martinez thinks that yoqol-kab is simply " the earth " for those who live 
in it. 

^ Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 530) translates this, "ya viene el tiempo de 
nuestra vida." 

* Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 530) gives this as the translation here. Lizana 
omits it, probably by mistake. 



126 



MAYA TEXTS 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 



pisan hemak bin qam u-hats okan~ti yole ti kaan 

pisan hemak bin qam u-hats okan-ti yole ti kaan 

souls he who goes to receive very true faith to heaven 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: u-bin tu-pats hewak u-tsun ka qin winik-il.' 

Liz.: 

Mar.: u-bin tu-pats hewak u-tsun ka 

Tozzer: goes ahead but begins our 

Lizana : 

Martniez : porque es que fueron los indios, en su compania el dia de nuestra re- 
division, or sea cuando principiemos por la gracia division a ser hornbres 
nuevamente. 



bin (?) winik-il. 
day of men. 



Tiz.: 


ka wakunto 


u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


a wakunto 


ka 


Chu.: 


ka wakunto 


u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


wakunto 




Liz.: 


ka wakunto 


u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


wakunto 


ka 


Mar.: 


ka wakunto 


u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


wakunto 


ka 


Tozzer: 


We extol 




hi& sign 


on high, 


we 


extol. 


we 


Lizana : 


(Let) us praise 




his sign 


on high 


(let) us praise it 


by 


Tiz.: 


pak-te helee 




ka 


wakunto 


u 


u-aom-tse 




Chu.: 










yetel 


ua-om-tse 




Liz.: 


pak-te hele 




ka 


wakunto 


yu 


a-om-tsek 




Mar. : 


pak-te hele 




ka 


wakunto 




ua-hom-tse 




Tozzer: 


see (it) now 




we 


extol 


his 


cross of wood 


Lizana: 


seeing and adoring it, we 


must praise 


the cross : 




Tiz.: 


num-te tah 


u- 


qes-ah 


oqol 


helee 


u-hel-tu-pats 




Chu.: 


num-le tah 


uqas a 


u-hoqol 


hele 


u-hel-tu-pats 




Liz.: 


num-te tah 


uqes a 


tsoqol 


hele 


u-hel-tu-pats 




Mar.: 


num-te tah (tak) uqes a 


wolah 


hele 


u-hel-tu-pats 




Tozzer: 


misery 


it changed 


discord 


now 


restore 




Lizana : 


falsehood 


in 


exchange 




to-day 


will appear against 


Tiz.: 


u-yas tseel 




ka 


et sah-om 


helel 




Chu.: 


u-yas tseel 




kab 


et sah-an 


helel 




Liz.: 


u-yah tseel 




kab 


et kah-an 


hele 




Mar. : 


u-yas tseel 




kab 


et sah-an 


hele 




Tozzer: 


the first tree 


of the world: 


a demonstration 


now 




Lizana : 


the first tree 


of the world 


a demonstration 


to-day (is made) 



1 These words, given only in the Chumayel, are an interpolation by the 
copyist of the Chumayel manuscript. 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 



127 



Tiz.: 
Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar. : 
Tozzer: 
Lizana : 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana: 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez : 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 



ti bal-kah-e la u-tsikul 

ti bal-kah-e la u-tsikul 

ti bal-kal-he la u-tsiqul 

ti bal-kah-e la u-tsikul 

to the world: this his sign 

to the world: (there is a) sign of a god on high 



hunab qu kanal tal ome 

hunab qu kanal-e 

hunab qu kanal 

hunab qu kanal 

only god on high 



tal emel 
come, lower 



laa qui tes 

lae a-qul tes 
laak a-qul tes 
la a-qul tes 

all reverence you 
worship it 



ah-Itzaes 
ah-Itzae 
ah-Itzaao 
ah-Itzae 

oh, Itzas 
oh, Itzas 



ka 
ka 
ka 
ka 

and 
we 



a-qul-te 
a-qul-te 
a-qul-te 
a-qul-te 
reverence 



hele 

helel 

hele 

hele 

now 



u-tsits-il 
u-tsikul 
u-tsiqlul 
u-tsikul 

his sign, 



quliqul 



reverence 



kanal-e 
kanal-e 
kanal 
kanal-e 
on high 



kak qul-te to 
ka a-qul-te to 
ka a-qul-te to 
ka qul-te 
and reverence 

shall reverence 



tu 
tu 
tu 
tu 

with 
with 
with 
or with 



hah-U 
hah-il 
hah-ik 
hah-U 

true 
true 

all your 
true 



qol-ah 
kol-ah 
kol-ah 
wol-ah 

good-will : 
good-will : 



ka a-qul-te 
ka qul-te 
ka a-qul-te 
ka a-qul-te 

and adore 

we shall adore 



to ka 



him 



ka 
ka 

our 
our 



hah-al 
hah-al 
hah-al 
hah-al 

true 
true 



qu-e 

qu 

qak 

qu-e 

God 

God 



hehelae 



now 



Martinez : heart or good faith 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez : 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana: 



yum-e 



okestaba u-t'an hunab 

okestaba u-t'an hunab 

okestaba u-t'an hunab 

okestaba u-t'an hunab 

oh, Father : receive his word only 

receive the word (of) the true 



qu-e 

qu-e yum-e 
qu-e yum 
qu-e yum 
God- 
God 



believe the commandments ot the only God 



kanal a-wah fan ^ 

ti kaan a-wah fan be 

ti kaan a-wah fan 

ti kaan a wah-f an-e 

from on high the commandments: 



tal-i 
tal-i 
tal-i 
tal-i 

he came 

(who) comes from heaven to you speaks: 



ul-e kus-kin 



u-e 



kus-kin 
kus-kin 
kus-kin 

invigorate 
recover 



' These two words are difficult to translate, 
mandments. 



I suggest halmah-f an, com- 



128 



MAYA TEXTS 



Tiz.: 


ta-wol-ah 


I 


Itza 




ahom ' 


Chu.: 


ka-a-wol-ah 


Itzae 




ahom 


Liz.: 


qa-a-wol-ah 


Itzaa 




ah hom 


Mar.: 


ka wol 




ah Itzae 




ah hom 


Tozzer: 


your good-will Itzas 




illuminate 


Lizana : 


your will 




(and be one) of the Itzas 


will be enlightened 


Tiz.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-s-ik ti yol itsil 


u-yan-al 


Chu.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-s-ik-ob ti yol-e itsil 


u-yan-al 


Liz.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-k-ik-ob ti yol itsil 


u-yan-al 


Mar.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-s-ik-ob ti yol itsil 


u-yan-al 


Tozzer: 


the earth for them cause t 


enter the spirit within its other 


Lizana: 






those who believe in 


to come 


Tiz.: 


Qatun 




wale 


yab luba in fan 




Chu.: 


Qatun-e 


yum 


-e 


yoq tuba in fan 




Liz.: 


Qutun 






yoq tuba in fan 




Mar. : 


Qatun 




wale 


yok tuba in fan 




Tozzer: 


Katun, 




afterwards : 


believe (in) my 


words 


Lizana: 


the age: 




Note 


if you care (for 


what) I say (to you), 


Tiz.: 


ken 


Chilam Balam ka 


in ool-ah 


u-fan 


Chu.: 


ken 


Chilam Balam ka 


in ool-ah 


u-fan 


Liz.: 


ken 


Chilan Balan kan in ool-ah 


u-fan 


Mar.: 


ken 


Chilan Balam ka 


in ool-ah 


u-fan 


Tozzer: 


I am 


Chilam Balam and I interpreted his word 


Lizana : 


I charge 


Chilam Balam 


your interpreter 


; I say (that which) 


Tiz.: 


hahal 


qu 






in bin 


Chu.: 


hahal 


qu 


tu sin-il-e 


yoqol-kab-e 


yabi 


Liz.: 


hahal 


qu 






mbi 


Mar. : 


hahal 


qu 


tu sin-il-e 


yoqol-kab-e 


yubi 


Tozzer: 


the true 


God among all 


above the earth 


to know I go 


Lizana: 


the true 


God 




ordered 


Tiz.: 


hunak 




ouk ti kab. 






Chu. : 


hunak 




Duk ti kab-e. 






Liz.: 


hunak 




ouk ti kah. 






Mar. : 


hunak 




ouk ti kah-e. 






Tozzer: 


many 




portions of the pueblo. 




Lizana: 


porque dello 


sea el mundo sabedor. 





1 The text from here to the end, according to Martinez, forms the "esoteric 
Maya invocation at the end of the Katuns." 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 129 

Free Translation 

The Prophecy of Chilam Balam, the singer of Cawich Chen of 
Mani. In the Katun beginning in Ahau 13, the Itzas were in 
Tancah at this time. Oh, Father, the sign of the only God on high 
is the cross, the wooden cross. This will be shown to the world so 
that the world will be enlightened. Oh, Father, a long time ago, 
there began wranglings and confusion when we came bringing the 
sign. At another time, the priest of the Indians arrived. From a 
quarter of a league away you will see fame coming with the cross 
lighting up all parts of the world, also Itzamna Kabwil. Your 
Father, oh Itzas, is coming. Your brother is coming. Place him 
ahead of all. Receive your guests, the bearded men, the villagers 
from the East, the bearers of the sign of God, the Father. The 
Lord is coming in your company to promulgate his command- 
ments. He is coming to arrange the day of resurrection. You do 
not fear him who is above the earth. Oh, Father, you are the only 
God who created us. Good are the commandments of God, the 
Father, the caretaker of our souls. He who accepts the true faith, 
goes upwards to heaven. Our time has come (?). We extol his 
sign above, we extol it by looking at it, we extol his cross. In ex- 
change for misery and discord restore the first tree of the world. 
Show this now to the world, the sign of the only God on high. You, 
oh Itzas, reverence all, reverence the one on high, reverence with 
true good-will and worship him, our true God. Now, oh Father, 
receive the commandments of the only God who came from on 
high. Invigorate your good-will, oh Itzas, the earth is enlightened. 
The spirit enters in another Katun. Believe my message. I am 
Chilam Balam. I interpreted the commandments of the true 
God among all the places of the earth. I go to all parts of the 
country. 

LizANA Translation 

"La interpretacion es esta muy a la letra y sentido." 
"En el fin de la decima tercia edad estando en su pujanza Ytza 
y (la ciudad nombrada) Tancah, (que esta entre Yacman y Ticha- 
quillo, que oy se llama Ychpaa, que es fortaleza o castillo) vendra 
la senal de Dios que esta en las alturas, y la Cruz se manifestara 
ya al mundo con la qual el orbe fue alumbrado, avra division entre 
las voluntades quando esta senal sea trayda en tiempo venidero, 



130 MAYA TEXTS 

los hombres Sacerdotes antes de llegar una legua, y aunque un 
quarto de legua no mas vereis la Cruz que se os aparecera y os 
amanecera de Polo a Polo, cessara luego el culto de vanos dioses ya 
vuestro padre viene o Ytzalanos, o Tantunites ya viene un her- 
mano.recibid a vuestros guespedes, guespedes barbados del Oriente 
que vienen a traer la serial de Dios, Dios es que nos viene manso y 
poderoso, ya viene la nueva de nuestra vida. No teneis que temer 
del mundo tu eres Dios unico que nos criaste, eres Dios amigable 
y piadoso, ea ensalcemos su serial en alto ensalcemosla para adorarla 
y verla, la Cruz emos de ensalgar en oposicion de la mentira se 
aparece oy en contra del arbol primero del mundo, oy es hecha al 
mundo demonstracion, serial es esta de un Dios de las alturas, esta 
. adorad o gente Ytzalana, adoremosla con voluntad recta adoremos 
al que es Dios nuestro y verdadero Dios, recibid la palabra de Dios 
verdadero que del cielo viene el que os habla cobrad juizio y ser los 
de Ytza los que creyeren seran alumbrados en la edad que esta por 
venir mirad si os importa lo que os digo y advierto, y encargo yo 
vuestro interprete y maestro de credito Balam por nombre.^ Y 
con esto dixe lo que Dios verdadero me mando, porque dello sea el 
mundo sebedor." 

5. CHILAM BALAM DE . CHUMAYEL 

Passage, p. 77, 78 

This text is to be found in the original document (Gordon, 1913) 
on p. 77, 78. The translations printed here are to be found in Brinton 
(1882, p. 180, 181) and in Martinez Hernandez (1910). This pas- 
sage is given to show the differences in the two translations of the 
same text. The original is obviously incorrect in several places, in 
one of which Brinton changes it to read in one way and Martinez 
to read in another. A second point should be noted, the difference 
in the translation of proper names. Martinez makes a proper 
name of words which are translated by Brinton. This text, there- 
fore, illustrates some of the difficulties met with in rendering the 
ancient Maya into English. For purposes of verification I have 
added the Spanish translation of Martinez. 

1 From here to the end, the translation of Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 532) 
reads as follows: " Y con esto he acabado de decir lo que el Dios verdadero me 
mando para que lo oiga el mundo. ^' 



CHILAM BALAM DE CHUMAYEL 



131 



Brinton: 



Martinez : 



Brin. : 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar.: 

Brin. : 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar. : 



Kan Ahau u-qaba Qatun uts-ki u-sih-il-ob 

(The) 4th Ahau (was) the name (of) the Katun took place the 

births 
Four Ahau is called the Katun in which were born 



Brin. : 
Mar. : 



Brin. : 
Mar. : 



Brin. : 
Mar.: 

Brin. : 
Mar.: 

Brin. : 
Mar.: 



pawaha ' en ^ 

were taken possession of 
the Pawah they 



os-(la)-hunte ti 

(It was) the 13th 
13 periods of the 

u-qaba-ob 

(were) their names 

they were called 



Qatun 

Katun 
Katun 



kuh 

the towns 
began 

lik 

in which 
thus 



u-y-ahau-ob : 
by the rulers: 
the rulers of the years: 

u-tepal-ob lai 

they ruled these 
elapsed ^ thus 



tamuq u-tepal-ob lae. 
while they ruled, 
in the course of time. 



Kan ahau u-qaba Qatun em-ki-ob 

(The) 4th Ahau (was) the name (of) the Katun in it they arrived 
(The) 4th Ahau (was) called the Katun in which they arrived 



noh-he-mal 

the great arrival 
the great descent, 

Os la hunte 

(It was) the 13th 

13 periods of the 



D'ee-mal 

the less arrival 

the small descent, 



u qaba-ob lae. 

as they are called, 
they were called thus. 



ti Qatun lik u-tepal-ob lik u- 

Katun in which they ruled in which 
Katun thus elapsed thus 



qaba-tik-ob tii 

they took names at that time 
they were called at that time 



walak u-kut-ob 

while they resided 

they took root 



lae ^ oslahun 
here in the 13th 
13 periods 



kut hi u-kut-ob lae. 

the residence was continued they resided here, 
lasted their permanency. 



Kan 

(The) 4th 
In the 4th 



Ahau 

Ahau 
Ahau 



u-Qatun-il 

Katun 
Katun 



uts-ki 

(then) took place 

it happened 



u-kasan-tik-ob 

the search 
that they found 



1 Brinton writes this pats-ah u kah. 

2 Martinez changes this to em-kuts. 

3 In several places Martinez has translated tepalob in two ways. In the 
translation line by hne he translates the word as gobernaron whereas in his 
version given as a whole he translates it as transcurrieron. In his line by line 
translation this sentence reads, Trece periodos del katun, asl gobernaron; asi se 
llamaron mientras gobernaron. The Martinez translation given here follows 
that given by him on p. 35-38 (1910). 

* This word is crossed out in the original MS. 



132 



MAYA TEXTS 



u-Chich'een Itzae. 
Brin. : for Chichen Itza. 
Mar.: Chichen Itza. 



Tii uo-kinnabi makDil-ti-ob 

At that time they were improved marvelously 
There was modified their rehgion 



tumen 
Brin.: by 
Mar.: by 



u-yum-oobe : 

the fathers: 
their Lords: 



kan 3uk 

in four divisions 

four tribes 



kan-oukul-kab 
Brin. : the four territories 
Mar.: Cantsuculcabes 

Qin-kolah-peten 
Brin.: Kin Cola Peten 
Mar. : to Kin Cola Peten 



u qaba-ob. Liqul 

which were called. From 
called. From 



luq-ki-ob 

they went forth 

set out 

ti liqin 
the east of 
the east side 



bini hun ouki. Kul saman 

came forth one division. From the north of 
went one tribe. To the sacred north 



Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 



Brin. 
Mar. 



Brin. 
Mar. 



nakok-ob 

Nacocob 
ascending 



hoq 

came forth 
set out 



hun 
one 
one 



ouk[k]i. 

division. 

tribe. 



He ii hoqi hun 

Came forth one 
This other set out one 



Duki-e hol-tun Suyuua 

division (from the) gate of Zuyuua 

tribe (from the) entrance of Zuyuah 



ti tsiqin. Hoqi hun ou[k]ki-e kan heq 

to the west. Came forth one division from Can hek 

to the west. Went one tribe to the place of the four 

uio, bolonte uio u-qaba u-luumillae. 

the mountains, the nine mountains (as) is called the land, 

hills, that of the nine hills was called their land. 



Kan Ahau 

Brin.: (The) 4th Ahau 
Mar.: (The) 4th Ahau 



u-Qatun-il uts-ki 

Katun then took place 

Katun it happened 



u-payal-ob 

the calling together 
that they were called 



tu kan-ouk-[k]il-ob kan-ouk-kul-kab u-qaba-ob. [Ka 

Brin. : of the four divisions, the four territories as they were called. 
Mar. : the Cantsuciles the Cantsuculcabes called. When 



emi-ob ti 



yum-taI-ob.]i 



Brin. : 

Mar.: they arrived there (they were received) as Lords. 

Ka emi-ob tu Chich'een Itzae, ah Itza tun u-qaba-ob. 

Brin. : And they arrived at Chichen Itza, men of Itza they were called. 
Mar. : When they arrived at Chichen Itza, the Itzas they were called. 

1 The words within the braces are omitted in the Berendt copy of the MS. 
which was used by Brinton. 



CHILAM BALAM DE CHUMAYEL 



133 



Brin.: 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar. : 

Brin.: 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar.: 

Brin. : 

Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar.: 

Brin. : 
Mar.: 

Brin. : 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar. : 

Brin. : 
Mar.: 



0§lahunte ti Qatun lik u-tepal-ob-i 

[It was the] 13th Katun in which they ruled 

Thirteen periods of the Katun thus elapsed 



ka 

then 
and 



oki 

were introduced 
took place 

pasi (pas-ki) 
were destroyed 
was abandoned 



u-qeban-t'an-ob-i tumen 
the plottings by 

the treachery of 



Hun nak keeli ka 
Hunnac Ceel and 
Hunac Ceel and 



u-kab-ob. 

the territories, 
their towns. 



yol-tse 
the forests 
forest 



tan 

in the midst of 
to a place 



Ka bini-ob 

Then they went 
And they went 

§uluk-mul u-qaba. 
Xuluc mul so called. 
Xuluc mul called. 



tan 

in the midst ot 

to the wilderness 

Kan Ahau 

(The) 4th Ahau 
In the four Ahau 



u-Qatun-il uts-ki 

Katun (then) took place 

Katun took place 



yawat pisan-ob-i. 

singing for their happiness, 
the cries of the blessed. 



Oslahunte ti 

(It was the) 13th 

Thirteen periods of the 

u-numya-ob-i. Wasak 



Qatun 

Katum 

Katum 



lik 

in which 
thus 



u-tepaUob-i 

they governed 
elapsed 



yetel 

and (had) 
with 



Ahau u-Qatun-il 



uts-ki 



heavy labor, 
their exile. 

yulel-ob 
there arrived 
arrived 

ka 

then 

as soon as 



The Sth Ahau Katun thus it took place (that) 

In the feight Ahau Katun thus it took place 

yala-ob ah Itza u-qaba-ob 

the remainder of the Itza men as they were called; 
the remainder of the Itza men so called 



ul-ob 

they arrived; 

they arrived 



tii ka walak 

and about that time 



Chakanputune. 

Chakanputun. 
at Chakanputun. 

kah 

the city of 
the pueblo of 

Wasak 

(In the) Sth 
(In the) eight 



Oslahun Ahau 

In the 13th Ahau 
In the thirteen Ahau 



u-Qatun-il 

Katun 
Katun 



u-tepal-ob 

they governed 
they took root 

u-heo'-k-ob 

founded 
they founded 



Mayapan 

Mayapan 
Mayapan 

Ahau 

Ahau 
Ahau 



Maya 
the Maya 
Maya 



winik u-qaba-ob. 
men those called, 
men they were called. 



pas-ki 

were destroyed 
were abandoned 



wektsabi ^ 
Brin. : they were driven out 
Mar.: they disappeared 



ti peten 

of the province 

from the region 



tulakal. 
wholly, 
whole. 



u-cab-ob-i ka 

the towns then 
the towns and 

Wak Qatun-i 

(In the) 6th Katun 
(In the) six Katun 



The original text has wek tsa hi. Brinton has wak tsa bi. 



134 MAYA TEXTS 

pas-ki-ob ka hawi u Maya qaba-ob. 

Brin.: they were destroyed and it was ended with Maya those called. 
Mar. : they were dispersed and they ceased Maya calling themselvci- 

Buluk Ahau u-qaba u-Qatun-U hau-ki 

Brin. : (It was the) 1 1th Ahau Katun. in which it ended 

Mar. : In the eleven Ahau Katun they ceased 

u-Maya qaba-ob. Maya winik-ob Christiano 

Brin. : with Mayas those called. The Maya men Christians 

Mar. : Maya calling themselves. Maya Indians Christians 

u-qaba-ob tulakal u-kuts-kabal ooma San Pedro 

Brin. : were called all came under control of Saint Peter 

Mar. : they called (now) all those of the province, sons of Saint Peter 

yetel Rey ah-tepal-e. 

Brin.: and the king the rulers. 
Mar.: and the king his Majesty. 

Martinez Translation 

"El ciiarto ahau se denomina el katim en que nacieron los Pauah. 
Comenzaron los regentes de los anos. Trece periodos del katun; 
asi transcurrieron ; ^ asi fueron designados en su transcurso. El 
cuarto ahau se llama el katun en que llegaron: la gran bajada, la 
pequefia bajada, asi fueron designadas. Trece periodos del katun; 
asi transcurrieron; asi fueron designados, alii se radicaron; trece 
periodos duro su permanencia. En el katun cuarto ahau sucedio 
que hallaron Chichen Itza. Alii fue compuesto lo divino en ellos 
por sus senores. Cuatro tribus salieron llamadas 'cantzuculcabes.' 
La tribu de lado oriente se dirigio a Kin-colah-peten. Al sagrado 
norte, ascendiendo^ salio una tribu. Esta otra tribu salio de la 
entrada de Zuyuah al poniente. Una tribu salio hacia el lugar de 
los cuatro cerros. La de los nueve cerros se llama la tierra de ellos. 
En el katun cuarto ahau sucedio que fueron llamados los cantzuciles, 
apellidados cantzuculcabes. Cuando llegaron fueron aceptados como 
senores de la tierra. Cuando llegaron a Chichen Itza, se llamaron 
Itzaes. Trece periodos del katun, asi transcurrieron y tuvo lugar 
la traicion de Hunac-Ceel. Y fueron abandonados sus pueblos, y 
fueron a los bosques desiertos a un lugar llamado Xuluc-mul. En 

1 It has already been noted that the translation given by Martinez when 
he is translating line by line differs in several places from the translation he 
gives as a whole. The latter is more free in several places. 



CHILAM BALAM DE CHUMAYEL 135 

el katun cuarto ahau tuvo lugar el llanto de los bienventurados. 
Trece periodos del katun transcurrieron, inclusive el perlodo de sus 
padecimientos. En el katun octavo ahau llegaron los llamados 
restos de los Itza: luego que llegaron se radicaron en Chakanputun. 
En el katun trece ahau f undaron el pueblo de Mayapan ; se llama- 
ron mayas. En el octavo ahau fueron abandonadas las poblaciones 
y se esparcieron por toda la region. En el sexto katun fueron dis- 
persos y dejaron de llamarse mayas. En el katun once ahau cesaron 
de llamarse mayas. Indios mayas cristianos se llaman hoy todos 
los de la provincia, hijos de San Pedro y de S. M., el Rey de 
Espana." 



PART III 

AN APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 
RELATING TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 



PART III 

AN APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 
RELATING TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

INTRODUCTION 

In the Bibliography (Part IV) there are Hsted over 700 different 
works, not including second editions, on or in the Maya language 
or referring to it in some way. It should be understood that the 
language in question is that dialect spoken in the peninsula of 
Yucatan and not the Maya linguistic stock which covers a far 
more extended area. 

The large number of books and manuscripts dating from the 
earliest days of the Conquest and continuing down to the present 
time indicates the interest taken in this field. 

This Appraisement of the works mentioned in the Bibliography, 
it is hoped, will serve as an aid to those who desire some idea of 
the relative value of the works listed under the various headings. 

HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 

Writers of the xvi, xvii, xviii Centuries. The history of 
early research in the Maya language centers around the names of 
nearly all the authors of the Church who were in Yucatan in the 
XVI, XVII, and xviii centuries. According to instructions from the 
Holy See each priest was to learn the language of the country and 
was to teach and to preach to the natives in their own languages.^ 
The priests saw at once that a phonetic transcription of the lan- 
guages was necessary. They accomplished this with no small suc- 
cess so that books are found written in the native languages but 
with Spanish characters soon after the appearance of the first 
white men. In fact, the first books printed in America were trans- 

1 See Gomez de Parada, 1722. The titles of all books referred to by author 
and date are given in full in Part iv. 

139 



140 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

lations of the Catechism and sermons in the Nahuatl language of 
Mexico. 

Landa (1864, p. 94), the second Bishop of Yucatan,^ writing be- 
tween 1561 and 1566, states that priests were sent to Yucatan from 
Guatemala and from Mexico and that they established themselves 
at Campeche, founded in 1541, and at Merida, founded one year 
later, under the protection of the Adelantado and of his son, both 
called Francisco de Montejo. A monastery was built at Merida 
and the priests occupied themselves with learning the Maya 
language which was difficult. Juan de Herrera was probably the 
first teacher of Maya written in the Spanish characters .^ 

Villalpando is the first Maya scholar as well as the first author 
of works in Maya. Landa writes ^^El que mas supo fue fray Luis de 
Villalpando que comengo a saberla por senas y pedrezuelas y la reduxo 
a alguna manera de arte y escrivio una doctrina Christiana de aquella 
lengua.'" ^ 

Starting with Villalpando, ''el proto-linguista Maya," ■* there is a 
constant succession of priests, both Spanish and native born, who 

1 Carrillo y Ancona (1892-95, p. 318) writes in this connection, "El Illmo 
Sr. Landa es en realidad el quinto Obispo de Yucatan, y si suele contdrse le 
como segundo, es solo con respecto a la segunda epoca de la historia de esta 
Diocesis." 

2 Cogolludo (1688, lib. v, cap. v) writes in this connection, " Fray luan de 
Herrera, aunque Lego, era muy habil, sahia escribir bien, cantar canto llano, y 
organo, y aprendiendo la lengua, se ocupaba en ensenar la Doctrina Cristiana a los 
Indios, y en especial a los ninos. Para poder mejor lograr su deseo en estos exer- 
cicios, puso forma de Escuela, donde acudian todos los muchachos, dandolos sus 
padres con mucho gusto y ooluntad, aprehendian las Oradones, y a muchos ensenb 
a leer, escribir, y cantar J" 

3 Garcia Cubas (1888-91, v. 1, p. xv) speaks of Villalpando in the following 
words: "En 1546 llegaron directamente de Espana a la peninsula algunos religi- 
osas franciscanos con el P. Fr. Luis de Villalpando, a fin de afianzar la conquista 
por medio de la persuasiva y pacifica predicacion evangelica." 

Lizana (1633, ed. 1893, p. 47 ob.) writes in describing Villalpando, "A lo qual 
le ayudaban con gran cuidado sus companeros Fray MeJchor de Benavente, y Fray 
Angel Maldonado, que eran Sacerdotes, y Fray Juan de Herrera Lego de la Pio- 
vincia de los Angeles ensenaba la doctrina Christiana a los Indios, y en particular 
a los ninos, poniendoles escuela, y ensenandoles a leer, escribir, y cantar canto 
llano, y organo, que todo esto sabia el santo baron Lego, Fr. Jxian, aunque su 
' estado era de Lego, y con tan santos, y solic'Aos trabajadores, etc." 

^ Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 148) writes, " Villalpando, pues, debia 
ser y fue en realidad, como vamos d ver, el proto-lingiiista maya, esto es, el que 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 141 

devoted themselves to the study of the Maya language, writing 
grammars, collecting vocabularies, and translating the Doctrina 
into Maya in addition to writing sermons in the native language.- 

After Villalpando the first author of importance is Bishop Diego 
de Landa whose work entitled Relacion de las cosas de Yucata7i, 
written between 1561 and 1566, has contributed more to Maya 
research than any other single book. From this a start was made 
in deciphering the Maya hieroglyphic writing. Little is known 
regarding the linguistic work of Landa. He was probably the first 
to open a school for teaching Maya to the priests in the Monaster^'- 
of San Antonio at Izamal. Cogolludo (1688, lib. v, cap. xiv) writes 
"El que mas presto, y con mayor perfeccion la supo, fue el hendito 
Padre Fr. Diego de Landa, de quien se dize {no sin admiracion) que 
a pocos dias la hablada, y predicaba, como si fuera su lengua nativa." 

Solana, who was in Yucatan from 1560 to his death in 1600, is 
the author of the first dictionary (1580) which has come down to 
us. Ciudad Real, who died in 1617, is famous for his Gran Calepino 
in six volumes on which he was at work for 40 j'ears. 

Caspar Antonio Xiu, Sanchez de Aguilar and Carlos Mena are 
some of the natives of Yucatan who are authors of works in the 
Maya language.^ 

aparece el primero al f rente de los que estudian el idioma yucateco, y at /rente del 
catdlogo de los escritores que cuenia la civilizacion en este mismo idioma." 

Torquemada, cited by Cogolludo (1688, lib. vi., cap. xii) writes "Quepor 
ser {el P. Villalpando) el primero que supo la lengua destos naturales, y que 
la predicb con exemplo de essencial Religioso, es digno de eterna memoria." 

The importance of Villalpando is shown by the fact that he is the only 
author on Maya mentioned by Sobron (1875). 

1 For excellent accounts of these authorities and their work, see Carrillo y 
Ancona (1870; ed. 1872). 

- Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 167-168) gives an interesting ac- 
count of another author of about this time. He writes, "El celebre Fr. Ber- 
nardino de Valladolid . . . vino a Yucatan siendo aun mas joven, por el ano de 
1634, y su aficion al estudio de la lengua maya era como un delirio, una verdadera 
pasion. Alia por los anos de 1641 o 1642, se celebraron unas funciones liter arias 
6 actos en el convento mayor de San Francisco de esta ciudad de Merida, pues 
siguiendo el uso laudable de las universidades y colegios de Europa, ya de algunos 
anos atras acostumbraba celebrarse aquellas funciones en Yucatan en las cdtedras 
de los PP. franciscanos. Por aquella ocasion, pues, Fr. Bernardino, ya tan dis- 
tinguido y profunda escolar, como perfecto gramdtico y orador del idioma indigena 
de su nueva patria, con anuencia del superior de la orden, el R. P. Fr. Antonio 
Ramirez; y del profesor de lengua yv^ateca, el P. Fr. Diego Perez, de Merida, 



142 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Padres Coronel, San Buenaventura and Beltran de Santa Rosa 
should be mentioned for their excellent work on the Maya gram- 
mar.i Notice should also be made of the unknown authors of the 
Motul and San Francisco dictionaries. The work of this early 
time has hardly been equalled either in quantity or, in some re- 
spects, we may add, in quality. 

One other writer of these early centuries deserves special men- 
tion, Andres de Avendano. He is the author of a most important 
Relacion (1696) which is fortunatel}^ extant. The list of his linguis- 
tic works is a long one. These have all disappeared. I pass over 
the names of many others of the early writers on Maya subjects 
whose works are listed in the Bibliography. Mention is made 
of these early efforts under the discussion of the Maya grammars, 
vocabularies, sermons, the Catechism, etc. A glance at the list of 
works which are now known only by name (p. 151) shows the 
fertility of Maya research in the xvi, xvii, and xviii centuries. 

There follows a note on the most important modern authors in 
the field of Maya linguistics with a short account of their work. A 
detailed list of their manuscripts and books will be found in the 
Bibliography. 

Padre Joaquin Ruz. He was born in Merida in 1785 and died 
in 1855. He was the first modern author of works on Maya. He 
was a Franciscan and the most fertile writer on Maya subjects. 

concibio y ejecuto el pensamiento feliz de sostener un acto literario en lengua maya, 
realzando asi el grande merito que en ella con su continuo estudio habia encontrado. 
Ademas, al par de las tests literario-teologicas que sostuvo el celebre actuante, puso 
una muy notable para la filologia, reducida a proponer: que el languaje 6 texto 
biblico podia vertirse en toda su exactitud caracteristica al idioma maya, de modo 
que los lugares dificiles de las Sagradas Escrituras podian declararse a la letra en 
esta lengua. 

Al principiar una funcion tan extraordinaria y notable como esta, y a que en 
pos de los honibres de letrasfue atraida una gran multitud, asi por la singularidad 
del caso, como por la facilidad de su inteligencia, pues el idioma maya es vulgar 
entie todas las clases sociales del pais, Fr. Bernardino se presenta con las enter eza 
y la modestia de un verdadero sabio, y pronuncia un discurso brillante y solido 
{ildstima que no se hubiese conservadol) original, lleno de propiedad y belleza, en 
idioma yucateco. 

Las replicas, las soluciones, la conferencia toda, fue en el mismo idioma, que- 
dando todos los concurrentes llenos de complacencia y admiracion." 

1 The relative merit of their works has been discussed exhaustively in Part I 
(p. 9).- 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 143 

Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 172-179) and Sosa (1884, p. 
942-948) give short accounts of his Hfc. The former, quoted also by 
Sosa (p. 944), most truthfully expresses the number of the works 
by Ruz when he writes, "Ninguno de los escritores de la lengua maya 
se presenta con tan considerable numero de volumenes, debidos a su 
incansable y sdbia pluma, como el R. P. Fr. Joaquin Ruz, que.hizo 
verdaderamente sudor la prensa con la edicion de sus obras en el 
primer tercio del sigh actual, y precisamente cuando era para el pais 
una cosa rara la publicacion de un libro." 

The writings of Ruz are of little value from the standpoint of 
the study of Maya linguistics. He did his best to revise the 
language so that it conformed as far as possible with Latin stand- 
ards. Brint(^ (1900, p. 212) writes in this connection, "His style 
has however been severely criticized by almost all competent 
scholars as impressing on the native language grammatical forms, 
terms of expression, and compounds, foreign to its history and 
character. Ruz was well aware he was making these innovations, 
but claimed they were called for to elevate and develop the powers 
of the Maya." 

Juan Pig Perez. He was born in Merida in 1798 and died in 
1859. He was the first modern Maya scholar. Carrillo y Ancona 
(1870; ed. 1872, p. 140-145, 179-186), Carrillo Suaste (1875), 
Ancona (1877), Sosa (1884, p. 803-806), and Martinez Alomia 
(1906, p. 142-146) are among those giving his biography. Berendt 
(1871a) describes his work in great detail. He was selected as the 
Maya interpreter to the Secretary of State at Merida. The suc- 
cessful fulfillment of the duties of this office shows his ability to use 
the Maya language and the position gave him access to much Maya 
material. Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 1 17) writes, "I had been advised 
that this gentleman (Perez) was the best Maya scholar in Yucatan, 
and that he was distinguished in the same degree for the investi- 
gation and study of all matters tending to elucidate the history 
of the ancient Indians. His attention was turned in this direction 
by the circumstance of holding an office in the department of 
state, in which old documents in the Maya language were con- 
stantly passing under his eyes. Fortunately for the interests of 
science and his own studious tastes, on account of some political 
disgust he withdrew from public life, and, during two years of 



144 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

retirement, devoted himself to the study of the ancient chronology 
of Yucatan." 

Perez realized the importance of preserving material on the 
Maya language which was fast disappearing. He made a collection 
of original documents in Maya and copies of various manuscripts 
which he did not personally possess. This collection was copied 
in great part by Berendt and these copies furnished the foundation 
for the Berendt Collection. The importance of the Books of 
Chilam Balam was very early recognized by Perez. The most 
important parts of his collection were included in a volume en- 
titled "Chilam Balam" (Berendt, 1868, in B. L. C. No. 49) ' and 
another called by Carrillo y Ancona, "Codice Perez" (Perez, 2, 
copy in B. L. C. No. 50) .^ The contents of this volun^ are treated 
fully by Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 140-145). 

There is another document more properly called the "Codex 
Perez " (Perez, 1842). This is the famous manuscript given by 
Perez to Stephens which formed a part of the Chilam Balam de 

' The letters B. L. C. refer to the Berendt Linguistic Collection in the library 
of the University Museum, Philadelphia. The number refers to the entry in 
Brinton's Catalogue of this collection. See Brinton, 1900. 

2 This Codice Perez has the following Advertencia, written by Carrillo y 
Ancona and republished by him in his 1870; ed. 1872, p. 140-141: "Esias 
apunfaciones son del Sr. D. Juan Pio Perez. Las iomaba 6 extraciaba de los 
7nanuscrifos que solia hallar en poder de los indios, y elfin principal que con ellas 
se proponia era hacer un caudal suficiente de noticias para escribir sobre el Calen- 
dario yucafeco. Es, pties, niuy preciosa esta coleccion, pues no solo revela mucho 
de lo que puede apetecerse sobre el conipufo del tiempo, usado par los antiguos 
yucatecos, sino que servird tambien para tesfificar la existencia de muchas obras 
manuscritas de autores indios, que se han ido perdiendo; pero cuya memoria 
conservaremos en conjunto en este volumcn, ddndole el nombre general de ^Codice 
Perez,' para perpetuar tambien asl el nombre del ilustre yucateco moderno a quien 
se lo debemos. El ' Codice Perez ' sera, pues, siempre un importante monumenio 
bibliogrdfico, de gran trascendencia para la historia, de valor inestimable para los 
yucatecos, y, por gran fortuna nuestra, una de los mas ricos tesoros de nuestro 
gabinete particidar. — C C." 

Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 179) writes: "Debemos a la pluma del 
Sr. Perez las siguientes obras: I. 'Opusculos varios 6 notas a las copias y traduc- 
ciones del yucateco al espanol, y del espanol al yucateco, observaciones y apunta- 
ciones sobre diferentes materias, correspondientes a la historia y lengua de Yucatan, 
esparcida en fragmentos en diferentes manos y parses. Mss. ineditos.' He adds 
that the first part of this collection is the Codex Perez. The other part of the 
collection is undoubtedly contained in the several works in manuscript re- 
corded in the Bibliography. 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 145 

Mani, and is described at length in another place (p. 184). This 
manuscript made possible the first attempts to synchronize Maya 
and Christian chronology. His Cronologia Antigua (Perez, 1843) 
has not contributed greatly to the knowledge of the hieroglyphic 
writing as he made a grave mistake in the interpretation of the 
length of one of the Maya time periods. Two printed dictionaries 
bear his name in addition to several important manuscripts not 
already mentioned, copies of many of which are in the Berendt 
Linguistic Collection. 

Fletcher, Henderson, Kingdon. These three Protestant 
missionaries were in British Honduras in the second quarter of the 
last century. There is little that is known regarding the details 
of their linguistic work and there is, as a consequence, some con- 
fusion regarding the authorship of certain books.^ Richard Fletcher 
was a Methodist missionary stationed at Corozal and he wrote a 
catechism in Maya (1865a) for his denomination and a brief 
series of prayers (1865). The Maya language used by these three 
Protestant missionaries is very corrupt. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; 
ed. 1872, p. 191) writes, "Fletcher se ha apropiado no mas el maya 
corrompido de hispanisnio, 6 esa hahla amestizada que usa el ultimo 
vulgo del pais, y que no sahemos si llamar mejor un castellano bdrbaro 
6 un maya tristemente degenerado." 

Alexander Henderson, a Baptist missionary, came to Belize in 
1834. John Kingdon came to BeHze in 1845 after having served 
for thirteen years as a missionary in Jamaica. There was con- 
stant trouble between these two workers, Kingdon being the more 
to blame if one is to believe the account of Crowe (1850), another 
missionary in this field. There are vague notices in this book of 
the linguistic work of the mission. It would seem as if Henderson 
devoted most of his time during the first years in this field to work 
on the Mosquito language. Kingdon (1847) translated the gram- 
mar of Ruz and it was he who seems to have been the more ener- 
getic in translating portions of the scriptures into Maya. Crowe 
(1850, p. 493) writes, "Before the close of 1849, Mr. Kingdon had 
purchased a piece of plantation land on the banks of the Old River 



1 Pilling (1885, p. 258) furnishes an interesting letter from Carrillo y Ancona 
regarding the authorship of various works ascribed to Henderson which were 
really written by Fletcher. 



146 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

. . . and thus founded his fifth missionary station, since his arrival 
four years before. The spot chosen was about twenty miles from 
Belize, in a very thinly-peopled neighborhood, where his studies 
and labours in translating Maya would be but little interrupted." 
The Baptists abandoned their mission in British Honduras in 
1850. Henderson evidently stayed on in the country as his Maia 
Primer was published in 1852 and he left in manuscript six vo- 
lumes of a dictionary of the dialect of Maya spoken in Bacalar 
(Henderson 1859-66). 

Brasseur de Bourbourg. He was born near Dunkirk in 1814 
and died in 1874. He should be remembered not for what he wrote 
himself but for the manuscripts which he published. He became 
interested in the Maya field and visited Yucatan in 1865. Carrillo 
y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 193-195) and Martinez Alomia (1906, 
p. 172-175) give short biographies. Mitre (1909-11, v. 1, p. 19-24) 
sums up his work. The introduction to the Bibliography of Bras- 
seur de Bourbourg (1871, p. vii-xlvii) under the title Coup d'oeil sur 
les etudes americaines dans leurs rapports avec les etudes classiques 
serves to show his method of deductions and his fantastic theories. 

The importance of the work of Brasseur de Bourbourg from the 
standpoint of Maya studies is his publication of the Codex Troano 
(1869-70) and his finding and publishing the manuscript of Landa 
(1864). In addition to this he published practically the whole of 
the grammar of San Buenaventura (1869-70, v. 2, p. 1-99). His 
vocabularies are of no value as will be pointed out later. Berendt 
(7, in B. L. C. No. 181, fol. 62) has a section marked "Brasseuriana- 
Troano-Landa " which contains a good criticism of the work of 
Brasseur de Bourbourg. 

Carl Hermann Berendt. He was born in Danzig in 1817 and 
died in Coban, Guatemala, in 1878. He was undoubtedly the 
greatest scholar of the Maya language although the list of his actual 
publications is a short one. His biography is given by Brinton 
(1884-85: 1900, p. 204, note). Berendt came to New York in 1851. 
He went almost immediately to Central America and, with the ex- 
ception of occasional visits to the United States, remained in Mex- 
ico and Central America until he died in 1878. He made several 
visits to Yucatan, copying manuscripts and studying the language. 
He visited all the noted libraries of Middle America collecting 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 147 

material on the Maj'a language. His monument is the Berendt 
Linguistic Collection of manuscripts and books in the library of 
the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Brinton 
(1900) who purchased this collection and presented it to the Mu- 
seum has made a catalogue. As already pointed out, the founda- 
tion of this library on the Maya side was the copies made by 
Berendt of the Pio Perez collection the originals of which have 
now been scattered. L^p to the time when Mr. Gates began his 
photographic reproductions every student of Maya linguistics was 
absolutely dependent upon this Berendt material. 

Berendt's copy of the Motul dictionary with emendations, addi- 
tions and comparisons with other vocabularies is a monumental 
work in itself. He brought together for the first time copies of 
practically everything then known on the Maya languages. His 
Lengua Maya Mtscelanea (Berendt, 1868d, 3 v. in B. L. C. Nos. 
42, 43, 44); and his scrap books (Berendt, 5, 6, 7 in B. L. C. Nos. 
179, 180, 181) contain a large mass of important material on the 
Maya language.^ 

Bishop Crescencio Carrillo y Ancona. He was born at 
Izamal, Yucatan in 1837 and died in Merida in 1897. He was the 
friend of Pio Perez and kept alive the Perez tradition regarding the 
importance of Maya studies. Carrillo Suaste (1875, p. xi-xx), Sosa 
(1873: 1884, p. 215), Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 237-244), Rivero 
Figueroa (1918), and Anon 1897a, present biographical notes. The 
most complete list of his works is published by Rivero Figueroa and 
Canton Rosado (1918, p. 65-78). Carrillo became the thirty-sixth 
bishop of Yucatan in 1887. His interest in the early history of the 
country was great. He founded the archaeological museum at 
Merida and also started several different literary periodicals. His 
most important work was on the historical rather than on the lin- 
guistic side. Special attention should be called to his Disertacion 
sobre la historia de la lengua Maya 6 Yucateca (1870; ed. 1872) and 
to his main work on the history of the bishops of Yucatan (1892- 
1895). He was the editor of El Repetorio Pintoresco (1863). 

1 Bowditch (1908, 1908a) and Schuller (1) collated several of the manuscripts 
in this Berendt Collection. Gates reproduced the Bowditch notes and several 
of those taken by Schuller. Various unidentified articles should be noted 
(Berendt 9) together with his copies of various documents of a religious nature 
(Berendt 1868a jn B. L. C. Nos. 46, 47). 



148 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Daniel Garrison Brinton. He was born at Thornbury, 
Pennsylvania, in 1837, and died in Philadelphia in 1899. He was 
a worthy successor to Berendt. His field of activity was broader 
than that of Berendt. His great interest in Maya studies caused 
him to purchase the Berendt Collection and later he presented it 
to the University of Pennsylvania. Biographical notes are to be 
found in Brinton (19006), Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 245-249) and 
in several transactions of scientific societies of which he was a mem- 
ber. Brinton (1898) sums up his work on American languages. 
The chief work of Brinton (1882) on Maya linguistics was the 
publication of an Enghsh translation of the chronological parts of 
several of the Books of Chilam Balam, copies of which he obtained 
in the Berendt Collection. It is worthy of note that this work, 
although written almost forty years ago, still remains the most ex- 
tensive translation from the Maya ever undertaken at one time. 

William Gates. Mr. Gates of Point Loma, California, is a 
Maya scholar to whom all students of Maya hnguistics owe a deep 
debt of gratitude. An indefatigable energy, great acumen, and a 
knowledge of the Middle American field have enabled Mr. Gates 
to gather together the largest collection of documents on the Maya 
linguistic stock ever assembled in one place. Moreover, not being 
satisfied to possess" this remarkable collection he desired copies of 
all available documents on the Maya field owned by hbraries and 
by individuals. With only a few exceptions.he now possesses either 
the original manuscript or the photographic reproduction of all 
the known documents on the Maya stock, as well as many others 
on the languages of Southern and Central Mexico. Furthermore, 
he possesses the only known copies of several printed works on this 
field. Mr. Gates has made duplicate sets of many of his photo- 
graphs and he has allowed Mr. Charles P. Bowditch to purchase a 
set of these. Mr. Bowditch has very generously presented them 
to the Peabody Museum. The Gates Collection stands, therefore, 
in the first place. 

His photographic reproductions covering the field included in the 
scope of the present work are mentioned in the Bibliography. ^ For 



1 It should be noted that the bibliographical data on manuscripts pho- 
tographed by Gates have been taken in general from the reproductions rather 
than from the original manuscripts themselves. Blank pages in the manu- 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 149 

convenience a list of them is included here. First place should be 
given to the Motul and San Francisco dictionaries without which 
no important work in translation can be done. Anon 5 and 26 
are also vocabularies. Next come the unique imprint of the Coro- 
nel grammar (1620) and the first editions of the grammars of San 
Buenaventura (1684) and of Beltran (1746) together with the 
grammars of Ruz (1844) and Kingdon (1847). 

Second place in point of importance should be given to the re- 
productions of the originals of the Chilam Balam de Calkini, Kaua, 
Nah, Tekax, and Tizimin and of copies of the Chilam Balam de 
Calkini, Chumayel, Ixil, Kaua, and Tizimin together with the copy 
of the Cronica de Chicxulub. The Bowditch notes on Berendt 1868, 
the Chicxulub, the Mani, and Oxkutzcab manuscripts with the 
Prophecies, and the Schuller notes on Berendt 1868c and the Mani 
manuscript come next. The various medical portions of the Books 
of Chilam Balam should be mentioned, the Judio de Sotuta and 
Anon, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 19 (Berendt copy). The Ritual of the 
Bacabs comes here. 

The Avendano manuscript stands alone in importance. The 
secular manuscripts are as follows: Titulos de Ebtun, Libro de 
Cacalchen, the Pat Letters, Documentos de Ticul, the Xiu Chroni- 
cles, Anon 2 and Anon 8. Finally we also have Gates reproduc- 
tions of the following religious works : — the Doctrinas of Coronel 
(1620a), Beltran (1740; ed. 1816), Ruz (1822, 1849, 1851), Fletcher 
(1865a), Nolasco de los Reyes, and Anon (1803, Berendt copy, 7, 
20, 23), together with the sermons of Coronel (16206), Dominguez 
y Argaiz, Carvajal (1, Berendt copy), Acosta, Vales, Vela, Ora- 
ciones de Teabo, and Anon (21 and 22, Berendt copy). 

Juan Martinez Hernandez. He was born in Merida in 1866 
and educated at Georgetown University, District of Columbia, as 
a lawyer. He is a descendant of the Adelantado, Don Francisco de 
Montejo. He has an intimate knowledge of the Maya language as 
is shown by the list of his published and unpublished works in the 
Bibliography. He is one of a few gentlemen in Merida who now 
interest themselves in the study of the language of the natives. 

scripts have not generally been reproduced so that there may be differences 
in certain cases in the number of pages in the reproduction and in the manu- 
script itself. 



150 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

It is only necessary to note the number of bibliographies men- 
tioned in the following pages to realize the great interest taken 
in the subject of American languages and, more especially, the 
languages of Middle America. Little attempt has been made to 
list the large number of bibliographies which cover the general 
field of history and travel, although many of these books also con- 
tain references to works on the Maya linguistic stock. No bibliog- 
raphy is included here which does not contain books on the Maya 
language of Yucatan. 

Bibliography of Bibliographies. The best list of the bib- 
liographies of Mexico and Central America is that contained in 
Mitre (1909-11, v. 1, p. 5-70). He discusses at some length most 
of the important lists of books from this region. Vinaza (1892, 
p. xix-xxv) and the Bulletin of the New York Public Library 
(1909, p. 622-624, 810-811) also give very good hsts of bibhogra- 
phies on Middle America. Lejeal (1902, p. 5-7) and Lehmann 
(1907) cover the same ground in a less extensive way. 

Missing Authorities. There is a long list of works on the 
Maya language references to which are made in the early histories 
but many of these books or manuscripts have disappeared in the 
course of time. It is to be hoped that some of these missing 
authorities will be found just as the long lost grammar of Coronel 
(1620) turned up in Mexico in 1912. 

Landa who wrote his Relacidn de las Cosas de Yucatan (1864) 
sometime between 1561 and 1566 mentions Villalpando and his 
work. No books of this author have survived. Landa himself 
wrote a grammar and possibly a Doctrina which are lost. Other 
references occur in several of the early works to books, copies of 
which are now unknown. Leon Pinelo (1629) and Nicolas Antonio 
(1672) list many works which have vanished. Lizana (1633) and 
Cogolludo (1688, p. 439-440) refer in their histories to several 
writers whose manuscripts have disappeared. Cogolludo is es- 
pecially full on this point. Clavigero (1780-81) also gives a short 
bibliography several entries of which are unknown at the present 
time. Later notices of missing authorities are usually taken from 
the hsts already mentioned. These lost works are given more or 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 151 

less fully in the bibliographies of Eguiara (1755), Beristain y Souza 
(1816-21), Squier (1861), Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872), 
Civezza (1879), CarrDlo y Ancona (1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 123-127), 
Sanchez (1886), and Medina (1907-12). A separate list of these 
missing authorities is given in El Registro Yucateco (1845, p. 358), 
an almost complete list by Berendt (1868b), and shorter Usts by 
Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. i-iv), Vinaza (1892, 
p. 241 et seq.), Brinton (1897), and Juan Molina (1904-13, v. 1, 

p. 327-330). 

In the following list of the missing authorities I have tried to ar- 
range the authors in as near a chronological order as possible. The 
Berendt manuscript (18686) gives, in several instances, dates for 
the various manuscripts which I have not been able to find in any 
other authority. This list compiled from the above sources is as 
follows : 

List of Missing Authorities 

XVI Century. 

Villalpando: circa 1546. 

(1) Arte.i 

(2) Doctrina. 

1571 Vocabulario, missing (?). 

Landa: in Yucatan, 1549-1579. 

(1) Arte (possibly a revised edition of Villalpando (1). 

(2) Doctrina (?). 

Solana: in Yucatan 1560-1600. 

(1) Sermones. 

(2) Noticias sagradas. 

(3) Apuntaciones sobre las antigDedades (?). 

(4) Estudios historicos. 

(5) Apuntes de las santas escrituras. 

(6) Apuntamientos historicos. 

Xiu: circa 1593. 

1582 Relacion sobre las costumbres. 
(1) Vocabulario. 



1 The number in front of each work refers to the corresponding number in 
the Bibhography under the author. 



152 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

CiudadReal: died, 1617. 

(1) Gran calepino (Motul dictionary ?). 

(2) Diccionario (?). 

(3) Tratado curioso. 

(4) Sermones. 

Torralva: in Yucatan, 1573-1624. 

(1) Sermones. 
Najera, Caspar de: in Yucatan, circa 1579. 

(1) Relacion de las antiguedades de Yucatan. 

Anon.i 

(28) Vocabulario grande. 

(30) Un librillo escrito ... en el idioma de los Indios. 

XVII Century. 

Sanchez de Aguilar. 

(1) Catecismo, 1602 (Berendt). 

Acevedo: in Yucatan, 1592-1624. 

(1) Gramatica. 

(2) Instrucciones catequisticas. 

Cuartas: died, 1610. 
(1) Arte. 

Coronel: in Yucatan, 1590-1651. 

(1) Vocabulario. 

(2) Doctrina. 

(3) Confesionario. 

Rincon: died, 1647. 

(1) Sermones. 
Valladolid: in Yucatan, 1617-52. 

(1) Sacramentos. 

(2) Dioscorides. 

(3) Vocabulario (?). 

Mena: died, 1633. 
(1) Sermones. 

Cardenas: 
1639 Relacion. 

^ Clavigero gives the name of Jose Dominguez as an author of Maya 
works. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 153 

Vidales: wrote, 1644-48. 

(1) Vocabulario. 

(2) Sintaxis. 

(3) Florilegia medicinal. 
Rivas Gastelu. 

(1) Gramatica (Lacandone), 1685 (Berendt). 
San Buenaventura. 

(1) Diccionario, 1695 (Berendt). 

XVIII Century. 

Avendano: in Yucatan, 1705. 1750 (Berendt). 

(1) Arte. 

(2) Diccionario. 

(3) Diccionario abreviado. 

(4) Diccionario botanico. 

(5) Diccionario de nombres de personas. 

(6) Explicacion de varies vaticinios. 

XIX Century. 
Carvajal. 

(2) Collection of proverbs. 
Henderson, circa 1860. 

(1) Book of Genesis in Maya. 

(2) Psalms in ]\Iaya. 

(3) English translation of Beltran (1746), ? 
Kingdon, circa 1860. 

(1) English translation of Beltran (1746), ? 

(2) Dictionary. 

Early History and Early Bibliography. No attempt has 
been made to exhaust the references to books and manuscripts 
mentioned in the early histories, such as those of Martjrr (1516), 
Mendieta (1870), written about 1590, Herrera (1601-15), Gregorio 
Garcia (1607), Torquemada (1613), Remesal (1620), Cogolludo 
(1688), Villagutierre (1701), Boturini (1746), and other similar 
works. The earliest general bibliographies which mention books on 
the Maya language are those of Leon Pinelo (1629; 2d ed. by Barcia, 
1737-38) and Nicolas Antonio (1672 and 1696), the former a sequel 
of the latter although published first. Eguiara (1755) is the first 
to give a list composed solely of the books on Latin America. This 



154 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

work was never completed, only the first volume, through C, being 
printed. Four note-books containing other parts of the manuscript 
are said to be in the library of the Cathedral of Mexico City.^ 

The manuscript bibliography of Alcedo (1807) is especially good 
for biographical details and he gives his opinion of the early 
bibliographies.^ Harrisse (1866, p. xiii-xlii) also gives a very good 
discussion of the important bibliographies. 

Clavigero (1780-81; ed. 1826, v. 2, p. 396) gives a Catdlogo de 
algunos autores Europeos y criollos que han escrito sohre la doctrina 
y moral cristianas en las lenguas de Anahuac. This is probably the 
first attempt to bring together in one place a list of the writings on 
Mexican linguistics. 

Hervas y Panduro (1784; ed. 1800-05, v. 1, p. 289-290) and 
Vater (1815) are more ambitious attempts at listing hnguistic 
works covering larger areas. 

General and American Bibliography. There is a long list 
of general bibliographies many of them specializing on books 
on America. It is only necessary to give a few of these which 
contain references to works on Maya linguistics. Rich (1835), 
Ternaux-Compans (1837), Leclerc (1867 and 1878), Sabin (1868- 
92), Andrade, (1869; Languages, p. 362-368), Quaritch (1873 et 
seq.), Field (1873, 1875), Civezza (1879), Murphy (1884) and 
Menendez y Pelayo (1888) are a few of the more important general 
bibliographies. 

1 Mitre, 1909-11, v. 1, p. 28-29, probably from Boletin de Sodedad Mexi- 
cana de Geografia y Esiadistica, v. 10, no. 2, p. 77. 

2 Harrisse (1866, p. xxiv) comments as follows on Alcedo's work, "This 
bulky compilation seems to be based entirely upon Pinelo-Barcia, with the 
addition of a few biographical notes, which are of interest only when referring 
to modern American authors. The titles are given in alphabetical order, 
abridged, and selected with very little discrimination." This is not a fair esti- 
mate of the work of Alcedo. The latter gives far more details than Barcia and 
the biographical notes are very full and refer to the early as well as to the later 
writers. In a few cases Alcedo is better than Beristain y Souza for biography. 
It is interesting to note that Alcedo (f. iv ob) comments as follows on Barcia, 
" Tan llcTW de errores en los nonibres y apellidos de los autores, en los titulos de 
las obras y en los anas y lugares que se imprimieron, que 6 ya juese por dejecta 
de los copiantes 6 del impresor apenas hay articulo sin yerro; por cuya razon es de 
poquisima utilidad, y no menece el titulo que tiene." It is evident that Alcedo 
did not have access to Cogolludo and therefore he failed to mention several of 
the early writers. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 155 

American Linguistics. Ludewig (1858; Maya, p. 102-103, 
226-227) is an excellent work on American linguistic research. 
Others are Icazbalceta (1866) and Platzmann (1876: 1903). Winsor 
(1889, V. 1, p. 427) has a bibliographical note on American lan- 
guages. The catalogues of Hiersemann (1891 et seq.) often con- 
tain important material on the Maya language. Special mention 
should be made of three works which come in this class. The first 
of these is the most exhaustive list contained in the proof-sheets of 
Pilling (1885), made in collaboration with librarians of the great 
collections of Americana. This work is indispensable for investiga- 
tions on American languages. 

The second of these is a bibliography of the Lenguas Indigenas 
de America by Viiiaza (1892). He has made use of many of the 
earlier lists and gives under most of the entries the various early 
references to the books in question. It is a most useful work. 

The third, and perhaps the most valuable general bibliography 
on American linguistics, is a Catdlogo Razonado by Mitre (1909- 
11, 1912). This contains full critical remarks on the different works 
and often quotes long passages from the various grammars. 

Stein (1897, p. 261-262) mentions a few of the bibliographies on 
American linguistics. 

Middle America. General Works. Of the older authori- 
ties the first place in this class should be given to the monumental 
work of Beristain y Souza (1816-21) with additions by Ramirez 
(1898). This is founded on the bibliography of Eguiara (1755), 
but it is a great improvement in arrangement and it is very much 
more complete. The biographical notes are especially valuable 
and are followed by many of the later authorities. Next in impor- 
tance come the great works of Medina (1898-1907, 1907-12). 
Next in point of time to Beristain y Souza come two sale cata- 
logues. Anon (1868) and Fischer (1869). The latter contains the 
Berendt books which were not included in those bought by Brinton. 
The bibliography of Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871; Maya, p. 169- 
172) is a very good one containing a list of many manuscripts as 
well as printed books. Pinart (1883) contains much the same ma- 
terial as that in the Brasseur de Bourbourg list as Pinart bought 
the greater part of the library of the latter. Ramirez (1880) is a 
well known work, more important for Mexico than for Central 



156 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

America however. Icazbalceta (1886) has a bibliography of xvi 
century books with additions by Leon (1902). Beauvois (1899) 
should be mentioned here. V. de P. Andrade (1899) has an essay 
on the books of the xvii century, Leon (1902-08) on those of the 
XVIII and Leon (1902a) again on those of the xix century. Lejeal 
(1902; Languages, p. 31-39) has a very good general bibliography 
of Middle America. Lehmann (1907) has slight material on the 
Maya. The Bulletin of the New York Public Library (1909) is a 
good general working list. The two catalogues of the library of 
Wilkinson (1914, 1915) include a large number of documents 
never before noted, together with several unique books. There is 
also a manuscript list of books by Wilkinson (1) . This bibliography 
is very disappointing as it contains practically no original material. 
Furthermore, it is far from complete. ]\Iedina serves as the main 
source of the work. The contents are noted in the Bibliography. 

The greater part of the rare material in the Bancroft Library at 
the University of California is included in the notes taken by 
Tozzer (1918). 

Middle America. Linguistics. Romero (1860) has a list of 
writers on jVIexican languages. The bibliography of Sanchez 
(1886) gives a few of the early writers on the Maya language. 
Leon (1905) covers the linguistic field superficially. 

Central America. General Works. Bandelier (1881) is 
especially good from the side of early histories. It is of httle im- 
portance, however, on the subject of languages. 

Central America. Linguistics. The Monograph of Squier 
(1861) is well known as an excellent second-hand bibliography. 
He uses the biographical material in Beristain y Souza and Har- 
risse has noted that the titles are taken from other notices of the 
books rather than from the books themselves.^ Haebler (1895; 
]\Iaya, p. 566-568) is to be especially recommended. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1859) gives a bibliography of the languages of Central 
America. 

1 Squier made use of the works of Beristain y Souza, Remesal, Vasquez, 
Cogolludo, Villagutierre, Juarros, etc., but he did not use Balbi, Hervas y 
Panduro, Gilii, Adekmg, Vater, and Buschmann as he presumed these were 
knowTi to investigators. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 157 

The Catalogue of the Berendt Linguistic Collection by Brinton 
(1900; Maya, p. 204-215) is probably the most valuable printed 
bibliography of the Maya linguistic stock. It contains material 
not to be found in any other work, especially as regards manu- 
scripts. Mention has been made in another place of this collec- 
tion (p. 147). 

Gates (2) has prepared a ^nding list of manuscripts and printed 
material on the languages of the Maya stock. He also has an excel- 
lent essay (Gates, 1915) on the unpublished material in the Maya 
dialects. StoU (1884, p. 73-78) contains a short list of books on the 
Maya family. 

Yucatan. General Works. No attempt is made here to 
touch upon any material on the ruins of Yucatan. It must not be 
forgotten also that all the books listed in the previous divisions 
have something in them on the Maya dialect. There are noted 
here only those books bearing on the language which are limited in 
their general contents to Yucatan. Castillo (1866) pubhshed only 
the first volume of an historical and biographical dictionary which 
has some good material on the language. ^ Berendt (7 in B. L. C. 
No. 181) has a fair bibliography of Yucatan in manuscript. Car- 
rillo y Ancona (1868, 1871, 1871a, 1878-82) gives bibliographical 
material on the ]Maya language. Sosa (1884) and especially Mar- 
tinez Alomia (1906) are biographical-bibliographical works of some 
importance. Menendez (1906) has a good list of writers on Yuca- 
tan. Saville (1921) also has a list of works on Yucatan. 

Yucatan. Maya Linguistics. Berendt (8 in B. L. C. No. 11) 
and de Rosny (1875; ed. 1904) have bibUographical notes limited 
to the Maya dialect. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872) should 
be mentioned here. Brinton (1882, p. 72-77) discusses the Maya 
grammars and dictionaries. Tozzer (1917, p. 184-186) gives a 
bibliography covering the Books of Chilam Balam. 

Biographical Works. Alcedo (1807), Beristain y Souza (1816- 
21), Castaio (1866), Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872), Sosa (1866: 
1884), and Martinez Alomia (1906) are excellent reference books 
on the biographies of writers on Maya linguistics. 

^ Reference should be made here to another work of Castillo (1861) which 
Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 138) considers "preciosa." 



158 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Sale Catalogues. References have been made to a few of the 
important sale catalogues containing books on Maya linguistics. 
No attempt has been made to exhaust this list. The following are 
noted in the bibliography: Anon (1868), Fischer (1869), J. M. 
Andrade (1869), Quaritch (1873 et seq.), Field (1875), Clarke 
(1878), Ramirez (1880), Maisonneuve (1881: 1897), Triibner 
(1882), Murphy (1884), Penafiel (188f), Chadenat (1889 et seq.), 
Hiersemann (1891 et seq.), Leon (1896), Platzmann (1903), Hamy 
(1909), and Wilkinson (1914; 1915). 

Periodicals. There is a long list of periodicals printed in Yuca- 
tan, principally in Merida and in Campeche. With few exceptions 
each has had a very short history. The newspaper. La Revista 
de Merida, founded in 1859, has been published continuously up 
to the present time with the exception of the years 1916, 1917. 
It often contains important articles on the Maya language. El 
Museo Yucateco (1841-42) was published in Campeche, only two 
volumes of which appeared. El Registro Yucateco (1845-49) only 
lasted for five years. This publication (1845, p. 233-235) gives a 
list of the various periodicals appearing in Yucatan from 1813 to 
1845. Medina (1904) and Molina (1904-13, v. 3, p. 574) also 
give lists. Few of these papers contain anything of interest on our 
subject. La Revista Yucateca (1849), El Semanario Yucateco 
(1878-82), and El Seminario Conciliar are names of other early 
serial publications. Martinez Alomia (1902) gives a list of the peri- 
odicals published in Campeche from 1813 to 1889. The Calendario 
de Espinosa, a modern publication, appearing annually, often con- 
tains short articles on the Maya language. 

CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES 

General. The monumental work of the Abbe Hervas y Pan- 
duro (1784; ed. 1800-05) is the first attempt at a classification and 
study of the languages of the world.^ Hervas (1784) treats of the 
classification of the languages and v. 1 of the 1800-05 edition con- 
siders the languages of America. There is a very brief notice of 
the Maya language (1800-05, v. 1, p. 289-290). 

1 For an excellent discussion of this work and the material used in its prep- 
aration, see Mitre 1909-11, v. 1, p. 116-122. 



CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES 159 

The Mithridates begun by Adelung (1806-17) and continued by 
Vater is the second great attempt to classify the languages of the 
world. The 3d volume, 2d part, treats of the languages of America. 
Neither this nor the work of Hervas y Panduro is of much present 
use. 

Middle America. The attempts to classify the languages of 
America have been many. These classifications are of interest to 
us only as they treat the languages of Middle America, especially 
those of the Maya stock and particularly those of the Maya dialect. 
No attempt has been made to list the numberless minor works 
such as Estadisticas, etc., printed in Mexico, which often give lists 
of languages spoken in the Republic or in the various states. ^ 

Juarros (1808; ed. 1857, v. 2, p. 35), Latham (1850, p. 410-411) 
and C. Malte-Brun (1862, p. 59) give imperfect lists of the Maya 
dialects. The Ministerio de Fomento (1854) and Siliceo (1857), 
Secretary of the Ministerio dp Fomento, Mexico, both publish brief 
accounts of the dialects of Maya. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1857) 
has an incomplete hst. Orozco y Berra (1864, esp. p. 56 and map) 
gives one of the best of the earUest classifications. Malte-Brun 
(1878, p. 19-20) republishes this with corrections. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1865, p. 127-129,) Bancroft (1874-76, v. 3, p. 571), 
Berendt (1878, map), Larrainzar (1875-78, v. 2, p. 407-409, map) 
arid Bastian (1878-89, v. 2, p. 343) all give more or less complete 
lists of the dialects of the Maya-Quiche stock. Pimentel (1876) 
gives a full list with an interesting arrangement of the dialects as 
branches of a tree. 

Stoll (1884, map, and 1886, p. 300-303) is one of the best writers 
on this subject. Cubas (1876, p. 105-112: 1884, p. 23) and Batres 
(1885) are less important. Brinton (1891) and Cubas (1888-91, 
V. 1, p. V, XV ; also v. 5, p. 473) are serviceable. Gerrodette (1891- 
92, map), Charencey (1894, p. 345-346), and Pefiafiel (1897), the 
latter arranged by states, are secondary in importance. Sapper 
1893: 1895a: 1897: 1905) ranks with Stoll as an authority. Leon 
(1900; ed. 1903, p. 282, map), Gatschet (1900), and Keane (1901; 
ed. 1911, V. 2, p. 22) have fairly complete hsts. Pefiafiel (1900, 
p. 92-97, 216—221, 340—343, 464^69) gives a census of people 

'•■ Two of the most important of these works are those of Regil and Peon 
(1852) and Baqueiro (1881) as they treat solely of Yucatan. 



160 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

speaking Maya and its various dialects. The work of Thomas 
(1902), amplified and corrected by Swanton, (Thomas and Swan- 
ton, 1911, map) stands at present as the best discussion of the 
different linguistic families of Middle America. Zayas (1908, p. 160- 
164) and Beuchat (1912, p. 405-406) give brief accounts of the 
different Maya dialects. Joyce (1914, p. 201-202) follows Thomas 
and Swanton in the main. Attention should be called to the work 
of Gates (1920), more especially to his map (p. 606). Wilkinson 
(1) has a tentative arrangement of the Maya dialects with their 
location. 

AFFINITIES 

It is not necessary to treat here the much debated question re- 
garding the possible affiliation between the Maya culture and that 
in other parts of the world. For bibliographical purposes it is well 
to record the most important discussions regarding the possible con- 
nection between the Maya language and that spoken in other parts 
of the world. It is hardly necessary to add that these treatises are 
of no scientific value. No attempt is made to discuss the possible 
affiliation of any features other than language. 

European Languages. The connection between Maya and 
several of the languages of the Indo-European and Semitic groups 
is discussed by Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. i-xlix).^ 
Douay (1900, p. 94) quotes Brasseur de Bourbourg. The work of 
LePlongeon, as described b}^ Salisbury (1877), and the writings of 
LePlongeon himself (1879: 1880: 1880a, 1881: 1881a: 1896) are 
interesting examples of other fantastic ideas regarding the connec- 
tion between the Maya language and those of the Old World. Car- 
rillo y Ancona (1880b; ed. 1883, p. 624-631) refutes the testimony 
of LePlongeon of a connection between Maya on the one hand and 
Greek and Egyptian on the other. Ober (1884, p. 102) quotes Le 
Plongeon regarding a Chaldean connection. Ancona (1877) com- 
pares some Maya words with Egyptian. Dusaert (1882) refutes 
Brasseur de Bourbourg.^ 

Oceanic and Asiatic Languages. A belief in a relationship 
between Maya and the languages of the Oceanic area is held by 

1 See reference to this in Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 63). 

- See also in this connection the list of comparative vobabularies on p. 293. 



DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE 161 

Thomas (1894), Tregear (1898), and Campbell (1898-99). Ken- 
nedy (1861, p. 13i)j thinks there is some affihation between Maya 
and Chinese or Japanese. Douay (1905) denies that there is any 
connection between Maya and Japanese. Books containing com- 
parative vocabularies of Maya and Chinese are discussed on p. 179. 

South American Languages. Douay (1) discusses the affilia- 
tion between the Maya vocabulary and that of Quechua.^ 

Antillian Languages. A connection between Maya and the 
languages of the Antilles was thought possible from very early 
times.- Oviedo (1535), quoted in turn by Vater-Adelung (1806-17) 
and Prichard (1843), thinks that Cuba and Yucatan were related 
linguistically. Bachiller (1883, chap. 5) states that Cuba was not 
populated from Yucatan but he compares Maya with the lan- 
guages of the Antilles. Douay (1894: 1900) believes that there 
are certain lexical similarities between Maya-Quiche and the lan- 
guage of Haiti. 

DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE 

Apart from the more detailed examination and description of 
the Maya language given in many of the grammars, there is often 
a short notice of the dialect in many of the early histories and in a 
large number of the later works. In the Coleccion de Documentos 
Ineditos (1898-1900, v. 11, 13) and in other collections of this 
sort brief reference is often made to the language. The O'Neil 
manuscript (1795) probably belongs here. Barton (1797, p. Ixxiii) 
quotes Clavigero and mentions the Maya dialect. F. H. A. von 
Humboldt (1811, v 2, p. 246), followed by J. B. Gordon (1820, 
p. 73), has a short statement including the fact that the language 
is guttural. Balbi (1826; ed. 1835, p. xxx), Temaux-Compans 
(1843), and Granado (1845, p. 167) give very brief notes on the 
language. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1855) gives a short description 
of the language and (1857-59, v. 1, p. 63) mentions the fact that 
the Maya is undoubtedly the mother of the T^zental of Chiapas. 

^ In this connection, he uses the Maya vocabularies of Brasseur de Bour- 
bourg (1869-70) and Charencey both of which are very imperfect. 

2 Peter MartjT in De Insulis nuper inventis writes " Quorum idioma si non 
idem, consanguineum tamen." 



162 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Jehan (1864, col. 881) describes the language. Bollaert (1870, 
p. 291) quotes Beltran regarding Maya diction and Hovelaque 
(1876, p. 107) classes Maya among the agglutinative languages. 

Orozco y Berra (1864, p. 155-159) presents almost the first 
good account of the language outside that of the grammars which 
are noted in another place. Garcia y Garcia (1865, p. Ixxv) is one 
of the many who states the ease with which Maya is learned by 
the Spanish-speaking population. Carrillo y Ancona (1865: 1866; 
ed. 1883, p. 555-561: 1878 82; ed. 1883, p. 101-123) presents his 
own ideas regarding the language and also quotes freely from the 
earlier authorities. J. G. Miiller (1855) has a very short note. Brin- 
ton (1871) has a description of the Maya stock in general. Ancona 
(1878-1905; ed. 1889, v. 1, p. 112-117) limits his observations 
to the language of Yucatan. Brinton (1881, p. 623: 1882a, p. 218, 
note) speaks of the figurative expressions it is possible to make 
in Maya. In Brinton (1885) the philosophical character of the 
Maya is described according to an unknown manuscript of von 
Humboldt. Palma y Palma (1901, p. 108-131) has a very interest- 
ing chapter on the richness of expression possible in Maya. 

The long description of Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, 
p. i-xlix) is practically worthless. Larrainzar (1875-78, v. 2, p. 407- 
409) and Rockstroh (1878, p. 1-13) give a general description of 
Maya. Malte-Bnin (1878) has a statement taken from Orozco 
y Berra (1864). Baeza {circa 1880) has a paper on the Maya lan- 
guage. Short accounts of the language also appear in Winsor (1889, 
V. 1, p. 427), Juan Molina (1896, p. 332-335), Spencer (1873-1910, 
div. ii, pt. lb, p. 51), Mendez (1898), Brinton (1900a, p. 207), and 
Lehmann (1907). Tozzer (1902-05) makes several general obser- 
vations on the language. Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 61-64) sum- 
marizes the description of the language taken from several sources. 
Hestermann (1915) has a few scattering observations on the 
language. 

GRAMMARS 

Carrillo y Ancona (1881; ed. 1883, p. 123), quoted by Brinton 
(1882, p. 72), states that thirteen grammars of the Maya language 
have been written. This number could be considerably increased 
at the present time. 

XVI Century. Mention has already been made of the early 
work of Villalpando (§ 1). He was the author of a grammar, ac- 



GRAMMARS 163 

cording to Landa (1863, p. 94), which was probably printed but no 
copy is now known. His dictionary, probably founded on the 
vocabulary contained in the grammar was printed in 1571. The 
grammar is supposed to have been perfected by Landa (§1)' and 
to have furnished some of the material for the grammar of Coronel 
(1620). 

XVII Century. It is probable that the first Maya grammar 
of this century was written by Acevedo (§ 1) ^ who came to Yuca- 
tan in 1592 and died at the end of the first quarter of the century.' 
Another grammar of about this time is that by Cuartas (§ 1). The 
earliest grammar now available is that of Coronel (1620),'' the 
teacher of Cogolludo. The only copy known is in the possession of 
Mr. Gates. As previously noted (p. 10), it undoubtedly furnished 
the foundation for the grammar of San Buenaventura. Other 
grammars of this century, all of which have disappeared, are those 
written by Vidales (§ 2) toward the end of the second quarter of 
the century ^ and one on the Lacandone dialect by Rivas Gastelu 
(§ 1), a native of Guatemala. 

San Buenaventura (1684; 2d ed 1888), a French Franciscan 
stationed in Merida, wrote the grammar which has been described 
elsewhere (p. 10) on or about 1675.^ This was published in 1684 

1 Cogolludo (1688, lib. vi, cap. i) writes, "Fr. Lorengo de Bienvenida, con no 
menos feliz despacho, que se presuniib de la solicitud de tan gran Religioso, y 
traxo una Mission de diez Religiosos, que le did el Rey para esta Provincia, y 
sdbiendo que avian llegado a desembarcar en el Puerto de Zilam, el R. Padre 
Custodio did orden at Padre Fr. Diego de Landa, que era Guardian de Merida, 
para que fuesse at Puerto, y los recibiesse, y llevandolos al Convento de Ytzrnal 
les leyesse el Arte de la lengua de estos naturales, que el avia perficionado, y que en 
sabiendole se fuesse a sii Convento de Merida." 

2 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 165) writes: "Vino con la cruz del 
misionero a la provincia de Yucatan, y entre sus muchos servicios y esclarecidas 
virtudes, la historia refiere su dedicacion particular al estudio del idioma yucateco, 
de que escribio un ^Manual 6 compendia elemental,' y una coma ' Misceldnea 
Maya,' 6 coleccion de escritos varios sobre este idioma y de Tratados morales 
escritos en el, procurando suplir con estos trabajos el defecto natural de su lengua." 

3 See Lizana (1633; ed. 1893, p. 102) for details of his work. 

* For a full discussion of the grammars of Coronel, San Buenaventura, and 
Beltran, see Part I, p. 9-14. 

5 Beristain y Souza (1816-21, v. 3, p. 276) states that he wrote from 1644 
to 1648. Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 124) places this writer among those who 
worked in the xvi Century. 

^ The Aprobacion del R. P. Fr. Juan de Torres is dated May 19, 1675. 



164 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

with a facsimile edition in 1888. Until a few years ago this was 
considered the first of the Maya grammars which had come down 
to us. With the appearance of the single copy of Coronel's work 
first place in point of time now belongs to that. It has been stated 
that San Buenaventura follows Coronel with great fidelity. It is 
quite evident that San Buenaventura's grammar, on the other 
hand, furnished the data for grammatical material on the Maya 
given by A von Humboldt ^ (1811, English ed. v. 2, p. 246) and he, 
in turn, was followed by Adelung (1806-17, v. 3, pt. 3, p. 16-23). 
Pimentel (1862-65, v. 2, p. 1-39; ed. 1875, v. 3, p. 105-138, 230- 
275) follows San Buenaventura. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, 
V. 2, p. 1-84) has printed the greater part of this grammar under a 
different arrangement and Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 64-70) has 
given a full outline of this grammar of San Buenaventura. Brj^ne 
(1885, V. 1, p. 191-193; ed. 1892, v. 1, p. 195-197) has some gram- 
matical notes after Brasseur de Bourbourg. 

XVIII Century. One of the grammars of this century is that 
of Avendano (§ 1) who held the title of Difinidor in Yucatan in 
1705.- This work has disappeared. 

Beltran (1746; 2d ed. 1859) and his famous grammar come in 
this century. As previously noted (p. 10), this grammar, by a 
native of Yucatan, seems by far the best of the early works on the 
Maya. Brasseur de Bourbourg is altogether too severe in his crit- 
icism of this grammar in comparison with that of San Buena- 
ventura. He writes (1871, p. 24), " II possedait parfaitement sa 
langue: mats il n'en comprit pas le genie comme son predecesseur , 
le pere Gabriel de Saint Bonaventure, auquel il emprunta, toutefois, 
une partie de son travail; aussi sa grammaire, diffuse et mal congue, 
manque-t-elle de lucidite." Seler (1887) is also inclined to favor San 
Buenaventura to Beltran.^ Beltran was a native of Yucatan and 

1 W. von Humboldt (1: 2) is the author of two manuscripts on the Maya 
grammar. 

2 For an excellent account of the missionary labors of this Franciscan, see 
his work (1696), translated by Mr. Charles P. Bowditch, and collated with 
other material by Means (1917). 

Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 125) places Avendaiio among the writers of the 
x\ii Century. Berendt dates these works of Avendano about 1750. 

^ Gates also regards Beltran's work as inferior to that of the two earlier 
writers whose grammars are extant. 



GRAMMARS 165 

a good Maya scholar. He taught Maya in Merida about 1740. 
His grammar was written in 1742 and printed in 1746 with an 
excellent reprint in 1859. 

Berendt (1867) states that he saw Henderson (§ 3) at work in 
Belize and that the latter made a translation into English of 
Beltran's grammar. According to Ludewig (1858, p. 227) Kingdon 
(§ 1) made an English translation of the same grammar which is 
said to be in the possession of the American Bible Society of New 
York. The present Secretary states that he can find no trace of 
this manuscript. As previously pointed out, there is much con- 
fusion over the authorship of works listed under Henderson and 
Kingdon. 

Much of the material published on the Maya grammar in the 
last century was taken from Beltran. The list of his followers is a 
long one. It contains: Norman (1843, p. 240-249), Gallatin (1845, 
p. 45-47, 252-268) and Heller (1853, p. 381-385). They evidently 
had access to the first edition. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1864, 
p. 459-478) writes that he obtained his grammatical material from 
the works of Beltran and Ruz. It is quite evident that he de- 
pended very slightly, if at all, on Beltran's treatise. According to 
Brinton (1900, p. 209), Brasseur de Bourbourg explained to Berendt 
that when he wrote this book he had never seen the original works 
either of Beltran or of Ruz but onl}^ Gallatin's reference to the 
former and Kingdon's translation of the latter. De Rosny (1875, 
p. 61-82) and Bancroft (1874-76, v. 3, p. 773-776) give some por- 
tions of Beltran almost without change. Charencey (1883-84; ed. 
1885) uses it in comparing the conjugation of the Maya with that of 
Quiche. Larrainzar (1875-78, v. 2, p. 407-408) mentions Beltran. 
Palma y Palma (1901) follows him quite fully and Mitre (1909- 
11, V. 3, p. 71-83) gives an outhne of the work. De Rosny (1904, 
p. 87-115) has grammatical notes after San Buenaventura, Bel- 
tran, and Ruz. 

XIX Century, etc. The next independent work on the Maya 
grammar was that of Ruz (1844: 1845). ^ He was a Franciscan, 
born in Merida in 1785. He was a proHfic writer on Maya sub- 

1 Squier (1861, p. 38) gives a Maya grammar by Narciso (1838). This is 
clearly a mistake. The Narciso work is a Spanish grammar by Diego Narciso 
Herranz y Quiros, translated into Maya by Ruz. 



166 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

jects as already pointed out. His main grammatical work (1844) is 
written in the form of questions and answers in the Maya language 
and is really a translation into Maya of the Spanish grammar of 
Herranz y Quires (1834). Neither this, his Cartilla (Ruz, 1845; 
2d. ed. Berendt, 1871) nor any of his other works are of great im- 
portance from a linguistic point of view. An English translation 
of his grammar was pubhshed by Kingdon (1847). ^ Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1864, p. 459-478) follows Ruz, as previously stated, 
although he claims to have used Beltran as well. Finally, de 
Rosny (1875, p. 91-93) gives some modern Maya from Ruz. 
Vela (1) has left a few grammatical notes some of which refer to 
the grammar of Ruz. 

Juan Pio Perez (1) contemplated writing a grammar and col- 
lected notes for this work (B. L. C. No. 11). There seems also to 
have been some manuscript notes on the language given by Perez 
(1842a) to Stephens.2 Gallatin (1845) used these in addition to 
the grammar of Beltran in preparing his own work. Perez (1844), 
in a letter written from Peto, makes some very interesting gram- 
matical observations regarding the changes in Maya from the 
point of view of time. Henderson (1852) published a Maya primer 
of no value. 

Berendt (1864 and 5, § 1, 3-5) has left several incomplete por- 
tions of a Maya grammar in manuscript. Anon (26, p. 88-98) pre- 
sents a few grammatical notes. Shea (1873-76, v. 1, p. 411) gives 
a specimen of Maya grammar. Sayce (1875, p. 187, note) has an 
example of the Maya noun and adjective taken from the text of 
Charencey (1873). Gabelentz (1881, p. 368) gives an example of 
the possessive. Charencey (1883: 1896) should be mentioned 
among the writers on Maya grammar although his writings deal 
with special features of the language. 

1 In a preliminary note to Berendt's copy of the Kingdon translation 
(Berendt, 1865), Berendt points out that Kingdon mistranslates Ruz's title, 
Gramatica Yucateca which does not mean a "Yucatan Grammar," but a gram- 
mar of the Yucatecan language. He adds: "It seems that Father Kingdon 
had only an imperfect knowledge of either Maya or Spanish. We arrive at 
this conclusion in view of the many blunders made in his translation, for which 
see my notes." (This note given by Brinton, 1900, p. 208). 

2 See Stephens, 1843, v. 2, p. 278. There is another set of manuscript notes 
on the grammar by Perez (10). It is impossible to judge how much of this 
material is contained in Perez (1) and (1842a). 



GRAMMARS 167 

Brinton (1882, p. 27-37) gives some brief grammatical notes. 
He had access to the early works of San Buenaventura and of Bel- 
tran. Seler (1887), while basing his study entirely on early 
printed material, presents the grammatical forms in a new light. 
Zavala (1896) has a small grammar, rather badly arranged, and not 
covering the ground so fully as the early grammarians have done. 
Palma y Palma (1901, p. 83-474), although following Beltran in 
the main, presents much new and original material of some value. 
Romero Fuentes (1910) and Pacheco Cruz (1912) have phrase 
books which are useful in acquiring a superficial speaking knowl- 
edge of the Maya but they are quite inadequate for a proper 
understanding of the grammatical forms. 

Lopez Otero (1914) has a very good grammar founded in part 
upon the grammar of Beltran and upon the linguistic teachings of 
the late Senor Don Audomaro Molina. This work ranks next to 
that of the three early grammarians. It also gives a very good idea 
of the language as spoken at the present time. 

Special Features. Studies of special phases of the Maya gram- 
mar are not numerous. Adam (1877) has a study of polysynthesis 
in Maya and Quiche. Charencey (1884) has some pertinent ideas 
regarding the formation of words in Maya and another paper 
(1896) on the classification of the verb. Tozzer (1912) attempts to 
classify the verb. The Maya pronoun is treated by Brinton 1885, 
p. 35-36), Charencey (1883, p. 123-129), and by Tozzer (1906). 
Rejon Garcia (1905, p. 19-27) has some remarks of no value on 
certain particles. Gates (1) has an excellent article in manuscript 
regarding the modern approach to a Maya grammar. He also 
(Gates, 1914) discusses the grammar from a philosophical basis. 

Comparative Grammar. Maija Stock. This subject is best 
treated by Seler (1887), Charencey (1866: 1883-84; digest in 
Mitre, 1909-11, v. 3, p. 87-95), and Charencey (1883, p. 123-139). 
The interpretation of the material, gathered from the older au- 
thorities, is a distinct contribution to the study of the Maya 
language as a whole. 

Slight comparative grammatical material on the Maya and 
Quiche is to be found in Adam (1877). Gallatin (1845) treats of 
Maya, Quiche, Pokonchi, and Huastec. F. Miiller (1876-88, v. 2, 



168 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

p. 305-313, after Vater) compares Maya, Quiche, Mam, Pokonchi, 
and Huastec. 

Maya stock and Mexican languages. Berendt (5 in B. L. C. 
No. 179) compares Maya with Nahuatl, Otomi, Natchez, Cak- 
chiquel, etc. Palma y Palma (1901, p. 421-449) has some reflec- 
tions on Nahuatl and Maya. See also Adam (1878a) below. 

Maya stock and North American Languages. Adam (1878) com- 
pares Dakota, Cree and some other North American stocks with 
Maya and Quiche and Adam (1878a) treats briefly of Dakota, 
Nahuatl, Maya, Quiche, as well as two South American stocks. 

Maya stock and South Aynerican Languages. See Adam (1878a) 
above. 

PHONETICS 

The phonetics of the Maya language are discussed at some 
length in the grammar of Beltran (1746) and in several of the other 
grammars. His hst of the sounds is used by Norman (1843, p. 242) 
and the latter is copied in turn by Spence (1913, p. 342). Juan 
Molina (1896, p. 335) also quotes from Beltran. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1864, p. 322, note), followed by BoUaert (1866, p. 50- 
51) quote Beltran on the alphabet. The Analytical Alphabet of 
Berendt (1869) and Berendt (5 in B. L. C. No. 179, § 1) together 
with Stoll (1884, p. 39-44) give good discussions of the phonetics 
of the whole group of Maya languages. Carrillo y Ancona (1880a, 
p. 91-95: 1893) ^ has some words on the pronunciation. Anon. 
(2, ff. 9-11) treats of the sounds in Maya. Perez (1842a) has left 
some remarks on the various sounds and letters adopted for these 
sounds as a preliminary notice to his manuscript " Codex Perez " 
in the library of the New York Historical Society. These notes 
were used by Gallatin (1845, p. 252). Justo Sierra (1842-45) dis- 
cusses the sounds in Maya. Gates (3) has a paper in manuscript 
regarding the pronunciation with an alphabet which he prefers in 
writing Maya and he describes (Gates, 1920, p. 611-613) very 
carefully the phonetic system of the language. Tozzer (1907, 
p. xxiii: 1910, p. 277) gives a key to the pronunciation of the 
Maya Sounds. 

1 This work introduces the series of manuscript vocabularies from the dif- 
ferent towns in Yucatan described on p. 293. 



VOCABULARIES 169 

VOCABULARIES 

Carrillo y Ancona (1881; ecL 1883, p. 123), quoted by Brinton 
(1882, p. 72), states that seventeen dictionaries of the language 
have been written. This number should be increased if we include 
all the missing Maya vocabularies. 

XVI Century. ViUalpando (1571) holds the place of priority 
regarding the authorship of a Maya dictionary as he does that of 
a grammar. His dictionary was pubHshed in Mexico in 1571.^ 
This work is probably based upon the vocabulary contained in his 
Arte (§ 1) which is missing. 

Solana (1580), a Franciscan and companion of Landa, is another 
author of a cUctionary in this century. This is in manuscript and is 
probably in the library of The Hispanic Society of America in New 
York.- Mention should also be made here of a short collection of 
Maya words given by Oviedo (1535; ed. 1851-55, v. 4, p. 593- 
607), also in Berendt, (1868d, v. 1, in B. L. C. No. 42-11) and 
Berendl (6 in B. L. C. No. 180). The Maya words in Landa (1864) 
have been collected and translated by Bowditch (1) . 

Another dictionary of this century is that by Gaspar Antonio 
Xiu (§ 1).^ He was a Maya Indian and related to the so-called 
royal family of the Tutul Xius, one of the two reigning families 
of Mayapan. The manuscript is missing but it is dated toward the 
close of the century as he is known to have been receiving a pension 
from the Spanish Goverrmient in 1593 and 1599.* 



1 Brinton (1882. p. 74) states that one copy at least is in existence. 

- I have been unable to veriiy this point. For bibliographical purposes 
several works of Solana are listed in the bibliography although they do not 
appear to touch upon the Maya language, Solana (§3), (§4), (§5), (§6), 
Najera (1) should be noted here. The work of Cardenas (1639), although 
belonging to the next century, may be mentioned as being in the same class. 

3 In the list of missing authorities I have also placed another work by Xiu 
(1582) although it probably has little to do with Maya linguistics. See Carrillo 
y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, p. 137-138. 

* A description of his work is given in the Relacion de Quinacama (Coleccion 
de Documentos Ineditos, v. 11, p. 264). Juan Martinez writes personally as 
follows, "Antonio Xiu helped everybody in his work. He never wrote a vo- 
cabulary: he was not a scholar but an interpreter of the government and had 
access to the library of the Franciscan Convent in Merida." 



170 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Another companion of Landa was Ciudad Real. He came to 
America in 1573 and died in 1617 He is the author of several 
works on the Maya language. His Gran Diccionario 6 Calepino 
(Ciudad Real, § 1) was prepared in two copies neither of which has 
been found. ^ He is said to have taken forty years to write this. 
Juan Martinez Hernandez identifies the Motul dictionary as this 
missing work. There is probably another dictionary (Ciudad Real, 
§ 2) distinct from the Calepino.^ Cogolludo (1688, p. 513) writes 
of Ciudad Real, '^ Aprendid el idioma de estos Indios con tanta per- 
feccion quefue el mayor Maestro de el que ha tenido esta tierra. Como 
tal predicd, ensend y escrihid Sermones de Santos . . . no solo liizo 
Vocabularios, que el uno empiega con la lengua Castellana, y el otro con 
la de los Indios; pero compuso una ohra tan insigne, que por su 
grandeza se llamd Calepino de la lengua Mayo o Yucatheca." 

The Motul Dictionary, the most famous of all the Maya extant 
dictionaries, probably goes back to the last quarter of the xvi 
century.^ A copy of this manuscript is now in the John Carter 
Brown Library at Providence, Rhode Island. It is called the 
Motul Dictionary as there is reason to believe that the first part 
was written at the Convent of Motul. It is probably a copy of an 
earlier manuscript. It is impossible to determine the exact date of 
the original but the author speaks of a comet which he saw in 1577 
and "gives other evidence that he was writing in the first genera- 
tion after the Conquest." ■* The present copy seems to have been 
made about the close of the xvi century. It consists of two parts : — 

1 According to Nicolas Antonio (1672) who copied from Lizana (1633, ed. 
1893, p. 100), one copy remained in Yucatan and the other was in the hbrary 
of the Duque del Infantado in Spain. Brinton (1897, p. 185) tried to trace this 
library in 1888 and again in 1893. Some volumes were said to have gone to 
the Real Academia de Historia and the bulk of the collection passed to the 
Duke de Osuna and was sold by him to the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid. 
Inquiries by Brinton in both these institutions met with failure. 

- Berendt (1868&) gives an otro diccionario in his list of missing authorities. 
Mention is made of another work of Ciudad Real (§ 3) although it evidently 
contained nothing on the language. 

3 Ciudad Real was in Yucatan from 1573 to 1617 which would be about the 
time this manuscript was written. 

For bibliographical note, see Bartlett (1865-71, v. 1, p. 226, 2d. ed. 1875- 
82, V. l,p. 446). 

' Brinton (1882, p. 77: 1885a, p. 32) and Berendt (7, in B. L. C. No. 181) 
also have notes on the Motul. BoUaert (1866, p. 54, note) gives information 
on the Motul taken from Triibner (1866, p. 2). 



VOCABULARIES 171 

Maya-Spanish and Spanish -Maya, the latter section containing 
approximately 11,180 words. This is probably later in date than 
the Maya-Spanish part. 

Juan Martinez Hernandez thinks that the Motul dictionary is 
the same work as the Calepino of Ciudad Real and refers to Lizana 
(1633, ed. 1893, p. 99) who writes, "Antonio de Ciudad Real . . . 
hizo Calepino tan grande, que son seis holumenes de a dozientos pliegos 
cada lino, los dos de su letra sacados en limpios, y las borradores 
llenaiia dos costales, ocupo 40 anos en esta ohra, mas es tan bue7ia, y 
de tanto peso, y utilidad, que no tiene otro defeto que ser para esta 
tierra solamente que a correr esta lengua en todo el mundo solas estas 
obras hastauan para dar luz, y claridad a todos los que la aprendiessen, 
y alii hallassen quantas frasis, y propiedad se pueden iiyiaginar, sin 
que aya falta de una palabra, etc." 

Berendt made a careful copy of the manuscript in 1864 (B. L. C. 
No. 1) with extensive corrections and additions from the other 
Maya dictionaries, the Ticul, San Francisco and Pio Perez, copies 
of which he possessed. In the preface to his copy he writes, "The 
first part of the Providence MS. is written in an extremely small 
and badly arranged hand. It shows an author of wide instruction, 
with scientific mind, and profound knowledge of the Maya language 
and great care and attention. But the copyist was an ignorant 
fellow who did not understand what he was writing, not even in the 
Spanish part, and in places he shows terrible negligence." ^ It is 
needless to add that this dictionary is indispensable for the student 
who is working on the translation of old Maya texts. The illustra- 
tive sentences after many of the words are most useful. An un- 
successful attempt was made by the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to publish this manuscript. A portion of it was set up in proof 
after having been copied by Miss Thomas. These proofs were being 
corrected by Seiior Audomaro Molina at the time of his death.^ 
Mr. William Gates is now at work on an edition of the dictionary. 

Mention should be made here of the Vocabulario grande Yucatano 
(Anon. 28) mentioned by Cogolludo.^ 

^ This is a translation from the Spanish kindly furnished me by Miss Adela 
Breton. 

- For the work of >Miss Thomas and Audomaro Mohna, see Powell (1900, 
p. 67-68), McGee (1901, p. 79: 1902, p. 53-54), and Holmes (1903, p. 41). 

3 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 135) writes: "La primera obra que 
escribieron los indios yucatecos en el sigh mismo de la conquista, usando por 



172 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

XVII Century. Coronel (§ 1) {circa 1620) and VidaJes (§ 1) 
{circa 1644) are both authors of vocabularies which are missing. 
Coronel (1620, p. 107-1 10) gives the names of the different parts of 
the body. Valladolid (§ 3) also wrote a dictionary according to 
Ludewig (1858, p. 103). This may be questioned. 

The San Francisco Dictionary is second in importance to the 
Motul and probably belongs about the middle of the xvii century. 
This work was found at the closing of the Convent of San Fran- 
cisco in Merida in 1820. It bears no date. The original is lost but 
Perez made a copy (Perez, 11) ^ and Berendt made a copy from that 
of Perez in 1870 (B. L. C. No. 3). Meneses (1) made a partial 
copy. Pio Perez considers that this dictionary is older than the 
Ticul vocabulary, probably by half a century. Berendt would place 
it as older than the Motul, basing his decision on some antiquated 
forms in the San Francisco which appear in the Motul as modern- 
ized.^ Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 71) suggests that this dictionary may 
have been the work of San Buenaventura (§ 1).^ In this case the 

primera vez de los caracteres alfabeticos, fue un gran Vocabulario historico que, no 
habiendose mmc.a llegado a iniprindr, parece que se ha perdido por completo. Con- 
servdbase todavla a mediados del siglo diez y siete, epoca en que Fr. Diego Lopez de 
Cogolludo se hallaba en esta Peninsula, pues le vio y aun le servio para componer 
su Historia, como se ve por estas palabras que se leen en el cap. V del lib. IV, con 
motivo de hablar aquel autor del nombre que los antiguos Mayas daban a un Dios 
unico e incorporeo." 

1 From Berendt (1871a, p. 60) who writes, " D. Pio ha copiado tambien este 
Diccionario, coordinando la parte maya-espanola por el mismo metodo qu£ habia 
empleado en su trabajo anterior," it might be inferred that this dictionary was 
originally arranged in a Spanish-Maya order only and that Perez made the 
Maya-Spanish part when he copied it in the same way as he had done with the 
Ticul Dictionary. But in his Preface he states that he received a copy of a 
part of the Maya-Spanish portion made by Meneses. This seems to show that 
the original manuscript was in Maya-Spanish and Spanish-Maya. 

The Perez copy was found by Martinez Hernandez among papers presented 
by Mrs. Ernesto de Regil to her brother-in-law, Jose Rafael de Regil of Merida, 
who is the present owner. 

2 Berendt in the Preface to his copy of v. 2 of the Motul Dictionary (B. L. C. 
No. 1). 

3 Mitre quotes as follows from Ancona (1877, p. iv), in his introduction to 
Perez (1866-77): "En 1848, el misrno Perez encontro en casa del cura Jos^ 
Maria Meneses, un diccionario de la lengua Maya, mds voluminoso, el cual habia 
sido de la biblioteca del convento grande de San Francisco, y cuya fecha y autor se 
ignoraba por faltar d la obra s^is primeras pdginas. Parece que despu^s de una 
enfermedad del Senor Meneses el volumen fu^ extraido de su casa, y P6rez pudo al 



VOCABULARIES 173 

date would presumably be about 1684, the date of his grammar.^ 
Mitre is probably incorrect in this supposition. The manuscript 
is in two parts, Maya-Spanish and Spanish-Maj^a, the latter por- 
tion containing approximately 9160 words. The two parts do not 
correspond, each portion having terms and acceptations not to be 
found in the other. 

The Ticul Dictionary comes at the end of the xvii century. It 
bears the date of 1690 and was found in 1836 in the Convent of 
Ticul. The original manuscript is lost. It is in Spanish-Maya, 
and contains approximately 6190 words. Pio Perez copied it in 
1836 and made a second copy in 1847,- together with a list of the 
words arranged as Maya-Spanish (Perez, 1847a). From the 1847 
copy and the Maya-Spanish arrangement Berendt made his copy 
in 1870 (B. L. C. No. 2). The manuscript, not including the Maya- 
Spanish part, was published under the name of Perez (1898, p. 124- 
196) by Ignacio Peon who joined it to the vocabulary of Beltran's 
grammar. The two works do not correspond. 

Berendt in the Preface to v. 2 of his copy of the Motul in speak- 
ing of the Ticul and the San Francisco vocabularies writes, " The 
concordance of riiany Spanish terms and also the identical co- 
ordination of their different Maya equivalents and other par- 
ticulars repeated in the last two works (the Ticul and the San 
Francisco) give reason to believe that both have the same origin. 
But as each contains clauses not found in the other, presumably 
they were copies corrected and amplified by different authors and 
at different periods." 

fin conseguirlo en 1855 J' and Mitre adds "Este mmmscrito era evidentemente el 
del diccionario Maya de San Buenaventura que segun Beristain y Soma se con- 
servaba en el convento de San Francisco de M^rida, el cual servio principalmente 
de base para el trabajo de Ptrez y no se explica sino coma ocultacion de malafe,el 
que se haya ornitido mencionar siquiera el nombre del precursor y primer codifica- 
dor del idioma Maya." 

1 Berendt (1868 6) places the date of the San Buenaventura dictionary as 
1695. 

■ Pio Perez (1844) mentions this Ticul dictionary as having been found 
with a copy of Coronel's grammar. 

Perez (7, in B. L. C. No. 11, p. 165-84) writes an introduction to this vo- 
cabulary. See Perez, 1898. 

Juan Martinez writes personally regarding the Ticul as follows, "Said vo- 
cabulary is a copy from an older work with innovations of small importance, 
all copied from a pattern or old vocabulary, a standard authority which is no 
other than the work of Fray Antonio Ciudad Real." 



174 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

San Buenaventura (§ 1) {circa 1684) is given as the author of a 
large dictionary toward the end of this century.^ Carrillo y 
Ancona (1) mentions this vocabulary and the vain search he made 
for it. 

XVIII Century. In this epoch are found the numerous vocab- 
ularies of Avendaiio all of wliich are missing : — a dictionary (§ 2) , 
a short dictionary of adverbs (§3), a botanical and medical dic- 
tionary (§ 4), and a list of proper names (§ 5).^ A single leaf of a 
vocabulary, probably of tliis century is in the possession of Mr. 
Gates (Anon. 5). 

Mention should be made here of the various vocabularies in the 
grammar of Beltran (1746; ed. 1859, p. 209-241). These vocab- 
ularies are given in the present copy of the San Francisco diction- 
ary. The Maya words with their meanings as given by Beltran 
are all collected and published by Perez (1898, p. 1-101). 

XIX Century. The next vocabulary in point of time is that 
of Baezo (1832), of words in the dialect of Peten, Guatemala.^ 
Along with this should go the dialect collected at Sacluk, Peten, 
by Berendt (1866-67) and republished with English translation by 
Means, 1917, p. 188-191. Norman (1843, p. 255-263) gives an 
English-Maya vocabulary which he may have collected during his 
sojourn in Yucatan. 

Henderson (1859-66) has left a manuscript of six volmnes, 
averaging 250 pages each, of a dictionary of the dialect spoken in 
the District of Bacalar. This is in the collection of manuscripts 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington.^ A dictionary by King- 
don (§ 2) is reported in the library of the American Bible Society 
of New York. No trace of this can be found. 

Perez was the author of several manuscript vocabularies. He 
started with the Maya words in Beltran's Arte (1746). He ampli- 
fied this with the words in Beltran's Doctrina (1740) and Sermons 

1 See note 3 on p. 172-173. 

2 Carrillo y Ancona (1882, p. 125) places these works among those written 
in the xvii Century. 

3 Ludewig C1858, p. 102) mentions a work by Malte-Brun (1824) as con- 
taining a Maya vocabulary. I have been unable to find this book. It has been 
entered in the Bibliography under C. Malte-Brun. 

* See Berendt (1867, p. 420) and Anon (1900) for references to this work. 



VOCABULARIES 175 

(1740a) and Domingucz (1758). In 1836 he obtained possession of 
the Ticul dictionary which he copied and with this he produced a 
two volume work (Perez, 1838). He treated these manuscripts 
as rough drafts for future revision. In the same year there is an 
account of another manuscript vocabulary (Perez, 1838a). It is 
impossible to know whether one of these various works is that 
(Perez, 1842b) noted in Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 278) who writes 
that Perez gave him a vocaljulary in manuscript containing more 
than four thousand words in IVIaya. The manuscript of this is in 
the library of the New York Historical Society. 

Perez (1845) left another manuscript containing material for a 
dictionary. This was presented by his niece to Dr. Berendt and 
is referred to by Berendt (1871a, p. 5). It is now in the Berendt 
Linguistic Collection (No. 5). It contains several hundred words 
not in Perez (1866-77). A partial copy was made by Berendt 
when the manuscript was still in the possession of Perez. The 
latter copied the Ticul again (Perez, 1847). In this same year he 
made a Maya-Spanish arrangement of the Ticul (Perez, 1847a). 

The Perez Dictionary (1866-77), written as far as the word 
ulchahal by Perez, down to ven by Carrillo y Ancona, and completed 
by Berendt, is the largest dictionary at present in print. ^ It con- 
tains about 20,000 words and is Maya-Spanish only. As noted 
above, Perez used Beltran (1746) in preparing the first drafts of his 
dictionaries together with Beltran's sermons and Doctrina. Later 
he added the Ticul material. Finally he found the San Francisco 
and began the work all over again omitting, as antiquated, the 
examples of Maya construction. The work does not give the parts 
of the verbs and it is not alwaj's useful in explaining many of the 
old terms. The Ticul is much better in this respect. Brinton (1882, 
p. 75) rightly complains " that it gives very few examples of idioms 
or phrases showing the uses of words and the construction of 
sentences." Breton (1919) gives a few relationship terms from 
Perez. 

The second dictionary of Perez (1898) was probably written be- 
fore that of 1866-77 and it is much better for use in translating 
the old documents. It contains the Ticul Dictionary (p. 124-296) 
mention of which has already been made. 

1 Gatschet (1879) has a note on this dictionary. Gatschet a883) again dis- 
cusses this work together with that of Brinton C1882). 



176 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

The two vocabularies of Brasseur de Bourbourg (1864, p. 480- 
506 and 1869-70, v. 2, p. 123-462) are both compilations from 
various sources: Beltran and San Buenaventura, Cogolludo, Landa 
Perez, SoHs y Rosales, possibly the Motul, and other writers. 
Neither dictionary is of any great value. ^ Juan Martinez owns an 
annotated copy of a Brasseur vocabulary made by Berendt which 
formerly belonged to Rodolfo G. Canton. 

De Rosny (1875, p. 94-118; ed. 1904, p. 133-166) has published 
selections from the vocabulary in Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869- 
70). The latter (1857-59, v. 1, p. Ixxxix) mentions a vocabulary 
(Anon, 27) of 2000 words in Maya, Spanish and EngHsh. I have 
been unable to identify this. 

Waldeck (1838, p. 79-90, copy in B. L. C. No. 41-1) has pub- 
lished a short list of words in Spanish, French, and Maya and 
(1838, p. 29-33, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-3) he gives the Maya 
names of many of the pueblos. Soils y Rosales (1870) furnished 
Brasseur de Bourbourg with a manuscript vocabulary. 

Berendt has left numerous vocabularies in manuscript : — one in 
the collection of manuscripts of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
at Washington (Berendt, 2), a Hst of proper names (Berendt, 4), 
and a large number of comparative vocabularies which will be 
discussed later. 

Donde (1876, p. 229-241) gives a list of plants with their Maya 
names prepared by Thomas Aznar Barbachano. 

Brinton (1882, p. 261-279) gives the Maya-English vocabulary of 
words found in his selections from the Books of Chilam Balam. 
He published the Maya linear measurements in 1885b (p. 434-439) 
and another short vocabulary in 1894 (p. 143-146) .^ 

Charencey (1883a) has a French-Maya vocabulary of about four 
thousand words and Charencey (1891, p. 247-301) has a Maya- 
French dictionary of about eighteen hundred words. DeRosny 
(1887; ed. 1888, p. 71 — 85) gives a Hst of Maya divinities. 

1 Compare Brinton (1882, p. 75) who writes, "I can say little in praise of 
the Vocabulaire Maya-Francais-Espanole, compiled by the Abbe Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1869-70). ... It contains about ten thousand words but many 
of these are drawn from doubtful sources, and are incorrectly given; while the 
derivations and analogies proposed are of a character unknown to the science 
of language." 

- LePlongeon (1896, p. 202-207) has much to say regarding a controversy 
with Brinton on the linear measurements of the Mayas. 



VOCABULARIES 177 

The Peabody j\Iuseiim owns a manuscript vocabulary of 250 
words from each of the following- towns in Yucatan: Peto (Valez, 
1893), Sotuta (Anon, 1893), \'alladoli(l (Manzano, 1893), and 
Tizimin (Rejon Espinola, 1893). These were probably collected by 
Carrillo y Ancona as there is an introduction on the Maya pro- 
nunciation by him. A digest of these vocabularies is given in Ap- 
pendix IV (p. 293). 

Zavala (1898) published a short Spanish-Maya vocabulary. 
Palma y Palma (1901, p. 258-269, 307-326) writes instructively on 
the wealth of material in the Maya vocabularies. In the Coleccion 
de Documentos Ineditos (1898-1900, v. 11, p. 435-436) there is a 
short list of Maya words to be found in the text. 

Sapper (circa 1895) collected a small vocabulary from San Luis, 
Peten, which he was good enough to give the author. Millspaugh 
(1895-98: 1900: 1903-04) has works on the flora of Yucatan which 
give man}' of the native names of plants. Pacheco Cruz (1919) 
has a work on the fauna of Yucatan giving the Maya names. 
Mention should also be made here of the following anonjaiious 
vocabularies: — that in the Libreria de San Gregorio de Mexico 
(Anon, 25, after Vinaza, No. 1134), and that owned by Mr. Gates 
(Anon, 26). Starr (1908, p. 399-404) gives a very few Maya words 
in his glossary. 

Da'.' and Month Names. There are many treatises on the 
meaning of the names of the days and months in the Maya year 
and the possible correlation of this meaning with the forms of the 
hieroglyphs for these days and months. The most comprehensive 
of these discussions are those by Seler (1888; ed. 1902, p. 448-503) 
and by Bowditch (1910, p. 263-265). The latter collates the mean- 
ings given the day names by Perez, Brasseur de Bourbourg, Brin- 
ton, Schellhas, and Tozzer. Little need be said in this place re- 
garding the discussion of the linguistic meaning of the Maya 
hieroglyphics as a whole. The phonetic character of the Maya 
glyphs is discussed by Bowditch (1910, p. 254-258) and by many 
other authors. There is a long series of articles deahng with the 
supposed phonetic transcription of series of glyphs. These are 
generally of no value. ^ 

1 Eichhorn (1896: 1905) belongs to this class. Parisio is an earlier writer 
along the same lines. 



178 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Comparative Vocabularies. Maya-Quiche and other Maya 
dialects. Galindo (1834, p. 63. Copy in B. L. C. No. 42-6) gives 
a few words in Maya and Punctiinc. Berendt (3) wrote a manu- 
script composed of between 600 and 700 words in 24 dialects of the 
Maya stock. This formed the basis for Stoll (1884). Berendt (5, 
in B. L. C. No. 179-6, fol. 60, 64) gives comparative Hsts of words 
in Maya, Putun, Tzental, Cakchiquel, Chontal, etc. Squier (1857, 
p. 179) gives a few words in Maya, Mam, Quiche, and Cakchiquel. 
Squier (1858, p. 552-553) has words in Maya, Cakchiquel, and 
from Peten. Berendt (1867a, in B. L. C. No. 82) has marginal 
comparisons in Maya and Cakchicjuel with Huastec forms in his 
copy of the dictionary of Tapia Zenteno. Rockstroh (1878) gives 
a comparative vocabulary of the Maya stock. This was probably 
prepared under the direction of Berendt. Campbell (1879, p. 72- 
73) gives a few Maya and Quiche words. ^ 

Stoll (1884, p. 46-70, and 1886, p. 301) gives comparative hsts 
of words of many of the Maya dialects.^ Brigham (1887, p. 276) 
gives selections from Stoll and Sapper (1897, p. 407-436) improves 
on Stoll. Brinton (1888, p. 82-91) gives a comparative vocabulary 
of Maya dialects and reprints Berendt (1870a). Starr (1901-04) 
has a comparative list of words from several Maya dialects and 
Zoque and Chiapanec. 

Maya and Mexican Languages. Berendt (1) in the Bureau of 
American Ethnology,'' Berendt (5, in B. L. C. No. 179, fol. 58), and 
Heller (1853, p. 387-388) give comparative lists of words in Maya 
and Nahuatl. Carrillo y Ancona (1872) gives many of the Maya 
and Nahuatl words used in Spanish. Palma y Palma (1901, p. 
718-738) has the following: Voces Aztecas Castellanizadas y sus 
equivalentes en Maya, and Voces Mayas Castellanizadas. Anon 
(1898) has a short word hst in Maya and Nahuatl. Berendt (5, in 
B. L. C, No. 179, fol. 59) has a vocabulary in Maya, Nahuatl and 
Otomi. Gallatin (1845, p. 9-10, 298-304) includes Otomi, Nahuatl, 
Huastec, and Maya in a comparative vocabulary. Fuertes (1) has 
Zoque, Zapotec, Mixe, and Maya words. Temaux-Compans 

1 Ordonez CI), according to Brasseur de Bourbourg flSSS-SG, p. 292), has 
the following: Linguistique du Mexique et de V Amerique Centrale (une Joule 
d' etymologies tzendales, mayas, itzoziles, quichees, azteques, etc. 

^ See Berendt (3) above. 

3 Pilling (1879-80) has a list of the linguistic manuscripts in the library of 
the Bureau of Ethnology at Washington. 



VOCABULARIES 179 

(1840-41 ; Maya in v. 88, p. 5-37) gives a comparative list of words 
ill the main languages of Mexico. Prichard (1836-47, v. 5, p. 344) 
republishes this. Latham (1862, p. 755) publishes a few words in 
Maya, Huastec, Nahuatl, and Otomi. Ferraz (1902, p. 95) has a 
short list of words in Maya, Quiche, and Nahuatl. 

Maya and North American languages. Adam (1878) has a com- 
parative vocabulary of Cree, Chippewa, Algonkin, Dakota, Hi- 
datsa, Maya, and Quiche. Berendt (5, in B. L. C. No. 179, fol. 62, 
63) gives words in Natchez, Apalachee, and Maya. Brinton (1867) 
has a list of words in Natchez, Huastec, and Maya. 

Maya, South American Languages, etc. Adam (1878a) gives 
words from Dakota, Nahuatl, Chibcha, Quechua, Quiche, and 
Maya. Douay (1894) has a comparative list of words in Haitian, 
and Maya. Douay (1900) gives words in Haitian, Maya, and 
Quiche, and Douay (1), in Quechua and Maya. Nuttall (1901, 
p. 549-555) gives a comparative vocabulary of Maya, Quechua, 
and Nahuatl. Schomburgk (1848, p. 236-237) has a selection of 
words from American languages and from the languages of the 
Guianas. 

Maya and Old World Languages. Comparative vocabularies 
covering a wider field are in general most unsatisfactory. They 
are to be found in Hervas y Panduro ( 1785, Maya p. 21, 41, 48, 121, 
Tab. xlix, 1, li and 1787a, Maya, p. 161 et seq.) and Balbi (1826; 
ed. 1835, Maya, Tab. xli, No. 676). There is also a class of early 
works of no present value which give the equivalents for certain 
common words in many American languages for comparison with 
the forms in European or Asiatic languages. A few Maya words 
sometimes appear in the following works: Vater (1810), Klaproth 
(1824-28, V. 2, p. 28-45), Merian (1828, p. 185-206) after Vater. 
C. Malte-Brun (1810-29, p. 18-21), Johnes (1846), Buschmann 
(1853), and Clarke (1877). Nuttall (1901, p. 563-575) gives a list 
of Maya words and their equivalents in languages of the eastern 
continent. 

C. Malte-Brun (1810-29), Latham (1860, p. 398), Charencey 
(1871, p. 106), and Platzmann (1871) give comparative list of words 
from Chinese and other Asiatic languages and corresponding words 
from the languages of America including Maya. Campbell (1879, 
p. 72-73) compares Maya and Polynesian. Umery (1863) gives a 
list of words for "mother" in many languages including Maya. 



180 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Comparative vocabularies of special words. Charencey has two 
papers (1882; Maya, p. 28-30 and 1899, Maya, p. 117, 166-169) 
on the names for the points of space in Maya and Quiche. Charen- 
cey (1883b) has another study of the names of the cardinal points 
and a fourth (1892) on the names of the metals in certain Maya 
dialects. Brinton (1886; Maya p. 10-13) treats of the word for 
love in some American languages. 

ETYMOLOGY OF PROPER NAMES 

Yucatan. There has been much discussion regarding the deri- 
vation of the names Yucatan and Maya. There is hardly an early 
history which does not have something to say regarding the origin 
of the name Yucatan. Cortes in his first letter (1852; 1866; ed. 
1908, V. 1, p. 124-125), BernalDiaz (1632; ed. 1908-16, v. 1, p. 32), 
Gomara (1553, cap. 52), repubhshed in Barcia (1749, v. 2), Lizana 
(1633, cap. 1), Landa (Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1864, p. 6-8, copied 
by Malte-Brun (1864, p. 14-15), CogoUudo (1688, p. 60-61), Villa- 
gutierre (1701, p. 28), all discuss the question of the origin of the 
word Yucatan. The Perez Codex (Perez, 1842) and the Chilam 
Balam de Chumayel should be cited here as they contain a varia- 
tion in the name given to Yucatan.^ Among the modern authori- 
ties to touch upon this question of etymology are: Waldeck (1838, 
p. 25), Stephens (1843, v. 1, p. 139-140), Prescott (1843, Bk. 2, 
Chap. 1), Temaux-Compans (1843, p. 30-31), Bollaert (1866, p. 
46), Carrillo y Ancona (1868: 1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 133-141: 
1890), Bancroft (1874-76, v. 5, p. 614-615), Ancona (1881), and 
Zufiiga (1). 

Maya. The best discussion of the derivation of the name Maya 
is that in Carrillo y Ancona (1883a, p. 632-634). Brinton (1882, 
p. 9-16), Ancona (1878-1905; ed. 1889, v. 1, p. 44) and Rejon 
Garcia (1905, p. 5-17) also suggest derivations. Pimentel (1860) 
discusses the words Mayo and Maya. 

Miscellaneous. Brinton (1887) discusses the origin of the 
Maya words used in Landa's work. Rovirosa (1888) and Douay 
(1891) mention the etymology of a few Maya names. Robelo 
(1902) gives the Maya, Nahuatl and Spanish equivalents of some 

1 Compare Carrillo y Ancona, 1890, p. 35-45. 



NUMERATION 181 

proper names. Rejon Garcia (1905, p. 29-78; 1910) presents sev- 
eral derivations wliich are in most cases decidedly doubtful in 
origin. 

NUMERATION 

The Maya numeration has already been discussed in the gram- 
matical portion of this work. I mentioned there that practically 
every publication on the numeration of the Mayas goes back to 
that given by Beltran (1746; ed. 1859, p. 195-208). Even modern 
works published in Yucatan seem to rely in general upon the series 
of numbers given by Beltran. No attempt is made here to list the 
publications which give the Maya system of numeration as a part 
of a grammar or as a part of the hieroglyphic writing.^ 

Maya Dialect. Galindo (1832) gives the numbers from 1 to 10 
and Waldeck (1838, p. 88, copy in B. L. C. No. 42) gives them 
from 1 to 100, both of which series were probably collected by the 
authors themselves. Baezo (1832) has some numbers collected at 
Peten. Sivers (1861, p. 290-291) offers a series of numbers in 
Maya. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. 92-99) is the first to 
give the numeration of Beltran in extenso with a French transla- 
tion.^ Bancroft (1874-76, v. 2, p. 753-754) gives the numbers from 
1 to 51 from Brasseur de Bourbourg. Orozco y Berra (1880, v. 1, 
p. 542, 559-569) also follows the same second-hand authority. 
Brinton (1882, p. 37-50), Molina y Soils (1896, p. 316-320), and 
Perez (1898, p. 113-120) go back to Beltran. Pousse (1886) is of 
little value. Nuttall (1903) gives an excellent translation of the 
numeral classifiers of Beltran with a suggestion regarding their 
possible presence in the hieroglyphic inscriptions. This list of suf- 
fixes with additions is published in Appendix III (p. 290). 

Valez (1893), Anon (1893), Manzano (1893), and Rejon Espinola 
(1893) give several numerals collected in the different towns.'* 

Comparative Lists of Numbers. There is a large number of 
works which present, more or less extensively, comparative series 

1 Charencey (1881), for example, treats of the numeration by means of 
bars and dots as shown in the hieroglyphic writing. 

- There is a copy of the Beltran numeration in the B. L. C. No. 42-8. 
^ These numbers are given in Appendix IV, p. 301. 



182 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

of numbers from many different peoples. Hervas y Panduro 
(1786; Maya, p. 110-111) is the earliest of these works. The best 
of these comparative lists is that of Thomas (1897-98) which 
presents a good discussion of the numeral systems of Mexico and 
Central America. Other works on numeration covering many of 
the languages of Middle America are by Ternaux-Compans (1840- 
41, p. 5-37, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-7), followed by Prichard (1836- 
47, V. 5, p. 344), Gallatin (1845, p. 49-57, Table A), followed by 
Pott (1847, p. 93-96, 301), and Charencey (1878, p. 12). Compara- 
tive hsts are also given in Berendt (5, in B. L. C. No. 179-8). Maya 
and Aztec numerals are given by Heller (1853, p. 386-388) and 
Pahna y Pahna (1901, p. 447-449), Maya, Quiche, and Aztec by 
de Rosny (1875a), several dialects of the Maya by Charencey 
(1883b), and Maya and Quiche alone by Charencey (1880, 1882a). 

TEXTS 

There is a large mass of material written in Maya.^ These texts 
date from early Spanish times and continue down to the present. 
They vary in value for linguistic study from the point of view of 
the time in which they were written and also from the point of 
view of the individual author. The Books of Chilam Balam furnish 
the most profitable study of early Maya texts. There are often 
parallel accounts in several of these Books. The text, however, 
is corrupt as the present manuscripts are usually copies of earlier 
documents often made by individuals who did not know Maya. 
There is far less likelihood of corruption in the legal and political 
documents, some of which are extant. The Maya texts of ser- 
mons, the Catechism, and parts of the Bible vary greatly accord- 
ing to the ability of the individual translator. They are, in general, 
however, rather poorly done both from a grammatical and a lexical 
standpoint. 

BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 

General. The fullest description of these Maya texts is that 
by Tozzer (1917). Other descriptions are by Carrillo y Ancona 
(1870: ed. 1872, p. 138-140), Melgar y Serrano (1873), Brinton 
(1882, p. 67-72), quoted by Bowditch (1910, p. 1-3), Brinton 

1 Part II contains several Maya texts. Seep. Ill for the discussion of 
these texts. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 183 

(1882b), translated into Spanish by Aznar (1882) and Troncoso 
(1883), and Brinton (1883a). Echano (1758), Castillo (1866, p. 
255-250), Rivera (1878, p. 22-23), Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 9- 
10), and Beuchat (1912, p. 407-408) are among those giving short 
accounts of these Books. 

Before considering the bibliographical details of the separate 
texts it may be well to dwell for a moment on several collections 
which contain abundant material for the study of the Books of 
Chilam Balam. Up to a few years ago, for the proper study of the 
manuscripts one had to depend entirely upon the Maya Chronicles 
of Brinton (1882) which in turn was based upon the Berendt 
copies of manuscripts collected, for the most part, by Pio Perez 
(Berendt, 1868, in B. L. C. No. 49). This material was augmented 
by another volume of manuscript material in the possession of Pio 
Perez and copied by Berendt (Perez, 2, in B. L. C. No. 50). 

This scarcity of texts no longer holds true. In addition to the 
University of Pennsylvania reproduction of the original of the 
Chilam Balam de Chumayel we are fortunate in having the Gates 
reproductions of the originals of the Tizimin, Kaua, Calkini, Tekax, 
and Nah, Mr. Gates owning the last two manuscripts. Gates also 
owns beautiful hand copies of the Chumayel, Tizimin, Ixil, Kaua, 
and Calkini which he has reproduced. 

It does not seem necessary in this paper to give complete refer- 
ences to the frequent use of the chronological parts of the Books 
of Chilam Balam as a starting point in the attempt to correlate 
Maya and Christian chronology.^ The prophecies contained in 
these manuscripts are considered together. 

According to the testimony of Landa, Lizana, Sanchez Aguilar, 
Cogolludo and other early writers many of these manuscripts were 
in existence in the xvi century. Several are reported in the xvii 
century. Most of the manuscripts now known were made in the 
latter part of the xviii century and were, in some cases, at least, 
copies of earlier documents. 

Brinton (1882b) states that there are still in existence sixteen of 
these Books. Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 9) gives a Hst of eleven. 

1 See in this connection Seler, 1892, 1895, 1895a; Bowditch, 1901, 1901a; 
Martinez, 1907, 1909a, 1912, 1915, 1918; and Moiley, 1910, 1911, and espe- 
cially 1920, p. 464-.539. For earlier material on this subject which, however, is 
of little value, see Perez 2, in B. L. C. No. 50 and 5, in B. L. C. No. 44-4. 



184 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

New ones are appearing at infrequent intervals. Counting the 
Mani manuscripts as one, fourteen of these books are listed here, 
four of which are known only by name. 

Chilam Balam de Mani. The original of the Mani manuscript 
is probably lost. It is dated not later than 1595. Berendt (1868d, 
V. 2, p. 138-184 in B. L. C. No. 43-7) copied from a copy by Pio 
Perez certain parts of the manuscript. Berendt (1868d, v. 2, 
p. 102-106 in B. L. C. No. 43-5) presents a comparison, probably 
from the pen of Perez, of the Mani description of the calendar with 
that of the Kaua manuscript. Perez (6), (or Berendt 1868d, v. 
3, in B. L. C. No. 44-3) compares the description of the calendar 
of the Mani with that of the Tizimin and the Kaua manuscripts. 
Perez (2, p. 48-49, in B. L. C. No. 50-10) has an entry, Apuntes 
historios del Chilam Balam de Mani. Juan Molina (1897, p. 68-69) 
gives a paragraph of this Maya document and a Spanish trans- 
lation. 

Berendt (Brinton, 1882; p. 91) speaks of four Mani manuscripts 
dated 1689, 1697, 1755, and 1761 respectively. A portion of one 
of them was given by Pio Perez to Stephens. It is well, therefore, 
to distinguish between the Mani manuscript proper and that por- 
tion given to Stephens which is usually called the " Perez Codex." 
A part of the Mani manuscript entitled Historia de la Doncella 
Teodora is given in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 225-239, copy in 
B. L. C. No. 43-9). The Kaua has the same story. Perez (2, 
p. 31-37, copy in B. L. C; No. 50-3) writes, " La historia que sigue 
se halla intercalada entre esta multitud de predicciones que se copiai on 
y tradujeron de los antiguos almanaques espanoles." 

Perez Codex (Lai u tzolan katun). This is probably the most 
widely known example of Maya writing. It gives an outline of 
Maya history from the time the Mayas set out from the south to 
travel northward down to and including the arrival of the Span- 
iards. It is a part of the Chilam Balam de Mani and was copied 
by Pio Perez from one of the four books of Mani. Perez translated 
the Maya into Spanish and wrote an extended commentary on the 
Maya text. The whole work was entitled, Traduccion y juicio 
critico de un inanuscrito en lengua maya que trata de las principales 
epocas de la historia en esta peninsula ante a su conquista. Para el 
Sn. D. Juan L. Stephens su amigo Juan Pio Perez, Peto, 5 de Ahril 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 185 

de I842. As indicated in the title, Perez gave the manuscript to 
Stephens. 1 Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 465-469) piibhshed an EngUsh 
translation with the Maya text l)ut refrained from printing some 
of the comments made by Perez. He omitted the parts headed 
Correccion cronologia de manuscrito and Recapitulacion. The 
Stephens copy of the Perez manuscript is now in the library of the 
New York Historical Society in New York. 

The original Perez Codex was owned bj^ Carlos Peon who loaned 
it to Bishop Carrillo y Ancona. The latter (1868: 1870: 1878-82; 
ed. 1883, p. 48-64) printed the entire manuscript except the Maya 
text and the Resumen at the end. This feature is given in English 
in Stephens (p. 468-469) .^ 

Berendt (1868d, v. 2, in B, L. C. No. 43-1) made a copy of the 
Perez Codex in the possession of Carrillo y Ancona. This Ber- 
endt copy was used by Valentini (1880, p. 52-55) who printed the 
Maya text and translation together with a portion of the com- 
ments of Perez. He adds a good discussion of his own regarding 
the text. Thomas (1882, p. 188-192) follows Valentini in printing 
the text and translation. Valentini (1896) also mentions this Perez 
manuscript. Perez (6) has also left a comparison between the 
Perez Codex and similar portions of the Chilam Balam de Tizimin 
and the Mani proper. Mayer (1851, v. 2, p. 173-177) refers to this 
manuscript. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg (1855-56, v. 51, p. 208: 1857-59, v. 2, 
p. 2, note) mentions the Stephens edition of the Perez Codex and 
he (1864, p. 420-429) published the Maya text and an attempt at 
a new translation in French. He took his text from Stephens and 
his translation is clearly based on that of Stephens as he did not 
have access to the original Spanish translation. Charencey (1874) 
reprinted the whole from Brasseur de Bourbourg. Bancroft (1874- 
76, V. 5, p. 624-627) follows Stephens. Ancona (1878-1905; ed. 
1889, V. 1, p. 382-384) gives the Maya text only. 

1 See Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 278-280), where he tells of obtaining it. 

2 The only difference I could find between the text printed by Carrillo y 
Ancona and the Stephens copy is that in the latter the sub-title is Correccion 
cronologia de manuscrito instead of Juicio analitico del manuscrito as it is in the 
Carrillo y Ancona original. 

Note some interesting observations on Carrillo y Ancona and the Mani 
manuscript in Troncoso, 1883, notes A. and H. 



186 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Brinton (1882, p. 89-135) attempts a new translation of the 
Maya text with extended comments and a comparison of the 
translations of Perez, and of Brasseur de Bourbourg with his own. 
Juan Molina (1896, p. x, xlviii et seq.) and Seler (1892) quote 
sentences from the Brinton translation. 

Raynaud (1891-92, p. 145-149) tries to improve on the transla- 
tion of Brinton. Charencey (1896, p. 13-16) endeavors to correct 
the translation of a paragraph of Brinton. Seler (1895) gives the 
text and translation of several sentences of the manuscript. Palma 
y Palma (1901, p. 750-753) gives the Spanish only of the Perez 
manuscript. Martinez Hernandez (1909) has made the last and 
most successful attempt to translate the Maya text. 

Perez: Cronologia antigua de Yucatan. The Perez Codex (Perez, 
1842) and the Perez (1843) study of the Cronologia antigua de Yuca- 
tan are sometimes confused.^ This latter manuscript, although 
founded on the ancient documents, was entirely written by Pio 
Perez and has very little to do with the Maya language. It is men- 
tioned here, however, to make a complete record of the different 
works of Perez.- A copy of this manuscript was given by Perez to 
Stephens who published it in an English translation (Stephens, 
1843, V. 1, p. 434-459) .3 Gallatin (1845, p. 104-114) and Valentini 
(1880) give practically the substance of the entire material con- 
tained in the Stephens text. It seems evident that Stephens did 
not print the entire manuscript as he received it from Perez as the 
second copy which Perez made contains much more material than 
was printed by Stephens. This second copy was made for the 
Registro Yucateco (1846, v. 3, p. 281). The same manuscript was 
printed in the Diccionario Universal de Historia y Geographia, 
(1855, V. 8, Apendice, Cronologia Yucateca), and in Castillo (1866, 
p. 31-51). This second copy (4°, 14 ff.) passed into the hands of 
Brasseur de Bourbourg who pubhshed it (1864, p. 366-419) with a 

1 There is also the Codex Peresiano, a pre-Columbian manuscript, which 
deals with the hieroglyphic writing and does not, therefore, enter into this 
discussion. 

^ Other material on the chronology by Perez may be mentioned here: — 
Perez (3 in B. L. C. No. 43, 5: 9 in B. L. C). 

3 Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 117, 277-278) tells of obtaining this manuscript 
from Perez. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 187 

French translation. The Stephens copy is in the possession of the 
New York Historical Society.' 

The copy made for the Registro Yucateco and published by Bras- 
seur de Bourbourg cannot be located. Pilling states that he saw 
what may have been this manuscript in the library of Pinart. Many 
of the items in the Pinart library were purchased from Brasseur de 
Bourbourg and later these passed into the Bancroft Library now 
at the University of California. I could find no trace of anj' manu- 
script of this kind in the Brasseur de Bourbourg-Pilling-Bancroft 
Library at Berkeley. 

The Peabody Museum has another copy (8°, 20 ff.), said to be 
from the library of Brasseur de Bourbourg, which follows almost 
exactly that published in the Registro Yucateco. 

The original Perez manuscript of his Cronologia passed into the 
possession of Carrillo y Ancona along with the other Perez ma- 
terial. Can-Ulo y Ancona (1878-^2; ed. 1883, p. 637-663) published 
it.- There is then the Carrillo y Ancona original, the Stephens, 
and the Registro Fwcateco-Peabody Museum texts all differing 
slightly. The Carrillo y Ancona version is the most complete and 
has one passage which is in Stephens and not in the Peabody 
Museum text. The Peabody version follows that of Carrillo y 
Ancona except for a few omissions in the latter and the passage 
referred to above. The Stephens text differs in many places both 
in order and wording, and it is much shorter than that of the other 
two. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg, (1857-59, v. 3, p. 462 et seq.), Orozco y 
Berra (1864, p. 103-108) Bancroft (1874-76, v. 2, 759 et seq.), Short 
(1880, 439 et seq.), and many others give the substance of these 
Perez texts. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 142) refers to 
the manuscripts on which Perez founded his Cronologia. 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel. This manuscript is a small 
quarto of 107 written pages and is dated about 1780. The name 

1 This Society also has the original Perez manuscript entitled "An almanac, 
adjusted according to the chronological calculation of the ancient Indians of 
Yucatan, for the years 1841 and 1842." Stephens (1843, v. 1, p. 448-458) 
printed this in an English translation. This article is not included in the Bras- 
seur de Bourbourg-Peabody Museum manuscript. 

2 Carrillo y Ancona gives the title, Antigua Cronologia Yucateca o exposicion 
sendlla del metodo que usaban los antiguos habitantes de esta Peninsula de Yuca- 
tan para contar y computar el tiempo. 



188 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

of D. Juan Jose Hoil with the date, January 20, 1782, appears in 
the manuscript. It is probable that Hoil was the one who com- 
piled the text except for a few insignificant interpolations from 
earlier documents. The first pages have been lost. The original 
of the manuscript was owned in Merida.^ It has been reproduced 
by the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania 
under the editorship of G. B. Gordon (1913). Teoberto Maler had 
previously (1887) printed several sets of photographs of this man- 
uscript.- Gates, the Peabody Museum, and the family of the late 
Don Audomaro Molina are some of those possessing the Maler 
photographs. There is a hand copy by Berendt (1868, p. 1-74, 80, 
159-200, in B. L. C. No. 49). Gates owns a second copy, contained 
in ff. 1-55 of a note-book, which has been reproduced by him. 
Portions of the manuscript are given by Berendt (1868d, v. 2, 
p. 25-36, in B. L. C. No. 43-2). Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 
1872, p. 145-146) gives a good description of this work. 

Brinton (1882, p. 152-185) was the first to make an attempt to 
translate any large part of the manuscript. He translated those 
portions relating to the chronology. Berendt had already copied 
these parts from copies by Pio Perez (Berendt, 1868d, v. 2, in 
B. L. C. No. 43-2). Carrillo y Ancona (1890, p. 37-45) gives a 
portion of the manuscript containing the name Yucalpeten as 
given to Yucatan. He also gives in facsimile a portion of p. 63 
(Gordon edition). Seler (1895) gives the text and translation of a 
small part of the manuscript. Juan Molina (1896, p. xxxvii, Iviii, 
etc.) gives sentences of the Maya text and translation from the 
Brinton work. Raynaud (1891-92, p. 153-15f) attempts an im- 
provement on the translation of Brinton. Martinez Hernandez 
(1909a: 1912: 1913) has made successful attempts at translating 
parts of the manuscript.^ Martinez has a translation in manuscript 

1 Morley (1920, p. 475) writes that he saw the original manuscript in 1913 
in the house of Ricardo Figueroa in Merida. Subsequently it was removed to 
the Cepeda library, Merida. When Morley revisited Yucatan in 1918 he was 
told that it had disappeared from the library and that its present location was 
unknown. 

- Maler (about 1887) also made photographic copies of the Tizimin, Calkini, 
and Kaua MSS. Gates possesses a complete set of the Maler photographs 
which he obtained from Seler. 

^ The text, p. 77, 78 and the translation of Brinton and Martinez are given 
in Part II, p. 130-135. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 189 

(1919) of p. 102 of the original. The text of a part of p. 85 with 
translation by Gates (1920b) is piven in Morley (1920, p. -J85). 
Roys (1920) has a translation of p. 60-G2. 

The prophecies given in this and other Chilam Balam Books are 
described in another place (p. 192). The day signs as shown in 
the original manuscript are given by Carrillo y Ancona (1866, p. 
38; ed. 1871, p. 257: 1870; ed. 1872, p. 144; and 1882; ed. 1883, 
(p. 250). Carrillo y Ancona (1882; ed. 1883, p. 605-606) Riva 
Palacio (1887-89, v. i, p. 456) or Chavero (1887, p. 456) give 
the Chumayel map. Brinton (1882b; ed. 1890, p. 266) also gives 
the drawings of the day signs. The Katun wheel from the Chuma- 
yel is reproduced by Bowditch (1910, fig. 63).^ 

Chilam Balam de Tizimin. This manuscript is a quarto of 52 
pages formerly owned by Senor Ricardo Figueroa of Merida. Like 
the Chumayel it has disappeared. This manuscript has been called 
b}'' Carrillo y Ancona the Codice Anonimo. The original has been 
reproduced by Gates. Berendt (1868, p. 101-158 in B. L. C. No. 
49) made a copy from the original. A second copy (ff. 1-35 in an 
8° note-book) is owned by Gates and has been reproduced by him.^ 
Perez (6, in B. L. C. No. 44-3) discusses the historical and chrono- 
logical portions and compares them with similar parts of the Mani 
manuscript. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 146) discusses 
this document. The prophecies of the Tizimin are treated in 
another place. 

Manuel Luciano Perez (1870, p. 102, in B. L. C. No. 49) has a 
short letter written from Tizimin to Carrillo y Ancona regarding 
the sending of the manuscript to the Bishop.^ The first publication 
of any portion of the Tizimin text was by Brinton (1882, p. 136- 
151) where he presents a translation of the chronological parts. 
Raynaud (1891-92, p. 149-152) attempts another translation of 
those parts given by Brinton. Seler (1895; ed. 1902, p. 580: 
1898; etl. 1902, p. 676) gives sentences with translation from this 
manuscript. 

1 Perez (2, p. 174-177 in B. L. C. No. 50-31) has a heading Rmdas crono- 
logicas con su explicacion. 

- See Morley, 1920, p. 470, note. 

' This letter is discussed with quotations, in Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 
1872, p. 146. 



190 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Chilam Balam de Calkini. This is a quarto manuscript of 30 
pages formerly owned by Senor Ricardo Figueroa. It has disap- 
peared. The manuscript is not complete. The pages of the orig- 
inal are numbered 11-40. There is a Gates reproduction of the 
original and Gates also owns a copy (ff. 55-67 of a note-book) 
which he has also reproduced. Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 14-15) 
gives a description of this manuscript. Juan Molina y Solis (1896) 
also mentions it. 

Chilam Balam de Ixil. This manuscript was also owned by 
Seiior Ricardo Figueroa of Merida. There is no reproduction of 
the original of this manuscript. Berendt (1868, p. 75-79, 97-100 
in B. L. C. No. 49) made a copy. Gates also has another copy 
(ff. 36-60 of a note-book) which has been reproduced by him. 
Perez (2, p. 174-177, in B. L. C. 50-31) gives the Katun wheels 
from a number of these Chilam Balam Books. That from the Ixil 
has been reproduced by Thomas (1881-82, p. 60), Carrillo y Ancona 
(1878-82, ed. 1883, p. 252), Chavero (1887, p. 440) or Riva Palacio 
(1887-89, V. 1, p. 440), and by Bowditch (1910, figs. 61, 62). The 
prophecies contained in this manuscript are compared with those 
from the Mani in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 107-123, in B. L. C. 
No. 43-6). Perez (8, in B. L. C. No. 44-2) gives a part of this 
manuscript. 

Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab (1689). The original of this 
manuscript has been lost. It was partially copied by Pio Perez 
and his copy, in turn, copied by Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 185-224, 
in B. L. C. No. 43-8). These copies undoubtedly refer only to the 
chronological portion of the manuscript. It is to be supposed that 
there were other parts not copied by Perez. Carrillo y Ancona 
(1870; ed. 1872, p. 147) mentions this document. It is also prob- 
ably referred to in the Registro Yucateco (v. 1, p. 360. Anon. 1845).^ 

Chilam Balam de Kaua. This is a quarto manuscript con- 
taining 282 pages, also formerly owned by Senor Ricardo Figueroa 
and now in the Biblioteca Cepeda in Merida. Gates has repro- 
duced the original. There is a partial copy by Berendt (1868, 
p. 81-92, in B. L. C. No. 49). Gates has a second partial copy (to 

1 Care should be taken not to confuse this manuscriijt with the Xiu Chroni- 
cles, called by some the Cronica de Oxkutzcab. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 191 

p. 184 of the original manuscript). This is contained in a note- 
book (ff. 61 — 150) and has also been reproduced by him. Parts of 
this manuscript are given in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 87-101 in 
B. L. C. No. 43-5). Berendt (1868d, v. 1, in B. L. C. No. 42-13) 
has the multiplication table from the manuscript. The chronologi- 
cal portions are compared with corresponding parts of the Mani 
in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 102-106 in B. L. C. No. 43-5). Brinton 
(1882b; od. 1890, p. 270-271) gives the day signs from the manu- 
script. These are copied from Brinton by Troncoso (1883, p. 105). 
Bowditch (1910, fig. 64) gives a Katun wheel from this manuscript. 
This manuscript is probably the same as the Chilam Balam de 
Hocaba. 

Chilam Balam de Nah. This is a quarto manuscript of 64 
pages, owned by Gates and reproduced by him. It is signed by 
Jose Maria Nah and came from Teabo. Mr. Gates has called it 
by the name of its signer rather than by the name of the town in 
which it was found as there are already two collections of docu- 
ments bearing the name of this town. It is of the calendar type 
and similar, in general, to the Kaua manuscript. There are entries 
in a later hand as late as 1871 and 1896. 

Chilam Balam de Tekax. This manuscript is a quarto and 
consists of 36 written pages. It is incomplete. Gates is the owner 
and he has reproduced the manuscript. It contains features which 
place it in the same class as the Chilam Balam de Kaua. The 
usual medical recipes and a current calendar of the good and bad 
days are to be found in the manuscript. 

Chilam Balam de Peto. There is an obscure reference to the 
possible existence of a Chilam Balam Book at Peto. Carrillo y 
Ancona (1878-82: ed. 1883, p. 592) records that Juan Pio Perez 
writing from Peto in 1840 states, " Literatura quien sahe si la 
tuvieron; pero sabian escribir con precision. Una es la poesia del 
pueblo y otra la del sabio y sacerdote; la de estos no llego a nosotros, 
6 serdn muy raros los ejemplos." 

Chilam Balam de Nabula, Tihosuco, Tixcocob, and Ho- 
caba. These four manuscripts are known hardly more than by 
name. The Nabula has an account of an epidemic which occurred 
in 1673. Brinton (1883) refers to a manuscript from Tihosuco 



192 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

which he used in preparing his article on '' The folk-lore of Yuca- 
tan." Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 147-148) and Berendt 
tried in vain to find the Hocaba manuscript. This latter is prob- 
ably the same as the Kaua manuscript which formerly belonged to 
a resident in Hocaba. There is no information available on the 
Tixcocob document. 

THE PROPHECIES 

There has been a great deal of discussion concerning various so- 
called "Prophecies" contained in several of the Books of Chilam 
Balam. These prophecies as they now stand clearly foretell the 
coming of Christianity to the land. The natives of Haiti told 
Columbus of similar predictions made long before his arrival.^ As 
Brinton points out (1868, p. 188) these prophecies were doubtless 
adapted by the Spanish to proselytizing purposes but they seem 
fundamentally to have been native accounts of the return of 
Kukulcan, one of the culture heroes of the Mayas, and correspond- 
ing to Quetzalcouatl of the Mexicans. 

Gomara, Herrera, Cogolludo, Villagutierre and other early his- 
torians give other instances of the prophecy of the arrival of the 
white race." Several modern authors (Sierra, 1841) ^ have tried to 
prove that these prophecies were pure inventions of the Spanish 
priests to give a supernatural sanction to their teachings. There 
is no doubt that the influence of Christian teaching is seen in 
several of these documents. But the fact that the Mayas and 
other peoples of Latin America had native tales of the return of 
their culture heroes is proved by the way the Spanish Conquerors 
were first received by the natives of Mexico and Peru. They were 
considered to be the actual deified heroes who the natives had 
learned were to return. 

Anon (§ 31) is a discussion of the second return of the Spaniards. 
Cogolludo (1688, lib. 2, cap. xiv) writes as follows in connection 

' Sahagun, Historia rle la Nueva Esparto, Lib. xii, Caps. 2, 3. 

' Sanchez de Aguilar (1639; ed. 1892, p. 95j probably refers to one of 
these prophecies. 

^ Vicente Calero is often mentioned as a writer with Justo Sierra on Maya 
subjects. Pablo Moreno is another author who considered the Prophecies the 
inventions of the Spanish priests. Le Plongeon expressed the opinion in a pri- 
vate letter that these Prophecies were " pious frauds." 



THE PROPHECIES 193 

with this work, " Sin duda se rigid por un lihrillo escrito de mano, 
que ay en el idioma de los Indios, que le escribieron los de muy dentro 
de la tierra, despues de su conversion, en que notaron algunas cosas 
de aquellos tiempos, desde la segunda venida de los Espanoles, y algo 
de las guerras refer idas." 

The prophecies under discussion are those of the Maya priests 
Napuc Tun, Ah Kuil Chel, Ahau Pech, Natzin Abun Chan, and 
Chilam Balam.^ 

The first authority to give these prophecies was Lizana (1633, 
parte 2, cap. 1; ed. 1893, p. 37-39). He gives the Maya text and 
a translation in Spanish. He probably obtained the Maya from 
some early text of a Chilam Balam Book. It was evidently not one 
of the Balam Books known at the present time as the text differs 
in several places from that in any of the versions of the prophecies 
now available. It is interesting to note that there are no two 
copies of the same prophecy exactly alike.^ CogoUudo (1688, lib. 
2, cap. 11) gives the Spanish of the five prophecies stating that he 
had no room for the Maya. The Avendano manuscript (§ 6) may 
have been an account of these prophecies. Lizana's translation 
and text were pubhshed by Brasseur de Bourbourg (1857-59, v. 2, 
603-606, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-9). Brasseur de Bourbourg 
(1869-70, V. 2, p. 103-110) attempts next a French translation but 
gives the Maya text together with the translation of Lizana for 
comparison. Castillo (1866, p. 256-257) gives the Spanish transla- 
tion from Cogolludo of the prophecy of Chilam Balam. Perez (2, 
p. 65-74, 166-173, in B. L. C. No. 50-13 and No. 50-30) has some- 
thing on these parts of the Balam Books. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; 
ed. 1872, p. 142) refers to the text of Perez. Brinton (1868, p. 188- 
189) gives an English translation of a portion of the prophecy of 
Chilam Balam taken from the Spanish of Lizana and of Brasseur 
de Bourbourg. Troncoso (1883, p. 103, 109) gives a few lines of 
this prophecy and suggests a connection between the meaning and 
the significance of the engraving in Cogolludo. Brinton (1890a, 
p. 303) gives the Enghsh of a poem by the Priest Chilam. 

1 There is a wide variety in the spelling of these proper names. I have fol- 
lowed the spelling given by Lizana for the most part. The prophecy of Ci;ilam 
Balam as shown in the Chumayel and Tizimin texts and in Lizana is given 
with translation in Part II, p. 120-130. 

- Compare in this respect the versions given on p. 122 of the Chilam Balam 
Prophecy. 



194 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Berendt (1868d, v. 2) presents the version of the prophecies as 
given in the Chilam Balam de Mani and Ixil (B. L. C. No. 43-6, 
p. 107-132), and the versions of the Chilam Balam de Chumayel 
and again that of Mani (B. L. C. No. 43-3, p. 37-46). As noted 
above, the same prophecy, as given in different versions, may differ 
in spelHng and also in length. Nicoli (1870, p. 511) mentions and 
discusses the prophecy of Napuc Tun but gives neither text nor 
translation. Charencey (1873) gives the same prophecy with the 
Maya text, the translation of Lizana, that of Brasseur de Bour- 
bourg and a new one of his own in French. De Rosny (1875, p. 
85-93; ed. 1904, p. 120-123) gives the Maya text and his own 
French translation with comments of the prophecies of Napuc 
Tun and Ah Kuil Chel. He also gives for comparison the Spanish 
translation of Lizana and the French of Brasseur de Bourbourg. 
Schultz-Sellack (1879) makes a study of the words for east and 
west as given in the prophecies of Lizana. 

Orozco y Berra (1880, v. 1, p. 71-73) gives the Spanish of the 
prophecy of Napuc Tun and portions of the others. Carrillo y 
Ancona (1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 526-532) presents a new translation 
in Spanish of all five prophecies with the Maya text as foot-notes. 

Brinton who formerly had only the Lizana version for study, later 
came into possession of the Berendt Library so that other versions 
were available. Brinton (1882, p. 255-256) gives the Maya and 
EngHsh translation of the prophecy of Ahau Pech. Troncoso (1883, 
p. 104) reprints this, also giving the Maya of the Lizana version. 
Brinton (1882a, p. 167, 237) refers to the Pech prophecy in the 
Mani manuscript and Brinton (1882c, p. xxix) gives the Maya and 
English translation of the prophecy of Ah Kuil Chel from the 
Chilam Balam de Chumayel. Charencey (1876; ed. 1883, p. 141- 
150) discusses and translates the same prophecy. Finally, Brinton 
(1890a, p. 302) repeats the English translation of Ahau Pech. 
Rejon Garcia (1905a, p. 78-84) gives a partial Spanish translation 
of the prophecy of Ahau Pech. There is a song from one of the 
Books of Chilam Balam given by Brinton (1882, p. 126-127). 
Charencey (1875) discusses a paragraph from one of the prophecies 
and Maclean (1883, p. 442, note) gives an English translation of 
one of them. 



MEDICAL BOOKS 195 

MEDICAL BOOKS 

LiBROS DEL JuDio. Ill addition to the medical portions of the 
Books of Chilam Balam which consider the symptoms and the 
cure of diseases there are several manuscripts which deal exclu- 
sively with the native remedies. These have been classed to- 
gether under the above heading. They are sometimes called " The 
Book of the Jew." There was one Ricardo Ossado, alias, the Jew, 
who used herbs and other native remedies for curing disease (see 
Ossado, 1834). Brinton (1882b; ed. 1890, p. 272-273) andTozzer 
(1917, p. 182) describe this class of books. 

The first notice of a manuscript dealing exclusively with medi- 
cine is the work of Vidales (§ 3) of the xvii century. This is miss- 
ing. There are several different manuscripts dealing with medi- 
cine. They seem to date from the end of the xviii up to the middle 
of the XIX century. These manuscripts include the Libra del 
Judio (Anon, 13) of the Peabody Museum, described with extracts 
in Enghsh by Alice Le Plongeon (1879, p. 92, and 1889, p. 15-17), ^ 
the Libra de Medicina (Anon. 15),- the Libra del Judia de Sotuta, 
(Sotuta),^ and Medicina Maya (Anon. 16), all three of which are 
owned by Gates, and the Cuaderna de Teabo (Teabo. Copy in 
B.L.C.No.49). 

There are two valuable manuscripts dealing with diseases in 
Spanish. These are the Naticias de varios plantas (Anon. 19) a 
manuscript owned by Jose Rafael de Regil of Merida, and El libra 
de las Medicas (Anon. 14), a manuscript owned by Gates. Mr. 
Gates also owns another manuscript (Anon. 1820) on the medicinal 
plants. It is evidently part of a manuscript of considerable size 
as the last leaf remaining is numbered 123. It contains brief de- 
scriptions of plants with colored sketches.** The most valuable 

1 This MS. is described as having come from the island of Las Mujeres. 
Mr. Gates informs me that a ph^-sician in Acanceh told him that he had given 
the MS. to the Le Plongeons. 

- Gates suggests that this manuscript is very valuable as a supplement to 
the botanical series of Millspaugh (1895-98: 1900: 1903-04). 

5 The Gates reproduction of this manuscript shows p. 1-26 written in one 
hand followed by pages numbered 17-26, 33-54 in an entirely different writ- 
ing. There are evidently two separate documents. 

^ A note in Berendt's hand and signed by his initial states that the MS. was 
given to him by Rodolfo Canton in Vera Cruz in 1859. 



196 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

single manuscript dealing with this subject is probably that of 
Perez (4) with notes and additions to this manuscript by Berendt 
(1870, in B. L. C. No. 45). 

Ritual of the Bacabs. This is a most important Maya man- 
uscript, owned by Gates, of 46 medical incantations. Wilkins 
(1), who is at work upon a translation of the text, regards it as the 
oldest Maya to which we have access. At the end there are a few 
pages of the ordinary medical receipts markedly different from the 
main part of the work. All but about ten pages is in one hand- 
writing. These ten pages are in several different hands. The 
only mention of anything Christian or Spanish occurs in these 
pages. Two of these pages are on the back of a printed Indulgence 
of 1779. Wilkins considers the main body of the manuscript of 
earlier date. A report and preliminary translation of one chapter 
by Wilkins (1919) was read by Gates at the Cambridge meeting 
(1919) of the American Anthropological Association. 

THE CATECHISM 

XVI Century. The Catholic Catechism was naturally the first 
book to be translated into the native idioms by the Spanish priests. 
It is probable that Villalpando (§ 2) stands as the first translator 
of the Catechism into Maya as he does regarding the authorship 
of a Maya grammar and vocabulary. This would have been 
written toward the middle of the xvi century. 

Sanchez de Aguilar (1639; ed. 1892, p. 35) writing in 1613 states 
that all the Indians from childhood learned and knew the whole 
Catechism. He adds that the Doctrina was translated into Maya 
admirably by Bishop Landa (§ 2). This was probably done in the 
third quarter of the century as Landa died in 1579.^ The Noticias 
Sagrades of Solana (§ 2) should be mentioned here. 

XVII Century. Sanchez de Aguilar (§ 1), born in Valladolid 
in 1555, a grandson of one of the founders of Merida and a Maya 
student under Caspar Antonio Xiu, wrote a Doctrina in Maya 
probably toward the beginning of this century. He carried the 
manuscript with him to Madrid in 1617 and it was lost on the 

1 A Doctrina in Maya is listed under the name of Juan Ciuz (1571). This 
is probably an error. Squier (1861, p. 29) has a Huastec Doctrina by Cruz. 



THE CATECHISM 197 

journey. It is said that a copy was left behind in Yucatan in the 
possession of the Jesuits. 

At about the same time Acevedo, who was in Yucatan from 
1592 to 162-4, wrote his Instrucciones catequisticas (§ 2) in Maya. 
This is missing. The Doctrina of Coronel (1620a) is the first which 
has come down to us. His larger work Discursos Predicables 
(1620b) is also known, three copies of which are said to be in 
existence, one owned by Gates, another in Puebla, and the third 
is the Pinart-Pilling copy. Coronel (§ 2) is also the author of a 
second catechism and, according to Juan de San Antonio in his 
Bibliotheca Franciscana, this is more complete than that of 1620a. 
The manuscript is supposed to be in the library of the Colegio de 
San Buenaventura in Seville. 

XVIII Century. The Doctrina of Beltran (1740) seems to 
have been very popular as it has had several editions, the last of 
which was in 1895. No copy of the first edition is know^n. Juan 
Martinez owns the only known copy of the edition of 1816, a 
product of the first printing press in Yucatan. Gates owns a 
Doctrina in manuscript (Anon. 7) of this century. 

XIX Century. Ruz made translations of the following works : 
a Catechism of Abad Fleuri (Ruz 1822), one by Ripalda (1847), 
which was issued in another edition bj' Charencey (1892a), an ex- 
planation of the Doctrina by Placido Rico (Ruz 1847a), and an- 
other edition of the Catechism (1851). Mention is also made by 
Carrillo y Ancona of still another Catechism by Ruz (2). Fletcher 
(1865a) was probably the^ author of a translation of the Catechism 
of the Methodist Church.^ There is a Doctrina by Audomaro 
Molina (1905) and one in the dialect of Peten (Anon. 6 in B. L. C. 
No. 42-10, B.L.C.). 

Los Sacramentos. Parts of the Catechism have frequently 
been translated into Maya. The Sacramentos have been translated 
by VaUadolid (§ 1) in a manuscript of the xvii century which is 

1 Brinton (1900) gives the author as Richard Fletcher. No author's name 
appears on the title page but on the Berendt copy that of Richard Fletcher is 
written in. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871, p. 81) and Vinaza (1892, § 5olj give 
the author as Henderson. Carrillo y Ancona (2) definitely establishes the fact 
that Fletcher was the author of this and other works ascribed by some to 
Henderson. 



198 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

missing. He gave the Latin and Maya text. San Buenaventura 
(1684, fol. 39-41o6.) gives the For^na administrandi infirmis Sacra- 
mentmn Eucharistiae. Gates owns a manuscript of the Pasion 
domini (Anon. 20) dating from the end of the xviii century. Ruz 
(1846) in his Manual Romano gives the Sacramentos. This has 
been repubhshed in part by Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, 
p. 121-122). 

El Viatico. This is given in Maya in several places in the 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, Nos. 42-12 (Anon. 11), 42-15 
(Anon. 18), 42-17 (Anon. 17), as well as in Anon (1897). 

Via Sacra. This is translated by Ruz (1849) from the Spanish 
of Jose de Herrera Villavicencio. Nolasco de los Reyes (1869) 
also translates the Via Sacra which was reissued by Madier (1875).^ 
The manuscript in the Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-17, 
should be noted in this connection (Anon, 17). 

AcTO DE Contrici6n. This is given in Maya by Carrillo y 
Ancona (1866; ed. 1883, p. 565). It is also to be found in the 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-14 (Anon, 1). 

Confesi6n. This is given in Maya in an anonymous manu- 
script (Anon, 1803) collected in Campeche by Berendt (B. L. C. 
No. 26). I saw the Confesion in Maya in Merida in 1904 (Anon, 
9). This may be the same work as Baeza (1883)" although the 
titles are slightly different. Coronal (§ 3) is mentioned as having 
written a Confesionario and instructions for new priests. 

AcTOS DE Fe. These were translated into Maya by Acosta 
(1851). 3 

Administration of the Mass. This is given in Maya by 
Ruz (1835) from the Spanish of Luiz Lanzi. 

Trinitate Dei. This is shown in Maya in an incomplete man- 
uscript owned by Gates (Anon, 23). 

1 See Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 189-190). 

2 Wilkinson (Anon, 1883) gives a Doctrina which is probably the same as 
that of Baeza. 

3 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 189) in speaking of this work, 
writes, '^No hemos podido conseguir ningun manuscrito del Sr. presditero D. Jose 
Antonio Acosta; pero sabemos con certeza que dejo varios, y entre ellos algunas 
colecciones 6 sermonarios." 



THE BIBLE 199 

Lord's Prayer. In addition to more general works in which 
prayers are given, the Lord's Prayer is to be found in several dif- 
ferent versions in many places. Hervas y Panduro (1787, p. 115- 
116) gives it and his version is followed by Adelung (1806-17, v. 3, 
part 3, p. 20-21). Norman (1843, p. 68, note), Auer (1844-47, part 
2, p. 571), and Anon (1860) give the same prayer. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1864, p. 478-479) gives it with the Creed after the ver- 
sion by lluz. Galindo (1832) also gives the prayer and Creed. 
Berendt (1869, p. 8), Naphegyi (1869, p. 310-311), Marietti (1870, 
p. 281), de Rosny (1875, p. 83-85; ed. 1904, p. 116-119), and 
Bancroft (1874-76, v. 3, p. 776) all print the Lord's Prayer in Maya. 
Carrillo y Ancona (1880) gives the Maya of two prayers. Anon. 
(1891) probably has the Lord's Prayer in Maya. 

THE BIBLE 

St. Luke. The translations into Maya of parts of the Bible are 
all comparatively late works. Ruz (1) made a translation of 
Chapters 5, 11, 15 and 23 of the Gospel of St. Luke. This manu- 
script, in the handwriting of Ruz with many corrections by him, 
was in the library of Bishop Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872 
p. 177) in Merida. Ruz (3) is a second edition of the translation 
with a few changes in writing the Maya. 

The historical catalogue of the books of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society of London states that as early as 1833 the Committee 
of the Society had heard that a version of St. Luke in Maya was 
being prepared in Central America and some years later they re- 
ceived the manuscript which was published in a tentative edition 
in 1862 (?) with no author's name given. John Kingdon arrived 
in Belize, British Honduras, in 1845 from Jamaica as a missionary 
of the British Missionary Society. It is probable that he was the 
author of this edition (Kingdon, 1862), as it was published on the 
request of the Bishop of Kingston, Jamaica. He may or may not 
have used the translation of Ruz.^ According to the records of 

1 Brinton (1882, p. 41) states definitely that Kingdon obtained a copy of 
the Ruz MS. which he printed with no acknowledgment of the author. There 
is a great deal of confusion regarding the authorship of several of these trans- 
lations of the Bible. Kingdon and Henderson were Baptist missionaries at 
Belize and Fletcher was a Methodist missionary at Corozal, British Honduras. 
For the work of Henderson and Kingdon, see Crowe, 1850. 



200 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

the British and Foreign Bible Society, Kingdon completed an 
edition of the Gospels and the Acts in Maya. This would seem to 
show that his own translation of St. Luke may have been sent to 
London to be printed rather than the pirated text of Ruz. 

The complete Gospel of St. Luke was published by the Bible 
Society in 1865 with no name but probably under the same au- 
thority as the tentative edition of 1862 (Kingdon, 1865). Hender- 
son (1870) corrected this text and brought out another edition 
under the imprint of the Baptist Bible Translation Society of 
London. Henderson also made a translation of the Book of 
Genesis (§ 1) and the Psalms (§ 2) according to Berendt (1867). 

Chapter 6, verses 27-34 of St. Luke have been published by 
Bagster (1848-51, p. 386; ed. 1860, p. 468). 

St. John. Fletcher (1868), a missionary at Corozal, British 
Honduras, brought out a tentative edition of the Gospel of St. 
John translated into Maya. This was published by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society as well as the final edition (Fletcher, 
1869).^ The latter was printed at Cambridge, England. 

Chapter 3, verse 16, of St. John has been pubhshed by the Ameri- 
can Bible Society (1876, p. 39), British and Foreign Bible Society 
(1, p. 30; 2d ed. 1878, p. 28) and by the Pennsylvania Bible Society, 
(1, p. 39: 2, p. 28). 

St. Matthew and St. Mark. Fletcher (1900: 1900a) was also 
the translator of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark brought 
out by the same Society. These translations were probably made 
at the same time as that of St. John. There seems to be another 
translation of St. Mark which I cannot identify (Anon, 12). 

SERMONS 

Not only were the Spanish priests active in spreading the Gospel 
by means of translations of the Catechism into Maya but again 
and again one reads that the Spanish missionaries were commanded 

1 Brinton (1900, p. 213) makes Alexander Henderson a joint author of this 
work. This is probably incorrect as Henderson belonged to another denomi- 
nation. There seems to have been a definitive edition St. John published in 
1868 as well as in 1869, according to a record kindly furnished me by the 
Reverend R. Kilgour, D.D., Librarian of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
of London. I am also indebted to him for other information concerning the 
works of these Protestant missionaries. See also Carrillo y Ancona (2). 



SERMONS 201 

to learn the languages of the country and to preach in these lan- 
guages. There are, therefore, references to a large number of ser- 
mons written in Maya. The greater part of these are in manuscript 
although several collections of them have been pu])lished. 

XVI Century. Mention has already been made of the volu- 
minous writings on Maya vocabularies of Ciudad Real. He was 
the greatest master of Latin in Yucatan in the xvi century. His 
sermons in Maya (Ciudad Real, § 4) are considered by the early 
authorities to have been models of excellence. They are unfor- 
tunately^ missing. Solana (§ 1) is another Padre of this century 
who wrote sermons. Torralva (§ 1) who was in Yucatan from 1573 
to 1624 also was the author of a collection of rehgious treatises in 
IMaya. The copy of a draft of a sermon (Anon, 4, copy in B. L. C. 
No. 42^), supposedly written by the author of the Motul Dic- 
tionary, is to be noted. Anon (30) should be mentioned here as 
it is probably the same manuscript as the preceding one.^ 

XVII Century. Among the writers of this century who were 
the authors of sermons in Maya, mention should be made of 
Coronel (1620b), Rincon- (§ 1), Mena (§ 1), and Valladolid (§ 2), 
a native of Yucatan, born in 1617 and dj'ing in 1652. The sermons 
of the last three writers are missing. 

XVIII Century. Writers of discourses of this centurj^ include 
Beltran (1740a, copy in B. L. C. No. 21), Dominguez y Argaiz 
1758) ^ and a collection of sermons in manuscript (Anon, 22, in 
B. L. C. No. 47). Mention should also be made here of a second 

1 These are probably the two sermons mentioned by LePlongeon in a letter, 
dated September 26, 1884, to J. R. Bartlett, then Librarian of the John Carter 
Brown Library. This was written when he returned the Motul Dictionary 
which he had borrowed to copy. He writes, " Also the two sermons on Maya 
language which I likewise have copied. One is on Trinity, the Reverend, I am 
afraid, tried to explain to his hearers what he himself did not understand very 
clearly for he seems to have become confused, repeating the same thing over 
and over again. . . . The other is on the faith in the teachings of the Holy 
Catholic Church." 

2 Cogolludo (1688, lib. 12, cap. xi) writes as follows, " El R. P. Fr. Antonio 
del Rincon . . . fue Predicador de Espanoles, y muy gran lengua de los naturales, 
en la cual escrihio algunos Sermones, que han aprovechado a otros Mi7iistros." 

^ A copy of this together with Carvajal (1) and Anon 22 are in Berendt 
1868a. 



202 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

collection of sermons in manuscript belonging to Mr. Gates 
(Anon 21). 

XIX Century. Carvajal (1) has left a manuscript sermon in 
Maya.i Carvajal, (§ 2) also made a collection of proverbs in Maya 
which has disappeared. These date from the early xix century. 
There is a manuscript volume of discourses from Teabo owned 
by Mr. Gates dating from about 1865 to 1884. Toward the 
middle of the century Ruz (1846-50) has a collection of four 
volumes of sermons in Maya.- These are of little real worth as 
Maya texts. Vela (1848) gives a translation of a sermon by 
Bishop Guerra. Vela (1848a) also addresses the Indios suhlevados 
in a religious letter in the native language. Fletcher (1865) is 
probably the author of a short sermon for every day of the week.^ 
Vales (1870) translated into Maya a pastoral sermon of Bishop 
Gala giving the Spanish and Maya texts. Carrillo y Ancona had 
the manuscript of two sermons in Maya (Anon, 1871) which were 
copied by Berendt (B. L. C. No. 44-10). 

SECULAR TEXTS 

There is a large mass of secular texts in Maya some of which go 
back to very early Spanish times. It should be remembered that 
much of the material contained in the Books of Chilam Balam 
might be considered as secular rather than religious in nature. 
Reference is here made, however, to purely historical, legal, and 
pohtical papers. 

Cr6nica de Chicxulub.^ This manuscript, dating from the 
middle of the xvi century, is also called the Nakuk Pech Manu- 

1 This is probably the one referred to by Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, 
p. 189). He writes: "Asi el Sr. presbitero D. Francisco Carvajal, que florecio 
en este siglo, escribio en yucateco muchos y muy huenos discursos y sermones, que 
sin haherse dado a la prensa, los usan los instructores de indios. Varias veces 
hemos esci chado un elocuente sermon de viemes santo, de que el anciano Dr. D. 
Tomds D. Quintana, que conocio y trato intimamente al P. Carvajal nos testified 
ser el MS. obra itiedita de este que fue gran orador de la lengua Maya." 

2 Pinart (1883, No. 598) mentions three volumes. 

3 Brinton (1900) in his Catalogue of the Berendt Collection gives the author 
of this work as Richard Fletcher. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871, p. 81) and 
Vinaza (1892, p. 552) have Alexander Henderson as the author. 

* The original name of this town was Chacxulubchen. 



SECULAR TEXTS 203 

script, as it deals with the Pech family as well as with the survey 
of the town. It is a quarto of 26 pages and should still be in exist- 
ence in the village from which it takes its name. A copy, which is 
full of errors, was rediscovered by Martinez in 1907. This is owned 
by Jose Rafael de Regil of Merida. There is a Gates reproduction 
of the copy. Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 47-86, in B. L. C. No. 43-4) . 
copied portions of this manuscript. Avila (1864) translated the 
whole document into Spanish. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869- 
70, V. 2, p. 110-120) has pubhshed the Maya and a French trans- 
lation of the first five pages of the original together with some 
other material of the Pech family. ^ 

Brinton (1882, p. 187-259) describes the manuscript and gives 
the text and translation of the first document using Avila's Spanish 
version to some extent. Charencey (1891) gives a French transla- 
tion of Brinton. Brinton (1882a, p. 167, note) refers again to the 
manuscript. Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 47-86 in B. L. C. No. 43-4) 
as noted above, made a copy of the manuscript in Yucatan and 
later he evidently compared his copy with that of Brasseur de 
Bourbourg and also with that of Avila and Brinton. Perez (2, p. 
201-258, in B. L. C. No. 50-35) also gives the document. Fiske 
(1892, V. 1, p. 138) refers to the manuscript and Juan Molina (1897, 
p. 467-468) gives a paragraph from this latter document with 
translation. Martinez (1918a) has a paper in manuscript on the 
chronicle. He found a duplicate manuscript by Ah Naum Pech 
who is mentioned by Nakuk Pech. The manuscript is practically 
identical with that of Nakuk Pech. 

Legal Documents. The most important of these non-religious 
items consist of legal papers. The earliest of these, so far reported, 
is that dated 1542 (Anon, 1542) still preserved according to 
Brinton. Next in point of time is a collection of legal documents 
owned by Gates, the first paper of which is dated 1571 (Anon, 8). 

Xiu Chronicles or Libro de Prohanzas. These date from 1608 
to 1817. They are owned by the Peabody Museum and they have 
been reproduced both by Mr. Gates and by Mr. Bowditch. The 
Bowditch reproduction has an introduction by Miss Adela C. 
Breton. This manuscript is probably to be identified as the Ticul 
Manuscript or the Cronica de Oxkutzcab and is the one probably 

1 See Brinton, 1882, p. 191-192. 



204 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

referred to by an anonymous writer in the Registro Yucateco 
(1845-49, V. 1, p. 360).^ This manuscript should be distinguished 
from the Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab. This collection contains 
petitions and evidences and decrees certifying the lordship of the 
heads of the Xiu family established near Oxkutzcab. The Maya 
documents are often followed by the substance of the petition given 
in Spanish. There is also a good map of the region in the vicinity 
of Ticul and and a genealogical tree of the Xiu family which is 
published opposite entry No. 472 in the catalogue of Wilkinson 
(1915). There is an important page containing data useful in the 
correlation of Maya and Christian chronology. This page has 
been reproduced and discussed by Morley (1920, p. 470 etc.). Gates 
(1920a) gives a translation of the same page with notes upon it 
in Morley (1920, p. 507-509). Parts of the manuscript have been 
copied by Miss Breton and translated by Martinez Hernandez 
(1920). 

Titidos de Ehtun. These compose the largest collection of legal 
documents, dating from about 1638 to 1829. They have been re- 
produced by Gates. 

Lihro de los Cocomes or the Lihi'o de Cacalchen. This is probably 
the most interesting series of legal manuscripts from a linguistic 
point of view. This collection of documents is owned by Gates and 
dates from 1646 to 1826. It has been reproduced by him. The 
first 34 leaves contain wills in Maya. The second section is of 41 
paragraphs, the first leaf missing, of regulations for the govern- 
ment of the town. It is this section which Martinez Hernandez 
(1920b) considers to contain copies made in 1729 of original orders 
{ordenanzas) of the Oidor, Don Diego Garcia de Palacios,- who 
came to Yucatan in 1583. These orders, in turn, were made by the 
Oidor, Tomas Lopez, in 1552 if we are to believe Cogolludo (1688, 
p. 401) who writes, " Las ordenangas, y leyes con que hasta el tiempo 
'presente se estan governando los Indios de esta tierra, son las que hizo 
este Visitador. Casi todas son renovacion de las que hizo el Oydor 
Thomas Lopez, quando visito esta tierra el ana de mil y quini'entos y 
cinquenta y dos, sino que como de aquellas se perdieron co{n) el tiempo 

1 See quotation from this account in Tozzer, 1917, p. 180. This is also given 
by Carrillo y Ancona 1870; ed. 1872, p. 147. 

^ The same person is mentioned in the Mani and Tizimin manuscripts as 
Judge Diego Pareja. 



SECULAR TEXTS 205 

los quadernos, y en el presente son muy pocos que los han visto, dan por 
nuevo Autor de ellas a este Visitador . . . Traduxeronse en el idioma 
natural de los Indios, para que mejor las entendiessen, y supiessen,' 
quedando en iodos los Pueblos un traslado dellas, para que las leyessen 
continuamente, como leyes q'avian de ohservar.^' ]\Iiss Aclela Breton 
has pointed out to me that Ordenanza 25 is quoted in a Cedula Real 
of 1579 by Palomino in Juan Molina (1904-13, v. 1, p. 228). ^ 
Following the Ordejianzas are many leaves with lists of minor 
officials. Later pages have the parish accounts of payments of 
salaries. It can thus be seen that these documents are of great 
linguistic value as they offer Maya texts dating from the middle of 
the XVII century. Martinez Hernandez (1920a) has translated the 
the will of Andres Pat (1647) contained in this collection. 

Cronica de Mani. This is a series of documents, dating from 
1556, kept in the Casa Real of the town of Mani, according to 
Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 262-268).- He gives an English translation 
from a Spanish version made by Estanislao Carrillo (1) and cor- 
rected by Perez of a portion of these manuscripts. Stephens also 
reproduces the map of the vicinity of Mani contained in this col- 
lection of documents. Juan Molina (1897, p. 69) gives a para- 
graph from this manuscript in Maya and Spanish. 

Other manuscripts of the same general class are as follows: — 
Documentos de Sotuta (Perez 2, p. 187-200, copy in B. L. C. 
No. 50-34),^ Documentos de Ticul (Ticul, 1760 et seq.) owned by 
Gates and reproduced by him, Titulo de Acanceh (Acanceh, 1767, 
copy in B. L. C. No. 44-7), translated into Maya by Avila 
1864), and Papeles de Xtepen (Xtepen, copy in B. L. C. No. 44-8). 

Political Papers. These form the next class of secular texts 
in Maya. The first of these in our list is a collection of letters 

' Gates informs me that this paragraph from Mohna is also found in the 
Xiu Chronicles. 

- Morley (1920, p. 473) mentions this manuscript. 

3 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 144) writes: "En fin, el bbro 
(Perez 2) concluye . . . con Jos fragmentos de diferentes manuscritos mayas 
sobre documentacion de tierras en los pueblos de Sotuta, Yaxcaba y otros. Dichas 
documentaciones son en parte originalmente obras de nuestro escritor Gaspar 
Antonio. . . . Que esto es asi es indudable, pues en la parte maya y en la ver- 
sion espanola que acompana el Sr. Perez, aparece por dos veces correspondiendo al 
ano de 1600, la firma de Gaspar Antonio como autor de los documentos." 



206 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

(Anon, 1514-72) in the Archives of the Indies in Seville. Several 
of these documents are in Maya. A careful search in these Archives 
would doubtless yield more material in the Maya language. There 
is a letter in Maya by Gong alo Che ( 1877) and others, addressed to 
Philip II, dated 1567, and published in facsimile in Cartas de 
Indias. There is little now known in this line from this early date 
until the beginning of the xix century. Then, there comes an 
order of the governor of Yucatan translated into Maya by Cervera 
(1803, copy in B. L. C. No. 44-9) and a Banda or Proclamation 
issued by Artazo y Torredemer (1814), Brigadier and Captain- 
General, on matters of the insurrection, dangers of war, etc. This 
is in Maya and Spanish. ^ Next in point of time comes a collection 
of letters in manuscript written in Maya by Pat (1847, circa) and 
other leaders of the uprising in 1847. This manuscript is owned by 
Gates and has been reproduced by him. There follows another 
proclamation translated by Perez (1848) and a proposition for an 
armistice written in Maya by Chan (1850, copy in B. L. C. No. 
44-11) and others. 

Villanueva (1864, in B. L. C. No. 42-17) gives a proclamation in 
Maj-a and Pacheco Cruz (1) translates some of the decrees of 
Governor Avila. There is also an address to Maximilian in Maya 
(Anon. 3, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-18). A poHtical squib by 
Manuel Garcia (1856) should also be noted. 

Short portions of secular text are given in Granado (1845, p. 171) 
and Waldeck (1838, p. 90-91, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-2). Mention 
should also be made of the Fama diaria (Anon. 24, copy in B. L. C. 
No. 50-18). 

Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 190) writes. " Heynos 
visto una especie de circular 6 manifiesto de la reina de Inglaterra, 6 
dado en nomhre suyo, a manera de cartelon, con grandes y hennosos 
caracteres en idioma Maya, el cual fue desprendtdo de una esquina 
de calle publica. Modo indirecto de imponer poco d poco y de hecho 
la dominacion hritdnica sohre las habitantes de nacionalidad yucateca 
6 mexicana, que hablan el idioma Maya y tienen comercio con aquella 
colonia inglesa." (See Anon, 10.) 

Poems, Songs, Folk-Loee, etc. Poems in Maya are given by 
Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. 120-121, copy in B. L. C. 

1 Gates regards this as being the first Maya printed in Yucatan. It is No. 
10 in Medina (1904) where he calls it Cakchiquel. 



LACANDONE TEXTS 207 

No. 44-5), Hernandez (1905), and Rejon Garcia (1905a, p. 118- 
144). Some music and Maya words are given by Berendt (1868c). 
Alice LePlongeon (1) published some Maya music with Maya 
words. Berendt (1866) has a Maya witch story with translation in 
Spanish. 1 Brinton (1883; ed. 1890, p. 171-172) gives this with an 
English translation. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. 101- 
102, copy in B. L. C. No. 44-6) gives a short text in Maya and 
French entitled Invocation au Soleil, which he collected at Xcancha- 
kan. An English version is given by Brinton (1883; ed. 1890, 
p. 1G7). Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869, p. 10) gives a short sen- 
tence in Maya with translation. Anon (29) is probably a folk-tale. 
Tozzer (1901) is a collection of historical and legendary material.^ 

LACANDONE TEXTS 

Finally, mention should be made of the Lacandone text and Eng- 
lish translation of fifty-one prayers given by Tozzer (1907, p. 169- 
189).^ Incantations, similar in many respects to these, and com- 
ing from southeastern Yucatan and British Honduras are given by 
Gann (1918, p. 46-47). 

1 This tale is given in Part II, p. 119-120. 

2 A small part of this manuscript is given in Part II, p. 115-118. 
' One of these is given with translation in Part II, p. 118-119. 



PART IV 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS RELATING 
TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 



PART IV 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS RELATING 
TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

INTRODUCTION 

It is my intention to give in the accompanying bibliography as 
complete a list as possible of the writers and their works on and in 
the Maya language of Yucatan. I do not attempt to give all 
books which mention this language but those only which describe 
or treat the language at some length. 

It will be noted that following each entry one or more numbers 
are given. These refer to the page or pages in the critical survey 
of the hterature (Part III) where the book or manuscript in ques- 
tion is discussed. Part III can thus be used in connection with 
this list as a subject catalogue. A number also follows the names of 
some of the authors. This refers to the place where the work of the 
writer in question is discussed as a whole. 

A § in front of a date or number indicates that the work referred 
to is missing. 

The anonymous books will be found hsted at the end of the bib- 
hography. Wherever possible these are arranged by date; other- 
wise they are grouped alphabetically by the first word of the title 
and given consecutive numbers. 

I desire at this place to thank once more my friend, WilHam 
Gates, Esqr., who has given me so much of his valuable time and 
has been so willing to suggest points which I have overlooked. I 
wish also to express my appreciation of the kindness of Mrs. Anne 
Fadil, formerly Librarian of the University Museum, Philadelphia, 
who was good enough to look up many references for me in the 
Berendt Collection. Don Juan Martinez Hernandez should also be 
thanked in connection with this bibliography. Professor M. H. 

211 



212 INTRODUCTION 

Saville has been good enough to loan me books from his valuable 
library in addition to giving me several suggestions. Fmally, I 
wish to thank Mr. T. F. Currier, Assistant Librarian of the Har- 
vard College library, who has supervised the verification of many 
of the references. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ACANCEH, TiTULO DE 

1767 Titulo de un solar y monte en Acanceh (en lengua Maya) : Trans- 
lated into Spanish by Avila. (Copy 12°, 8 p. in Berendt Lin- 
guistic Collection, No. 44-7.) 205. 

AcEVEDO, Juan de 

§ (1) Principios elementales de la gramatica Yucateca: MS. xvii 
century (missing). (Cogolludo gives the title Arte de la lengua 
Yucateca mas breve.) 163. 

§ (2) Instrucciones catequisticas y morales para los Indios en idioma 
Yucateco: MS. xvii century (missing). 197. 

AcosTA, Jose Antonio 

1851 Oraciones devotas que comprenden los actos de fe, esperanza, 
caridad. Afectos para un cristiano y una oracion para pedir 
una buena muerte en idioma Yucateco con inclusion del Santo 
Dios: Merida, 12°, 16 p. (Maya and Spanish. Gates reproduc- 
tion.) 198. 

Adam, Lucien 

1877 Du polysynthetisme et de la formation des mots dans les langues 

Quiche et Maj^a : in Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Com- 
paree, v. 10, p. 34-74. 167 (2). 

1878 Examen grammatical compare de seize langues americaines: in 

Proceedings of the 2d International Congress of Americanists, 
Luxembourg (1877), v. 2, p. 161-244. (Published separately, 
^ Paris, 1878, 8°, 88 p. 5 folding sheets.) 168, 179. 
1878a Etudes sur six langues americaines : Dakota, Chibcha, Nahuatl, 
Kechua, Quiche, Maya: Paris, 8°, viii, 165 p. 168 ^3), 179. 

Adelung, Johann Christoph 

1806-17 Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater 
unser als Sprachprobe in bey nahe 500 Sprachen und Mund- 
arten. Mit wichtigen Beytragen zweyer grossen Sprachfor- 
scher: Berlin, 8°, 4 v. (with additions by Johann Severin 
Vater). 159, 161, 164, 199. 

Aguilar, Pedro Sanchez de 

1639 Informe contra idolorum cultores del Obispado de Yucatan: 
Madrid 4°. (New edition in A7iales del Museo Nacional, 
Mexico, V. 6, 1892, p. 15-122.) (This is probably the same 
work as his Relacion de las cosas de Yiccatan y sus ecclesiasticos.) 
(See Saville, 1921.) 192. 

§ (1) Catecismo de Doctrina Cristiana en lengua Maya: MS. xvii 
century (missing). 196. 

813 



214 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Alcedo y Bexarano, Antonio de 

1807 Biblioteca americana. Catdlogo de los autores que han escrito 
de la America en diferentes idiomas. Y noticia de su vida y 
patria, anos en que viveron y obras que escribieron: folio, 
MS. 2 V. vi, 488; 489-1028 ff. (from Lord Kingsborough's 
library) in John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode 
Island. (Copy in Sparks Collection, Cornell University, with 
following note by Sparks, "This volume was copied from the 
original MS. in the possession of O. Rich of London. The 
original was found by him in Madrid. Copied, 1843." There 
is another copy with statement as follows, "Mexico. Copia 
remitida de Boston por el Senor William H. Prescott, 1854." 
See criticism of this work by Harrisse, 1866, p. xxiv, and 
quoted in Spanish by Medina, 1898-1907, v. 6, p. cxvi.) 154, 
167. 

American Bible Society. Publisher. 

1876 Centennial exhibition, 1876. Specimen verses from versions in 
different languages and dialects in which the Holy Scriptures 
have been printed and circulated by the American Bible So- 
ciety and the British and Foreign Bible Society: 16°, 48 p., 
2 pis. (Numerous other editions the last of which was in 1919 
including specimen verses from 269 different languages.) 200. 

Ancona, Eligio 

[1877] Introduction to the Pio Perez Diccionario, 1866-77. (See Perez, 
1866-77.) 160. 

1878-1905 Historia de Yucatan: Merida, 8°, 5 v. (4 v. 1878-80. v. 5, 
edited by Jos6 Maria Pino Suarez, published in 1905. 2d and 
revised edition of first 4 v. Barcelona, 1889.) 162, 180, 185. 

1881 Compendio de la historia de la peninsula de Yucatan que com- 
prende los estados de Yucatan y Campeche. Obra escrita en 
forma de dialogo para el uso de las escuelas: Merida, 16°, 84 p. 
180. 

Andrade, Jose Leocadio 

1880 See Carrillo y Ancona, 1880. 
Andrade, Jose Maria 

1869 Catalogue de la riche bibliotheque de Andrade: Leipzig and 
Paris, 8°, xi. 368 p. (Sale catalogue.) 154, 168. 

Andrade, Vicente de Paula 

1899 Ensayo biblii^grafico Mexicano del siglo xvii: Mexico, (2d ed.) 
8°, vii, 803 p. (1st ed., 1894, in Memorias de la Sociedad Cienti- 
fica "Antonio Alzate," never completed.) 156. 
Anon. 

For anonymous works, see p. 276-279. 
Anonimo, Codice 

See Tizimin, Chilam Balara de 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 

Antonio, Caspar 

See Xiu, Caspar Antonio 

Antonio, Nicolas 

1672 Bibliotheca Hispana sive Hispanorvm, qvi vsqvam vnqvamve 
sive Latina sive populari sive alia quavis lingua scripto aliquid 
consignaverunt notitia, his qva; pra^cesservnt locvpletior et 
certior brevia elogia, editorum atque ineditorum operum 
catalogum dvabvs par tibvs contiens, etc.: Rome, 4°, 2 v. 
41 ff., 633; 690 p. (2d ed. Madrid, 1783-88.) 160, 153. 
1696 Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus; sive, Hispanorum qui usquam, 
unqudmve scripto aliquid consignaverunt, notitia. Com- 
plectens scriptores omnes, qui, ab Octaviani Augusti imperio, 
usque ad annum M.' floruerunt: Rome, 4°, 2 v. (2d ed. 
Madrid, 1788.) 153. 

Artazo y Torredemer, Manuel 

1814 Banda (or Proclamation) Maya and Spanish in parallel columns: 
1 f. 206. 
Asensio, Jose Maria. Editor. 

See Coleccion de Documentos, 1898-1900. 

AuER, Alois 

1844-47. Sprachenhalle : Vienna, 2 parts, folio. 199. 

AVENDANO Y LOYOLA, AnDRES DE 142. 

1696 Relacion de las dos entradas que hize a Peten Itza: 4°, MS. 
66 ff. (Gates reproduction. For publication of greater part 
of MS., see Means, 1917. p. 103-174.) 164. 

§ (1) Arte para aprender la lengua de Yucatan: MS. xviii century 
(missing). 164. 

§ (2) Diccionario de la lengua de Yucatan: MS. xviii century (miss- 
ing). 174. 

§ (3) Diccionario abreviado de los adverbos de tiempo y lugar de la 
lengua de Yucatan: MS. xviii century (missing). 174. 

§ (4) Diccionario botanico y medico conforme a los usos y costumbres 
de los Indios de Yucatan: MS. xviii century (missing). 174. 

§ (5) Diccionario de nombres de personas, idolos, danzas, y otras 
antigtiedades de los Indios de Yucatan: MS. xviii century 
(missing). 174. 

§ (6) Explicacion de varios vaticinios de los antiguos Indios de Yuca- 
tan: MS. xviii century (missing). 193. 

AviLA, Manuel Encarnacion. Translator. 

[1864 circa] [Translation into Spanish of Titulo de Acanceh (1767) and 
Cronica de Chicxulub (1542)]. 203, 205. 
Aznar y Perez, Gabriel. Translator. 

1882 Translation of Brinton, 1882&: in Semanario Yucateco: Merida. 
183. 

1 The M in the title is, of course, a misprint for M.D. 



216 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bacabs, Ritual of the 

12°, MS., 237 p. contains 46 incantations. (Owned by Gates.) 
196. 
Bachiller y Morales, Antonio 

1883 Cuba primitiva, origen, lenguas, tradiciones e historia de los 
Indies de las Antillas Mayores y las Lucayas: Havana, 8°, 7- 
399 p. 2d ed. Corregida y aumentada. (Printed first in La 
Revista de Cuba.) (See Proceedings of the 4ih International 
Congress of Americanists, Madrid, 1882 [1881], p. 315-317.) 
161. 
Baeza, Jose Nicolas 

1860 See Beltran, 1740; ed. 1860 and later editions. 
Baeza, Secundino 

[1880 circa] [Sobre la lengua Yucateca] : in El Seminario Conciliar, 

Merida. 162. 
1883 Doctrina necesaria para confesar en el regla. Dispuesta en 
lengua Maya: Merida. 16°, 24 p. (See Anon, 9.) 198. 
Baezo, Perfecto 

1832 Vocabulario de las lenguas Castellana y Maya (en el idioma de 
Peten) in Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic de Paris, v. 18, 
p. 215-217. (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-5, 
corrected in Peten by Berendt.) 174, 181. 
[Bagster, Samuel.] Editor. 

[1848-51] The Bible of every land. A history of the sacred scriptures 
in every language and dialect into which translations have been 
made : London, 4°, xxviii, 3, 406, 12 p. maps. (2d ed. London, 
1860, 4°, (28) 32 (3) 475 (5) p.) 200. 
Balbi, Adrien 

1826 Atlas ethnographique du globe, ou classification des peuples 
anciens et modernes d'apres leurs langues, precede d'un dis- 
cours sur I'utilite et I'importance de I'etude des langues appli- 
quee a plusieurs branches des connaissances humaines, etc.: 
Paris, 1 V. fol. (xlix pis.). (Another edition, Boston, 1835.) 
161, 179. 
Bancroft, Hubert Howe 

1874-76 The native races of the Pacific States of North America: New 
York, 8°, 5 v. (Numerous other editions.) 159, 165, 180, 181, 
185, 187, 199. 
Bandelier, Adolf F[RANgois Alphonse] 

1881 Notes on the bibliography of Yucatan and Central America: in 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society (1880) (n. s.) 
V. 1, p. 82-117. (Published separately, Worcester, 1881, 8°, 
39 p.) 156. 
Baqueiro, Serapio 

1881 Resena geogr^fica, historica y estadistica del estado de Yucatan: 
Mexico. 159. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 

Barbachano, Thomas Aznar 

1876 See Donde, Joaquin, 1876. 
Barcia Carballido y Zuniga, Andres Gonzalez de 

1737-38 Epitome de la bihlioteca oriental y occidental, nautica y geo- 
grafica, anadido y enmendado nuevamente en que se contienen 
los escritores de las Indias Orientales, y Occidentales, y reinos 
convecinos, China, Tartaria, Japon, Persia, Armenia, Etiopia, 
y otras partes: Madrid, 4°, 3 v. 153. This contains: 

Autores que han escrito en lenguas de las Indias (col. 719- 

738). (For 1st ed. see Leon Pinelo, 1629.) 

1749 Historiadores primitivos de las Indias Occidentales que junt6, 

traduxo en parte y saco a luz, illustrados con eruditas notas y 

copiosos indices: Madrid, 4°, 3 v. (v. 2 contains Gomara, 

1553.) 180. 

Bartlett, John Russell 

1865-71 Bibliotheca Americana. A catalogue of books relating to 
North and South America in the hbrary of John Carter Brown 
of Providence, R. I. : Providence, 8°, 3 pts. (2d ed. 1875-82, 
2 v.). 170. 
Barton, Benjamin Smith 

1797 New ^^ews of the origin of the tribes and nations of America: 
Philadelphia, 8°, xii, cix, 83 p. (New edition, 1798.) 161. 

Bastian, [Phillip Wilhelm] Adolf 

1878-89 Die Culturlander des alten America: Berlin, 8°, 3 v. 159. 

Bates, Henry Walter. Editor 

1878 Central America, the West Indies and South America, edited and 
extended . . . with ethnological appendix by A. H. Keane; 
London, 12°, x\dii p. If., 571 p., 20 pis. (Numerous editions. 
For enlarged edition, see Keane, 1901.) 

Bathes, Leopoldo 

1885 Cuadro arqueologico y etnografico de la RepubUca Mexicana: 
New York, 1 folio sheet. 159. 

Beauvois, Eugene 

1899 Les publications relatives a I'ancien Mexique depuis une tren- 
taine d'annees: Paris, 8°. 156. 

Beltran, de Santa Rosa Mar! a, Pedro 

1740 Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en el idioma Yucateco, 
nuevamente corregida en algunos vocables v periodos : Mexico 
(missing). Ed. 1757, Mexico, 8°, 36 p. (Title p. 1, p. 2-22 
Advertencias, p. 18 incorrectly numbered 81.) Later editions 
have title Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en el idioma 
Yucateco por el. . . . Anadiendole el acta de contricion en verso: 
Merida, 1816, 12°, 2 ff . 3-20 p. (Gates reproduction) ; Merida, 
1860, 24°, 23 p. (re\4sed by J. N. Baeza with Acto de contricion 
en prosa.) Later editions follow this: Merida, 1866, 16°, 23 p. 
and Merida, 1895, 16°, 16 p. 197. 



218 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beltran, de Santa Rosa MarIa, Pedro (continued). 

1740a Novena de Christo crucificado con otras oraciones en lengua 
Maya: Mexico, 27 ff. (Copy by Berendt, 12=', 105 p. in 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 21.) 201. 

1746 Arte de el idioma Maya reducido a succintas reglas y semi- 
lexicon Yucateco: Mexico 8°, 8 ff. 188 p. (Gates reproduc- 
tion.) (2d ed. Merida, 1859. 1739 is date given by some as 
that of 1st ed., this is incorrect.) (See Kingdon 1, and Hen- 
derson 3.) 164, 168, 174, 181. 

1859 Second edition of 1746: Merida, 8°, 8 ff., 242 p. (The editor, 
Espinosa, has a second impression of his edition with a Preface 
and notes at bottom of page.) 164, 168, 174, 181. 

Berendt, Carl Hermann 146. 

1864 Notas gramaticales sobre la lengua Maya de Yucatan: Incom- 

plete MS. 4°, 40 p. (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 12). 
166. 

1865 [Annotated copy of Kingdon, 1847, which, in turn, is a transla- 

tion of Ruz, 1844]: 12°, MS. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 14. 166. 

1866 Ein feen Marchen der Maya; (Maya and Spanish) Peten. MS. 

in Berendt Linguistic Collection. (Published in Brinton, 1883; 
ed. 1890, p. 171-72). 207. 
1866-67 Vocabulario del dialecto (de Maya) de Peten: MS. (Berendt 
Linguistic Collection, No. 42-5. EngHsh translation by Means 
(1917) in Papers of the Peahody Museum, v. 7, p. 188-191). 
174. 

1867 Report of explorations in Central America: in Report of the 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington p. 420-426. 174. 
1867a Diccionario Huasteco-Espanol estractado de la Noticia de la 
lengua Huasteca con Catecismo y Doctrina Christiana y con 
un copioso Diccionario por Carlos de Tapia Zenteno: 8°, MS. 
288 p. (Copy of the Tapia Zenteno dictionary with numerous 
additions and marginal comparisons of Huastec words with 
others in Maya and Cakchiquel. About 3000 words, in B. L. C. 
No. 82.) 178. 

1868 Chilam Balam. Articulos .y fragmentos de manuscritos antiguos 

en lengua Maya, colectados y copiados en facsimile: 4°, MS. 
200 p. (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Notes taken 
on this MS. by C. P. Bowditch (1908a). Gates reproduction 
of notes). 144, 183. This contains the following: 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel, p. 1-74, 80, 159-200. 188. 

Chilam Balam de Ixil, p. 75-79, 97-100. 190. 

Chilam Balam de Kaua, p. 81-92. 190. 

Chilam Balam de Tizimin, p. 101-158. 189. 

Cuaderno de Teabo, p. 93-96. 196. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 

I8680 Coleccion de platicas, doctrinales y sermones en lengua Maya por 
diferentes autores : 16°, MS. 257 p. (Berendt Linguistic Col- 
lection, Nos. 46, 47). 147, 201. This contains the following: 
Dominguez y Argaiz (1758) p. 1-76. 
Carvajal (1) p. 77-116. 
Sermones (Anon. 22) p. 119-229. 
Modo de confesar (Anon 1803) p. 231-257. 
(P. 37, 77-257 reproduced by Gates.) 
18686 Literatura de la lengua Maya, obras que parecen perdidas: MS., 

written in Merida (Berendt Linguistic Collection). 151. 
1868c Canciones en lengua Maya : MS., collected in Merida, in Berendt 
Linguistic Collection. (Partial copy by Schuller, 8°, 13 p, 
reproduced by Gates.) 207. 
1868rf Lengua Maya. Miscelanea: 12°, MS. 3 v. 147. The contents 
of these volumes are entered in this bibliography under the 
following headings : 

Vol. 1 (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42). 
No. 1. Waldeck, 1838, p. 79-90. 

2. Waldeck, 1838, p. 91. 

3. Waldeck, 1838, p. 29-30. 

4. Anon (4). 

5. Baezo, 1832. 

6. Galindo, 1832. 

7. Ternaux-Compans, 1840-41. 

8. Numerales: in Beltran, 1748; ed. 1859, p. 19.5-201. 

9. Las Profecias: in Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1857-59, v. 

2, p. 603-606. 192. 

10. Anon (6). 

11. Oviedo, 1535; ed. 1851-55, v. 4, p. 593-607. 169. 

12. Anon (11). 

13. Tabla de multiplicar: in Chilam Balam de Kaua. 191. 

14. Anon (1). 

15. Anon (18). 

16. Anon (17). 

17. Villanueva (1). 

18. Anon (3). 

Vol. 2 (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43). 

No. 1. Epocas de la historia de Yucatan: in Perez, 1842. 185. 

2. The same: in Chilam Balam de Chumayel 188. 

3. Las Profecias: in Chilam Balam de Mani y de Chi- 

mayel. 194. 

4. Cronica de Chicxulub. 203 (2). 

5. Fragmentos sobre la cronologia (Perez, 3). (Mainly 

the Chilam Balam de Kaua.) 184, 191 (2). 

6. Las Profecias: in Chilam Balam de Ixil and Mani. 

190, 194. 



220 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berendt, Carl Hermann — 1868<i, Vol. 2 (continued). 
No. 7. Chilam Balam de Mani. 184. 

8. Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab. 190. 

9. Historia de la Doncella Teodora. 184. 
Vol. 3 (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 44). 
No. 1. Perez (9). 

2. Perez (8). 

3. Perez (6). 

4. Perez (5). 

5. Cancion amorosa: in Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1869-70, 

V. 2, p. 120-12L 206. 

6. Invocation au soleil: in Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1869- 

70, V. 2, p. 101-102. 207. 

7. Titulo de Acanceh. 205. 

8. Papeles de Xtepen. 205. 

9. Cevera, 1803. 

10. Anon, 1871. 

11. Chan, 1850. 

1869 Analytical alphabet for the Mexican and Central American 

languages: New York, 16°, 8, 6 p. (Published by American 
Ethnological Society.) 168, 199. 

1870 Extractos de los recetarios de Indios en lengua Maya, notas, y 

anadiduras [a MS. de Pio Perez]: See Pio Perez (4). (In 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 45). 196. 
1870a Apuntes sobre la lengua Chaneabal. Con un vocabulario: 8° 
MS. 7, 25 ff. (See Brinton, 1888.) (In Berendt Linguistic 
Collection. No. 96.) 178. 

1871 2d edition of Ruz, 1845, revised and edited: Merida, 16°, 14 p. 

166. 

1871a Los trabajos linguisticos de Don Juan Pio Perez: Mexico, in 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Repuhlica 
Mexicana (2d Series), v. 3, p. 58-61. (Published separatel3\ 
Mexico, 1871, 8°, 6 p. Original MS. in Berendt Linguistic 
Collection. No. 11, p. 137-163. See Perez, 1.) 143, 175. 

1878 Remarks on the centres of ancient civilization in Central America 
and their geographical distribution: in Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Geographical Societij, (1876) v. 8, p. 132-145 (Pubhshed 
separately. New York, 1876). 159. 

1878a See Rockstroh 1878. 

(1) Comparative vocabulary of Mexican or Nahuatl and Maya 

languages: 4°, MS. 10 ff. in Collection Linguistic MSS., 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 178. 

(2) Vocabulary of the Maya language; 200 words: fol. MS. 6 ff. in 

Collection Linguistic MSS., Bureau of Ethnologj-, Washington. 
176. 

(3) Vocabulario comparativo de las lenguas pertenecientes d la fa- 

miha Maya-Quiche: 600-700 words in 24 dialects: MS. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 221 

(formedy in possession of Rockstroh, published, in part, in 
Stoll, 1884). 178. 

(4) Nombres proprios en lengua Maya: folio, MS. 150 ff. (in Berendt 

Linguistic Collection, No. 48). 176. 

(5) Miscellanea Maya. Folio scrap-book: (Berendt Linguistic Col- 

lection, No. 179). 147. This book contains the following: 

1. Gramatica. 

Analytical alphabet, 11 p. fol. 4. 168. 
Comparatiye alphabet of the Maya, 2 p. fol. 5. 168. 

2. Languages. 

Alfabeto de las lenguas Metropolitana, 4 p. fol. 14. 
Charakter der americanischen Sprachen, 2 p. fol. 22. 

3. Wortbildungen Maya, 17 p. fol. 24. 166. 

4. Maya moderna y dialectos, 2 p. fol. 34. 166. 

5. Grammar. 166. 

Formacion del plural, 4 p. fol. 36. 

Adjectivos, 2 p. fol. 39. 

Pronombres, 4 p. fol. 42. 

Prepositiones, etc. 3 p. fol. 45. 

Verbos, 19 p. fol. 47. 

Partes sexuales, 6 p. 

Korpertheile, 5 p. 

Nombres de parentesco, 3 p. 

Plantas; mais; medidas, 12 p. fol. 54. 

Bebida y comida; Mammalia, 7 p. 

Pajaros; Beleuchtung, Insects, Aves, 13 p. fol. 55. 

Conversazione, 10 p. fol. 57. 

6. Vocabulario de la lengua Maya, del Putun, del Tzental, 

del Chontal, etc. 178. 
Maya und Nahuatl, 56 p. fol. 58. 178. 
Mexicano-Maya-Otomi, 30 p. fol. 59. 178. 
Maya-Cakchiquel, 4 p. fol. 60. 179. 
Maya-Natchez, 13 p. fol. 62. 179. 
Maya-Apalahchi, fol. 63. 179. 

Maj^a-Chontal-Quiche-Cakchiquel-Zutuhil-Huasteca- 
Mame-Poconchi, 2 p. fol. 64. 179. 

7. Gramatical comparativos de las lenguas de la Familia 

Maya, 5 p. fol. 66. 168. 

8. Vergleiciiende Uebersicht d. Zahlu'tr, 14 p. fol. 67. 182. 

9. Locuciones varios en Maj-a, 8 p. fol. 71. 
10. Ethnologia, fol. 76. 

Caracter de los indios de Yucatan. 
Costumbres de los indios, fol. 77. 
Calendarios, fol. 79. 
Jeroglificos, fol. 86. 
Antiqiiedades, fol. 89. 
Maj^a ethnologia, fol. 92. 



222 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berendt, Carl Hermann, (continued). 

(6) Miscellanea Centro-Americana. Folio scrap-book: (Berendt 

Linguistic Collection, No. 180). 147. Among other items, 
this volume contains: 

A bibliography of no value for Maya linguistics. 

100 wor^s with translation from Oviedo. 169. 

(7) Miscellanea historica et linguistica. Folio scrap-book: (Berendt 

Linguistic Collection, No. 181). 147. Among other items, 
this volume contains: 

A note on the Motul dictionary. 170. 

A bibliography of Yucatan. 157. 

Brasseuriana. 146. 

(8) Historia de la lexicografia de la lengua Maya. Original MS. (in 

Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 11, p. 185-188. See Perez 1). 
157. 

(9) [Unidentified articles in Deutsch-Atnerikanisches Conversations- 

Lexikon, Correspondenzblatt fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und 
Urgeschichte, La Revista de Merida, etc.] 147. 

Beristain y [Martin de] Souza, Jose Mariano 

1816-21 Biblioteca hispano-americana septentrional (6 Catdlogo y 
noticia de los literatos): Mexico, 3 v. (2d edition, Amecameca, 
1883, sm. 12°, 3 v. and 1 v. Santiago de Chile, 1897. Latter 
has sub-title, O catalogo y noticia de los literatos que 6 nacidos 
6 educados 6 florecientes en la America septentrional han 
dado a luz algun escrito 6 lo han dejado preparado para la 
prensa). (See Ramirez, 1898.) 151, 155, 167. 
Beuchat, Henri 

1912 Manuel d'archeologie americaine (Amerique prehistorique. 
Civilisations disparues) : Paris, 8°, xli, 773 p. 160, 183. 

Boban, E[ugene|. Editor. 
1885 See Batres, 1885. 

BoLLAERT, William 

1866 Maya hieroglyphic alphabet of Yucatan: In Memoirs of the 
Anthropological Society of London, v. 2 (1865-66), p. 46-54. 
168, 170, 180. 
1870 Examination of Central American hieroglyphs : Of Yucatan — 
including the Dresden Codex, the Guatemalien of Paris, and 
the Troano of Madrid: the hieroglyphs of Palenque, Copan, 
Nicaragua, Veraguas, and New Granada; by the newly dis- 
covered Maya alphabet: in Memoirs of the Anthropological 
Society of London, v. 3 (1867-69), p. 288-314. 162. 

Boturini Benaducci, Lorenzo 

1746 Idea de una nueva historia general de la America Septentrional. 
Fundada sobre material copioso de figuras, symbolos, carac- 
teres, y geroglificos, cantares y manuscritos de autores indios, 
ultimamente descubiertos : Madrid, 4°, 20fif., 167, [8], 96 p. 
(2d ed. Mexico, 1887.) 153. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 223 

BowDiTCH, Charles P[ickering] 

1901 Memoranda on the Maj'a calendars used in the Books of Chilam 

Balam: in American Anthropologist (n. s.) v. 3, p. 129-138. 

183. 
1901a On the age of the Maya ruins: in American Anthropologist (n. s.) 

V. 3, p. 697-700. 183. 
1908 Collation of Berendt 1868c?, v. 2: in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion No. 43. (Gates reproduction.) 147. 
1908a Collation of Berendt, 1868: in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 

49. (Gates reproduction.) 147. 
1910 The numeration, calendar systems, and astronomical knowledge 

of the Mayas: Cambridge, 8°, xviii, 340 p. , xix pis. 177 (2), 

182, 189, 190, 191. 
(1) List of Maya words in Landa and elsewhere with translation. 

4°, MS. 17 ff. 169. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg, Charles Etienne 146. 

1851 Lettres pour servir d'introduction a I'histoire primitive des na- 
tions civilisees de I'Amerique Meridionale, a M. le due de 
Valmy: Mexico, 4°, 76 p. (This is the 1st ed. of his 1855-56.) 

1855 Notes d'un voyage dans I'Amerique Centrale. Lettres a M. 
Alfred Maur}^, Bibliothecaire de ITnstitut : in Nouvelles Annates 
des Voyages et des Sciences Geographiques, Paris, (6th series), 
V. 1, p. 129-158. 161. 

1855-56 Nouvelles decouvertes sur les traditions primitives conservees 
chez les anciens habitants de I'Amerique, d'apres leurs livres 
et la lecture de leurs hieroglyphes : in Anjiales de Philosophie 
Chretienne, Paris, v. 50, p. 278-296, 325-341; v. 51, p. 199- 
220, 477-491; v. 52, p. 62-79, 112-117. 185. 

1857 Essai historique sur les sources de la philologie Mexicaine: in 
Archives de la Societe Americaine de France, v. 1, p. 5-32. 159. 

1857-59 Histoire des nations civilisees du Mexique et de I'Amerique- 
centrale,etc.: Paris, 8°, 4 v. xcii, 440; 616; 692; 851 p. 161, 
185, 187, 193. 

1859 Essai historique sur les sources de la philologie mexicaine et sur 
I'ethnographie de I'Amerique Centrale: in Revue Orientate et 
Americaine, Memoires de la Societe d' Ethnographic, (Series 1), 
Paris, V. 1, p. 354-380, v. 2, p. 64-75. 156. 

1864 Relation des choses de Yucatan de Diego de Landa . . . avec 
une grammaire et un vocabulaire abreges Frangais-Maya : 
Paris, 8°, cxii, 516 p. 168, 169, 180. This also contains: 
Lizana (1633, caps 1-4) with French translation, p. 348-365. 
Perez (1843) with French translation, p. 366-419. 186. 
Perez (1842) with French translation, p. 420-429. 185. 
Esquisse d'une grammaire de la langue Maya; d'apres celles 
de Beltran et de Ruz, p. 459-478. 165, 166. 



224 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beasseur de Bourbourg, Charles Etienne, 1864 (continued). 

Les prieres en Maj-a et en Fran§ais d'apres le P. Joaquin 

Ruz, p. 478-479! 199. 
Vocabulaire Maya-Fran^ais d'apres divers auteurs anciens 
et modernes, p. 480-506. (Annotated copy by Berendt 
in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 7.) 176. 
1865 Esquisses d'histoire, d'archeologie, d 'ethnographic et de linguis- 
tique pouvant servir d'instructions generales: in Archives de 
la Commission Scientifique du Mexique, Paris, v. 1, p. 85-136. 
159. 
1869 Lettre a M. Leon de Rosny sur la decouverte de documents 
relatifs a la haute antiquite americaine, et sur le dechiffrement 
et interpretation de I'ecriture phonetique et figurative de la 
langue Maya: in Memoires de la Sociele d'Ethnographie de 
Paris (2d Series), v. 1. (Published separately: Paris, 1869, 
8°, 20 p.) 207. 
1869-70 Manuscrit Troano. Etudes sur le systeme graphique et la 
langue des Mayas: Paris, 4°, 2 v. Mission Scientifique au 
Mexique et dans I'Amerique Centrale. V. 2 contains: 
Introduction aux elements de la langue Maya, p. i-xlix. 160, 

162, 161. 
Grammaire et chrestomathie de la langue Maya (after San 

Buenaventura), p. 1-84. 164. 
Observations du traducteur sur I'orthographe de quelques 

mots, p. 85-87. 
Resume des desinences verbales, p. 87-91. 
Tables des noms de nombre, manieres de compter, etc. 

d'apres Beltran, p. 92-99. 181. 
Chrestomathie ou choix de morceaux de litterature Maya, 

p. 101-122. 207. 
Invocation au soleil (collected at Hacienda de Xcanchakan), 
p. 101-102. Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 
44-6. 207. 
Les cinq propheties sibj^lines d'apres Lizana, p. 103-110. 

193. 
Titre antique concernant la famille de Nakuk Pech, p. 110- 

120. 203. 
Chant d 'amour. Recueilli a Izamal au mois de decembre, 
1864, p. 120-121. (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 44-5.) 206. 
Ruz, 1846, p. 121-2. 198. 

Vocabulaire general, Maya-Fran<jais et Espagnol, p. 123- 

462. 176. 

1871 Bibliotheque Mexieo-Guatemalienne precedee d'un coup d'ceil 

sur les etudes americaines dans leurs rapports avec les etudes 

classiques et suivie du tableau par ordre alphabetique des 

ouvrages de linguistique americaine contenus dans le meme 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 225 

volume, redigde et mise en ordre d' apres les documents de sa 
collection aniericaine: Paris, 8°, xlvii, 183 p. 146, 165. 
1872 Dictionnaire, grammaire et chrestomathie de la langue Maya 
precedes d' une dtude sur le systeme graphique des indigenes 
du Yucatan (Mexique) : Paris, 4°, xlix, 464 p. (Reissue ^vith 
new title page of his 1869-70, v. 2.) 

Breton, Adela C. 

1919 Relationships in Central America: in Man, v. 19, article 94, 

London. 176. 

1920 See Martinez Hernandez, 1920, 1920a, 19206. 

Brigham, William T[ufts] 

1887 Guatemala, the land of the quetzal: New York, 8°, xv, 453 p. 
178. 

Brinton, Daniel Garrison 148. 

1867 The Natchez of Louisiana, an offshoot of the civilized nations of 

Central America: in Historical Magazine, New York, (2d 
series), v. 1, p. 16-18. 179. 

1868 The myths of the New World: a treatise on the symboUsm and 

mythology of the red race of America: New York, 12°, 
viii, 307 p. (2d ed., New York, 1876; 3d ed., Philadelphia, 
1896.) 193. 
1871 Remarks on the nature of the Maya group of languages: in Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, (1869), v. 11, 
p. 4-6. 162. 

1881 The names of the gods in the Kiche myths. Central America: 

in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, v. 19, 
p. 613-647. (Published separately, Philadelphia, 1881, 8°, 
37 p.) 162. 

1882 Maya chronicles: Philadelphia, 8°, 279 p.: in Library of Aborigi- 

nal American Literature, No. 1. 148, 183. Among other items, 
this book contains the following: 
The name "Maya," p. 9-16. 180. 
Maya linguistic family, p. 17-20. 
. Grammar, p. 27-37. 167. 
Numeral system, p. 37-50. 181. 
Books of Chilam Balam, p. 67-72, 81-88. 182. 
Grammars and dictionaries, p. 72-77. 167, 170. 
Extracts with translations: — 
Mani MS., p. 89-135. 186, 194. 
Tizimin MS., p. 136-151. 189. 
Chumayel MS., p. 152-185. 188. 
Pech MS., p. 187-259. 194,203. 
Vocabulary, p. 261-279. 176. 
1882a American hero-mj^ths, a stud}^ in the native religions of the 
western continent: Philadelphia, 8°, 251 p. 162, 194,203. 



226 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Brinton, Daniel Garrison (continued) 

18826 The books of Chilam Balam, the prophetic and historic records 
of the Mayas of Yucatan: in Penn Monthly, v. 13, p. 261-275. 
(Repubhshed in his 1890, p. 255-273, also printed separatel}^, 
Philadelphia, 1882, 8°, 19 p. Spanish translations by Aznar 
y Perez, 1882, and Troncoso, 1883, in Anales del Museo Na- 
cional, Mexico, v. 3, p. 92-109.) 183 (2), 189, 191, 195. 

1882c The graphic system and ancient records of the Mayas. Origi- 
nally published as the Introduction to Cyrus Thomas: "Study 
of the Mauuscrit Troano " in Contributions to North American 
Ethnology: Washington, v. 5, 4°, p. xvii-xxxvii. (Republished 
with additions as "The writing and records of the Ancient 
Mayas" in his 1890, p. 230-254.) 194. 

1883 The folk-lore of Yucatan: in Folk-Lore Journal, London, v. 1, 

p. 244-256. (Republished in his 1890, p. 163-180.) 191, 
207 (2). 
1883a Aboriginal American authors and their productions; especially 
those in the native languages. A chapter in the history of 
literature: Philadelphia, 8°, viii, 9-63 p. 183. 

1884 Catalogue of the Berendt Linguistic Collection: 4°, MS. 1 p. 

79 ff. (For printed edition, see his 1900.) 
1884-85 Memoir of Dr. C. H. Berendt: in Proceedings of the American 
Antiquarian Society, 1883, (n. s.) v. 3, p. 205-210. 146. 

1885 The philosophic grammar of American languages, as set forth by 

Wilhelm von Humboldt; with the translation of an unpub- 
Hshed memoir b}^ him on the American verb: in Proceedings 
oj the American Philosophical Society, v. 22, p. 306-354. (Pub- 
lished separately, Philadelphia, 1885, 8°, 51 p. This is re- 
printed in an altered form in his 1890, p. 328-348.) 162, 167. 

1885a American languages and why we should study them : in Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and Biography, v. 9, p. 15-35. (Pub- 
lished separately.) 170. 

18856 The lineal measures of the semi-ci\'ilizecl nations of Mexico and 
Central America : in Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, v. 22, p. 194-207. (Pubhshed separately, Philadel- 
phia, 1885. 8°, 14 p. Republished in his 1890, p. 433-451.) 
176. 

1886 The conception of love in some American languages: in Pro- 

ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, v. 23, p. 546- 
561. (Pubhshed separatelj'. Philadelphia, 1886, 8°, 18 p. and 
republished in his 1890, p. 410-432.) 180. 

1887 Critical remarks on the editions of Diego de Landa's writmgs: 

in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, v. 24, 
p. 1-8. (Pubhshed separately, Philadelphia, 1887, 8°, 8 p.) 
180. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 227 

1888 On the Chane-abal (four language) tribe and dialect of Chiapas: 
in American AtithropologiM, v. 1, p. 77-96. (Contains Berendt's 
comparative vocabulary (1870f/) in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 96.) 178. 

1890 Essays of an Americanist: Philadelphia, 8°, 489 p. This con- 

tains, among other items, the following articles: his 18826, 
1882c, 1883, 1885, 18856, 1886, 1890a. 
lS90a Native American poetry: in his 1890, p. 284-304. 193,194. 

1891 The American race. A linguistic classification and ethnographic 

description of the native tribes of North and South America: 
New York, 8°, xvi, 392 p. (Another edition, Philadelphia, 
1901.) 159. 
[1894] A primer of Maya hieroglyphics: Boston, 8°, vi, 9, 152 p. in 
Publications of the University of Pennsylvania Series in Philos- 
ophy, Literature and Archaeology, v. 3, n. 2. 176. 

1897 The missing authorities on Maj^an antiquities: in American 

Anthropologist, v. 10, p. 183-191. 151. 

1898 A record of studv in aboriginal American languages: INIedia 

(Pa.), 8°, 24 p. ^ 148. 

1900 Catalogue of the Berendt linguistic collection: in Bulletin of 
the Free Museum of Science and Art, Philadelphia,v. 2, n. 4. 
p. 203-234. 146, 157. 

1900a Indians of Central America: in (Appleton's) Universal Cyclo- 
prrdia (New edition), New York, 4°, v. 6, p. 206-208. 162. 

19006 Brinton Memorial meeting. Report of the memorial meeting 
held January 16, 1900, under the auspices of the American 
Philosophical Society ... in honor of the late Daniel Garri- 
son Brinton, M.D.: Philadelphia, 8°, 67 p. (Bibliography of 
Brinton by Stewart Culin, p. 42-67). 148. 

British and Foreign Bible Society 

(1) St. John III, 16, in most of the languages and dialects in which 
the British and Foreign Bible Society has printed or circulated 
the Holy Scriptures: London, 12°, 3-20 p. (Enlarged ed. 
London, 1878, 16°, 48 p. 1 f.) 200. 

BUSCHMANN, JoiL\NN KaRL EdUARD 

1853 Uber den Naturlaut: in Philologische und historische Abhand- 
lungen der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 
(1852), p. 391-423. 179. 

Byrne, Ja^ies 

1885 General principles of the structure of language: London, 8°, 2 v. 
XXX, 504; xvii, 396 p. (2d ed. London, 1892, 8°, xxx, 510; 
x^di, 404 p.) 164. 

Cacalchen, Libro de 

[Collection of legal documents in Maj^a dating from about 1646 
to 1826.] 4°, :MS., 164 p. (Owned by Gates and reproduced 
by him.) 204. 



228 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Calero, Vicente and Justo Sierra 

[Articles in Museo Yucateco and Registro Yucateco.] 192. 
Calkini, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS., 15 ff. (Gates reproduction. He owns a copy, 8°, 13 p. 
also reproduced by him.) 190. 

Campbell, John 

1879 On the origin of some American Indian tribes: in Proceedings of 

the Natural Historij Society of Montreal, (n. s.) v. 9, p. 65-80, 

193-212. 178, 179. 

1898-99 Decipherment of the hieroglyphic inscriptions of Central 

. America: in Transaction^ of the Canadian Institute, v. 6, p. 

101-244. 161. 

Canton Rosado, Francisco 

See Rivero Figueroa, 1918. 
Cardenas, Francisco 
§ 1639 Relacion de la conquista y sucesos de Yucatan, para el uso del 
Cronista Mayor de las Indias, D. Tomas Tamayo de Vargas: 
(missing). 169. 

Carrillo, Estanislao 

(1) [Translation of portion of Cronica de Mani: see Stephens, 1843, 
V. 2, p. 265.] 205. 

Carrillo y Ancona, Crescencio 147. 

1863 El Repertorio Pintoresco 6 Miscelanea instructiva y amena con- 
sagrada a la religion, la historia del pais, la filosofia, la industria 
y las bellas letras. . . . Redactor D. Crescencio Carrillo: 
Merida, 8°, 586 p. 147. 

1865 Estudio historico sobre la raza indfgena de Yucatan : Vera Cruz, 

8°, 26 p. 162. 

1866 Disertacion sobre la literatura y civilizacion antigua de Yucatan: 

Merida, 4°, 38 p. (Republished in Boletin de la Sociedad de 
Geografia y Estadistica de la Repubhca Mexicana (2d series), 
1871, V. 3, p. 257-271, and in his 1883, p. 555-590.) 162, 189, 
198. 
1868 Manuel de historia y geografia de la peninsula de Yucatan: in 
La Peninsula, Merida, parts 1-5, p. 1-162. (Part repubUshed 
in his 1883.) 157, 180, 185. 

1870 Disertacion sobre la historia de la lengua Maya 6 Yucateca: in 

La Revista de Merida (Aiio II). Republished in Boletin de la 
Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana, 
(2d series) 1872, v. 4, p. 134-195. 147, 151, 157 (2), 182, 186, 
187, 188, 189 (3), 190, 192, 193. 

1871 Compendio de la historia de Yucatan, precedido del de su geo- 

grafia y dispuesto en forma de lecciones: Merida, 16°, xii, 
432 p. 157. 
1871a Compendio historico de Yucatan. Resumen: Merida, 8°, 64 p. 
157. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 229 

1872 Catalogo de las principales palabras Mayas usadas en el Castel- 
lano que se hable en el estado de Yucatan. (This forms the 
second part (p. 57-75) of Mendoza, 1872.) 178. 

1878-82 Historia antigua de Yucatan: in Semanario Yucateco, Merida. 
(Other editions with additions, Merida, 1881 and 1883. 151, 
157, 162, 180, 185, 187, 190, 191, 194. 

1880 Quilich xocbil-u-payalchi ti c-colebil x-Zuhuy Maria, j-etel u 

chucaan payalchiob ualkezahantacob ti maya-dtan tumen 
Don Hoze Leocadio Andrade u-mektan-pixnal katunil etel 
huntul yetkinil: Ho (Merida), 16°, 31 (1) p. (This was written 
in collaboration with Jose Leocadio Andrade.) 199. 
[1880a] Catecismo de historia y de geografia de Yucatan: Merida, 
16°, 95 p. (This is an abbreviated edition of liis 1871. See 
also 1871a and 1887.) This also contains: 

Geografia de Yucatan (p. 1-28). (In 1887 ed. Audomaro 

Molina is given as the author.) 
Nota sobre la ortologia de Yucatan (p. 91-95). 168. 
18806 Sobre la historia del idioma Yucateco o Maj'a: Republished in 
his 1883, p. 624-631. 160. 

1881 Bibliotheca de autores Yucatecos. Tomo I. Historia antigua de 

Yucatan. . . . Segunda de las disertaciones del misnio autor 
relativas al proprio asunto: Merida, sm. 4°, 504 + p. (This 
is a reissue with changes of several previous worLs : 1866 ; 1868 ; 
1878-82. For 2d edition see his 1883.) 

1882 Geografia Maj-a: in Andes del Museo Nacional, Mexico, v. 2, 

p. 435^38. ' (Repubhshed in his 1883, p. 603-611.) 189 (2). 

1883 Historia Antigua de Yucatan: Merida, 16°, 670 p. (This is 

another edition of his 18S1.) 151, 160, 162, 168, 180, 185, 187, 
189 (2), 190, 191, 194, 198. 

1883a Maya. Etimologia de este nombre : in his 1883, p. 632-634. 180. 

1887 Compendio de la historia de Yucatan por Carrillo y Ancona. 
Compendio de la geografia de Yucatan por Audomaro Molina : 
Merida, 16°, 96 p. (This is an enlarged edition of 1880a with- 
out the Nota de ortologia. There is an edition of the Compendio de 
la historia: Merida, 1904, 16°, 72 p.) (Compare Ancona, 1881.) 

1890 Estudio filologico sobre el nombre de America y el de Yucatan: 
Merida, 8°, 54 p. (Much the same material as in Chap. 5 in 
his 1883, p. 133-141.) 180, 188. 

1892-95 El obispado de Yucatan. Historia de su fundacion y de sus 
obispos desde el siglo xvi hasta el xix seguida de las consti- 
tuciones sinodales de la diocesis y otros documentos relatives. 
(Edicion ilustrada): Merida, 4°, 2 v. 1-521, 522-1102 p. (Sup- 
plements, 1896-97, 28 p.) (First published in La Guirnalda.) 
147. 

[1893?] Pronunciacion de las letras del alfabeto en lengua Maya, 
segiin el Sr. Obispo de Yucatan: Copy, 4°, MS., 2 ff. in Pea- 
body Museum. 168. 



230 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Carrillo y Ancona, Crescencio (continued). 
1897 Homenaies funebres. See Anon, 1897a. 

(1) Galeria biografica-litografica de los Sen ores Obispos de Yucatan. 

Merida. 174. 

(2) [Portion of a letter written to Pilling regarding the authorship 

of works attributed to Henderson and Fletcher]: in Pilling, 
1885, p. 258. 197. 

Carrillo Suaste, Fabian 
[1875] D. Juan Pio Perez. Memoria biografica: in Perez, 1866-77, 
p. i-xx. 143. 

Carvajal, Francisco 

(1) Discurso para el descendimiento del Senor (en Maya): Earlj^ 

XIX centur^y MS. in Merida. (Copy by Berendt, 1868a, p. 77- 
116 in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 46. Reproduction by 
Gates of Berendt cop}-.) 202. 

(2) [Collection of proverbs in Maya.] Early xix century MS. (un- 

located). 202. 

Castillo, Geronimo 
1861 Efemerides hispano-mexicanas 6 calendario-historico Yucateco: 

in Repertorio Pintoresco, Merida. 157. 
1866 Diceionario historico, biografico 3' monumental de Yucatan, 
desde la conquista hasta el ultimo ano de la dominacion Espa- 
iiola en el pais: Merida, v. 1, A-E, 12°, vii, 9-315 p. (Only 
volume published.) 157 (2), 183, 186, 193. 

Cervera, Jose Tiburcio. Translator. 

1803 Una orden (por Benito Perez) de Gobierno de Yucatan respecto 
del despacho puntual de los correos, traducida en lengua Maya. 
(Copy, 12°, 6 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 44-9.) 
206. 

CHACXULUBCbEN, CroNICA DE 

See Chicxulub, Cronica de 

Chadenat, Charles. Editor. 

1889 et seq. Le bibliophile americain. Catalogue de livres, etc. relatifs 
a . . . I'Americiue. Archeologie, histoire, geographic, ethno- 
graphic, linguistique, voyages, etc. Bulletin trimestriel. 
(Numerous sale catalogues.) 158. 

Chan, Florencio and others 

1850 Propositiones de los Indios sublevados para un armisticio y 
tratado de paz en carta dirigida al Cura de Chimax. MS. 
Cruzctun. (Copj^, 12°, 15 p. from original in Coleccion de 
Documeyitos para la Historia de la Giierra, formerly in posses- 
sion of Carrillo y Ancona, in Berendt Linguistic Collection No. 
44-11.) 206. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 231 

Charencey [Charles Felix Hyacinthe Gouhier] Comte de 

1866 Introduction a line etude comparative sur les langues de la famille 

Maya-Quiche: Paris (in Avaiit Propos, p. 32-37.) 167. 
1871 Le mythe de ^'otan. fitude sur les origines asiatiques de la civili- 
sation americaine: in Ades de la Societe Philologique, Paris, 
V. 2, ii, 7-144 p. (Published separately.) 179. 

1873 Recherches sur une ancienne proph^tie en langue Maya (Xapuc- 

tun) : in Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Cojnparee, v. 6, 
p. 42-61. 194. 

1874 Essai d'analyse grammaticale d'un texte en langue Maj'a: in 

Memoires de V Academie Nationale des Sciences, Arts et Belles- 
Lettres de Caen, p. 142-161. (Published separatelv, Le Havre, 
1875, 8°, 9 p.) 185. 

1875 Fragment de chrestomathie de la langue Maya anticjue: in 

Revue de Philologie el d'EtJmographie, v. 1, p. 259-264. (Pub- 
lished separately, Paris, 1875, 8°, 8 p.) 194. 

1876 Etude sur la prophetie en langue Maj'a d'Ah Kuel-Chel: in 

Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Comparee, v. 8, p. 320- 
332. (Published separatel}', Paris, 1876, 8°, 15 p. Republished 
in his 1883, p. 141-150.) 194. 
1878 Des animaux symboliques dans leur relation avee les points de 
I'espace chez les Americaines: Paris, 8°, 19 p. 182. 

1880 Des expletives numerales dans les dialectes de la famille Maj-a- 

Quichee: in Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Comparee, 
V. 13, p. 339-386. (Published separately, Paris, 1880.) 182. 

1881 Des signes de numeration en ]\Iaya : in Actes de la Societe Philolo- 

gique, V. 8, p. 230-234. (Published separatelv, Alen^on, 1881, 
8°, 7 p.) 181. 

1882 Recherches sur les noms des points de I'espace: Caen, 8°, 86 p. 

180. 
1882a Du sj'steme de numeration chez les peuj^les de la famille Maj'a- 
Quiche: in Le Museon. Revue des Sciences et des Lettres, Paris, 
V. 1, p. 256-261. (Published separatelv, Louvain, 1882, 8°, 
8 p. Republished in his 1883, p. 151-157.) 182. 

1883 Melanges de philologie et de paleographie americaines: Paris: 

8°, 2, 195 p. 166, 167. Among other items, this volume con- 
tains the following: 

Sur le systeme de numeration (see 1882a). 

Etude sur la prophetie (see 1876). 

Sur le pronom personnel dans les idiomes de la famille Maj^a- 

Quiche, p. 12.3-139. 167. 
Sur les lois phonetiques dans les idiomes de la famille Mame- 
Huasteque, p. 89-121. 
1883a Vocabulaire Frangais-Maya : in Actes de la Societe Philologique, 
V. 13, p. 1-87. (Published separateh^ Alengon, 1884, 8°, 
87 p.) 176. 



232 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Charencey [Charles Felix Hyacinthe Gouhier] Comte de (contin'd). 

18836 Recherches sur les noms de nombres cardinaux dans la famille 
Maya-Quich6: in Revue de Linquistique et de Philologie Com- 
paree, v. 16, p. 325-339. (Published separately, Paris, 8°, 15 p.) 
180, 182. 

1883-84 De la conjugaison dans les langues de la famille Maya-Quiche : 
in Le Museon. Revue des Sciences et des Lettres, Paris, v. 2, 1883, 
p. 575-595; v. 3, 1884, p. 40-72, 280-293, 464-488. (Pub- 
lished separately, Louvain, 1885, 8°, 130 p.) 165, 167. 

1884 De la formation des mots en langue Maya: in Proceedings of the 
5th International Congress of Americanists, Copenhagen (1883), 
p. 379-426. (Published separately, Copenhagen, 1884.) 167. 

1891 Chrestomathie Maya d'apres la chronique de Chac-Xulub-Chen. 

Extrait de la " Library of Aboriginal American Literature " 
de M. le Dr. D. G. Brinton. Texte avec traduction inter- 
lineaire, analyse grammaticale et vocabulaire maya-f rangaise : 
in Actes de la Societe Philologique, v. 19, 20. (Published 
separately, Paris, 1891, 8°, viii, 301 p.) 176, 203. 

1892 Les noms des metaux chez diffe rents peuples de la Nouvelle 

Espagne: Paris, 8°, 14 p. (Republished, in part, in his 1894, 
p. 346-349.) 180. 
1892a 2d edition of Ruz, 1847; in Actes de la Societe Philologique, (1891) 
. V. 21, p. 157-207. (Published separately, Alengon, 1892, 8°, 
51 p.) 197. 
1894 Le folklore dans les deux mondes: Paris, 8°. 424 p. 159. 
1896 Melanges sur quelques dialectes de la famille Maya-Quichee : 
in Journal de la Societe des Americanistes, Paris, v. 1, p. 43-60. 
(Published separately, Paris, 1897.) 166. Among other items 
this paper contains the following: 

Rectification d' un texte en langue Maya. 186. 
Des voix verlales en Maya. 167. 
1899 Noms des points de I'espace dans divers dialectes americains : in 
Journal de la Societe des Americanistes, Paris, v.2, p. 109-178. 180. 

Chavero, Alfredo. 

1887 Historia antigua y de la conquista. See Riva Palacio, 1887-88, 
V. 1. 189, 190. 

Cne, GoNgALO and others. 

1877 Carta de diez caciques de Nueva Espana, a S. M. el Rey Don 
Fehpe II, pidiendo de la orden de San Francisco, Yucatan, 11 
de febrero de 1567: in Cartas de Indias, Madrid, folio, p. 307- 
308 and facsimile. 206. 

CkicxuLUB, Cronica de 

1542-62 4°, MS. 26 p., copy owned in Merida (Gates reproduction). 
(Notes on this MS. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43-4, 
copied by C. P. Bowditch, reproduced by Gates. Other notes 
in Berendt Collection No. 50-35. See Perez (2). This MS. 
written by Nakuk and Pablo Pech.) 202. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 233 

Chumayel, Book of Chilam Balam of 

1913 Sm. 4°, MS. 107 p. Published in Anthropological Publications of 
the University of Pennsylvania, v. 5, Pliiladelphia. George 
Byron Gordon, editor. (There is a copy by Berendt, 1868, in 
the Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Gates owns a 
second copy, 8°, 55 ff., reproduced by him.) 180, 187. 

CiuDAu Real, Antonio de 

§ (1) Gran diccionario 6 calepino de la lengua Maya de Yucatan: MS. 

4°, 6 V. XVI century (missing). 170. 
§ (2) Diccionario de la lengua Maya: MS. xvi century (missing). 

170. 
§ (3) Tratado curioso de las grandezas de Nueva Espana: MS. xvi 

century (missing). 170. 
§ (4) Sermones de Santos en lengua Maya: MS. xvi century (missing). 

201. 

CiVEZZA, Marcelling da 

1879 Saggio di bibliografia, geografica, storica, etnografica, San Fran- 
cescana: 4°, xv, 698 p. (This is the geographical part of 
Wadding and Sboralen's Scriptores ordinis minorum). 151, 154. 

Clarke, Hyde 

1877 The Khita and Khita-Peruvian epoch: Khita, Hamath, Hittite, 

Canaanite, Etruscan, Peruvian, Mexican, etc.: London, 8°, 
vii, 88 p. 179. 

Clarke and Co., Robert. Editors. 

1878 Bibliotheca Americana; catalogue of a valuable collection of 

books and pamphlets relating to America: Cincinnati, 8°. 
(4), 262, (2), 64 p. Other sale catalogues, 1879, 1883, etc. 158. 

Clavigero, Francesco Saverio 

1780-81 Storia antica del Messico, cavata da' mighori storici spagnuoli 
e da' manoscritti e dalle pitture antiche degl' Indiani; divisa in 
dieci Ubri e corredata di carte geografiche e di varie figure e 
dissertazioni suUa terra, sugli animali e sugli abitatori del 
Messico; Cesena, 4°, 4 v. vii, 302 p. 4 pis.; 276 p. 17 pis.; 
260 p. 1 pi. ; 331 p. Spanish ed. London, 1826, 8°, 2 v. Among 
other editions, London, 1787, (English), 4°, 2 v.; Leipzig, 1789, 
(German); Richmond, Va.; 1806, London, 1807, Philadelphia 
1817, (English); London, 1826, (Italian); Mexico, 1844 and 
1853; Jacapa, 1868, (Spanish). 1st ed. v. 4 (1781) p. 262-263 
has the following: 

Catologo d'alcuni autori Europei e Creogli, che hanno scritto 
delta dottrina e morale Christiana nelle lingue delta Nuova Spagna. 
Ed. 1826, V. 2, p. 396 and later Spanish editions have the 
following : 

Catalogo de algunos autores Europeos y Criollos que han escrito 
sobre la doctrina y moral cristianas en las lenguas de Anahuac. 
150, 154. 



234 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

COCOMES, LiBRO DE LOS 

See Cacalchen, Libro de 
CoDiCE An6mino 

See Tizimin, Chilam Balam de 
CoGOLLUDO, Diego Lopez 

1688 Historia de Yucathan: Madrid, 4°, 15, 760 (31) p. (2d ed. with 
title. Los tres siglos de la dominacion espanola en Yucatan 6 
sea historia de esta provincia desde la conquista hasta la inde- 
pendencia, etc.: Campeche, 1842, Merida, 1845, 8°, 2 v., 
(Justo Sierra, editor): 3d ed. with title, Historia de Yucatan, 
escrita en el siglo xvii. Merida, 1867-68, 8°, 2 v.) 150, 153, 
180, 193. 
Colecci6n de Documentos 

1898-1900 Coleccion de documentos ineditos relativos al descubri- 
miento, conquista y organization de las antiguas posesiones 
Espaiioles de Ultramar. (2d series), v. 11, 13. Relaciones de 
Yucatan: Madrid, 8°, xl, 436; xvi, 414 p. (Jose Maria Ascen- 
sio, editor.) 161, 177. 

CORONEL, JUAN^ 

1620 Arte en lengua de Alaya recopilado y enmendado: IMe.xico, 24°, 
54 ff. [Gates reproduction.] 163,' 172. 

1620a Doctrina Christiana en lengua de IVIaya: Mexico, 16°, 27 ff. 
(Gates reproduction. 4 ff. at end contain contents of Coronel, 
16206.) 197. 

16206 Discursos predicables, con otras diversas materias espirituales, 
con la Doctrina Christiana, y los articulos de la Fe, recopilados 
y enmendados [en lengua Yucateca] : Mexico, 16°, 8, 240 ff. 
(ff. 73-80 are mispaged as 83-90). (Gates reproduction.) 197, 
201. 

§ (1) Vocabulario Ma.va: MS. xvii century (missing). 172. 

§ (2) Doctrina Christiana, MS. xvii century (missing ?). 197. 

§ (3) Confesionario 6 instrucciones para los nuevos ministros, en lengua 
Maya: MS. xvii century (missing). 198. 
Cortes, Hernando 

1852 Cartas [1st letter lost.] In its place the letter of the Municipality 
of Vera Cruz, dated Julj- 10, 1519, may be substituted. This 
printed in Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos para la Historia de 
Espana, v. 1, and in Historiadores primitivos de Indias: Madrid 
1852, V. 1. (See MacXutt ed. of letters. New York, 1908, 
8°, V. 1, p. 123-182.) 180. 

1866 Cartas y relaciones al Emperador Carlos V: Paris, 8°, li, 575 p. 
(Best edition by MacNutt, New York and London, 1908, 8°, 
2 V. xi, 354; vii, 374 p.) 180. 
Crowe, Frederick 

1850 The Gospel in Central America; containing a sketch of the 
country ... a history of the Baptist mission in British Hon- 
duras, etc. : London, 12°, xii, 588 p. 199. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 235 

Cruz, Juax 

1571 Catecismo en lengua Maya: Mexico (also 1639 ed.) [?] 196. 

CuBAS, Antonio Garcia 

See Garcia Cubas, Antonio 
CuARTAS, Julian de 

§ (1) Arte compendiado de la lengua Maya: MS. xvii century, (miss- 
ing). 163. 
D. Do 

[Initials of writers on Maya language in Repertorio Pintoresco, of 
Merida]. 
Diaz del Castillo, Berxal 

1632 Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva-Espana, escrita 
por el Capitan Bernal Diaz del Castillo, uno de sus conquista- 
dores: Madrid, 4°, 6 p. 254 ff. (11) p. (Numerous other edi- 
tions, the best of which is that by Maudslay, published b}- 
the Hakluyt Society, London, 1908-16, 8°, 5 v.) 180. 

DiCCIONARIO HiSTORICO, BlOGRAFICO Y MONUMENTAL DE YuCATAN. 

See Castillo, 1866. 
DicciONARio Universal de Historia y Geographia. 186. 
DoMiNGUEz, Jose 

[Given by Clavigero as a writer on Maya.] 152. 
Dominguez y Argaiz, Francisco Eugenio 

1758 Platicas de los principales mysteries de nuestra Santa Fee, con 
una breve exortacion al fin del modo con que deben excitarse 
al dolor de las culpas. Hechas en el idioma Yucateco : Mexico, 
8°, 5 ff., 24 p. 1 f. (Gates reproduction. Copy by Berendt ip 
1868a, p. 1-76.) 201. 
Donde, Joaquin y Donde, Juan 

1876 Lecciones de Botanica, arregladas segun los principios admitidos 
por Guibourt Richard Duchartre, etc.: Merida, 8°, xxiii, 
259 p. (Maj-a names prepared by Thomas Aznar Barbachano.) 
176. 
DouAY, Leon 

1891 Etudes etvmologiques sur I'antiquite americaine: Paris, 8°, 

158 p. 180. 
1894 Affinites lexicologique du Haitien et du Maya: in Proceedings of 
the 10th International Congress of Americanists, Stockholm, 
p. 191-208. 161, 179. 
1900 Xouvelles recherches philologiques sur I'antiquite americaine: 

Paris, 8°, 188 p. 160, 161, 179. 
1905 De la non-parente de certaines langues de I'ancien monde (en 
particulier du japonais) avec celles du Nouveau, et speciale- 
ment, du groupe Maya: in Proceedings of the 13th International 
Congress of Americanists, New York (1902), p. 245-247. 161. 
(1) Memoire sur les affinites du Maj-a avec certaines langues de 
I'Amerique Meridionale: 8°, 17 p. (reprint). 161, 179. 



236 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

DusAERT, [Edouard] Le Colonel 

1882 La carie americaine, mere, en civilisation de I'antique figypte 
d'apres les documents de M. I'Abb^ Brasseur de Bourbourg: 
Paris, 8°, 64 p. 160. 
Ebtun, Titulos de 

4°, Mssel. MSS. en lengua Maya. 324 p. dating from about 1638 
to 1829. (Gates reproduction.) 204. 

ECHANO, AgUSTIN DE 

1758 Aprobacion: in Dominguez, 1758. 183. 
Eguiara et Eguren, Juan Jose de 

1755 Bibliotheca Mexicana, sive eruditorum historia virorum, qui 
in America Boreali nati, vel alibi geniti in ipsam domicilio aut 
studijs asciti, quavis lingua scripto aliquid tradiderunt: v. 1, 
A. B. C.: Mexico, 4°, 80 ff., 543 p. (Other portions exist 
in manuscript.) 151, 163. 
EicHHORN, Albert 

1896 Naual; oder Die hohe Wissenschaft (scientia mirabilis) der 
architectonischen und klinstlerischen Composition bei den 
Maya-Volkern, deren Descendenten und Schiilern: Berlin, 4°, 
126 p. 177. 
1905 Die Hieroglyphen-Bildschrift der Maya-Volker in ihrer stufen- 
weisen Entwickelung bis zur Ornamentbildschrift dargestellt 
und an den Hieroglyphen der 20 Monatstage erlautert: Berlin, 
4°, iv. 236 (2), p. "l77. 
EsPiNOSA, Calendario de 

Annual publication, Merida. 158. 
Ferraz, Juan Fernandez 

1902 Lengua Quiche. Sinopsis de constitutiva gramatical, 1897-1902: 
San Jose de Costa Rica, 12°, 153 p. 179. 
Field, Thomas Warren 

1873 An essay towards an Indian bibliography. Being a catalogue of 
books, relating to the historj', antiquities, languages, customs, 
religion, wars, literature, and origin of the American Indians, 
etc.: New York, 8°, iv, 430 p. 154. 
1875 Catalogue of his library : New York, 8°, viii, 376 p. (Sale cata- 
logue.) 154, 168. 
[Fischer, Augustin] 

1869 Bibliotheca Mejicana. A catalogue of an extraordinary collec- 
tion of books relating to Mexico and North and South America, 
from the first introduction of printing in the New World, a.d. 
1544 to A.D. 1868. Collected during 20 j^ears' official residence 
in Mexico: London, 8°, 312 p. (p. 229 has title: Valuable 
books relating to the history, literature, and dialects of North 
and South America, comprising the libraries of the late Dr. 
Berendt of Vera Cruz, and that of an official personage for 
many years resident in the West Indies). (Sale catalogue.) 
155, 168. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 237 

FiSKE, John 

1892 The discovery of America with some account of ancient America 

and the Spanish Conquest: Boston and New York, 12°, 2 v. 

(Other editions.) 203. 
[Fletcher, Richard] 145. 

1865 Breve devocionario para todos los dias de la semana. Payalchioob 

utial tulacal le u kiniloob ti le semana: London, 16°, 17 ff. 

202. 
1865a Catecismo de los Metodistas. No. 1, Para los ninos de tierna 

edad. Catecismo ti le nietodistaoob. No. 2, Utial mehen 

palaloob: London, 16°, 17 ff. (Gates reproduction.) 197. 

1868 [A tentative edition in Maya of St. John's Gospel, published by 

the British and Foreign Bible Society.] (See Fletcher, 1869.) 
200. 

1869 Leti u ebanhelio Hezu Crizto Hebix Huan : London, 16°, 83 p. 200. 
1900 Leti u ebanhelio Hezu Crizto Heliz Marcoz: London, 16°, 

67 p. 200. 
1900a Leti u ebanhelio Hezu Crizto Hebix Mateo: London, 16°, 104 p. 
200. 

FUERTES, E. A. 

(1) Vocabularies of the Chimalapa or Zoque: Guichicovian, or 

Mixe; Zapoteco; and Maya; 200 words each, accompanied 

by grammatic notes: 4°, MS. 17 ff. in Bureau of Ethnology 

MSS. Collection, Washington. (Copy by Berendt.) 178. 

Gabelentz, [Hans] Georg [Conon] von der 

1881 Die Sprachwissenschaft, ihre Aufgaben, Methoden und bisheri- 
gen Ergebnisse : Leipzig, 8°, xx, 502 p. 166. 
Gala, Leandro Rodriguez de la 

See Vales, 1870. 
Galindo, Juan 

1832 Memoire de M. Galindo, officier superieur de la Republique de 
I'Amerique Centrale, adresse a M. le Secretaire de la Societe de 
Geographic de Paris : in Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie de 
Paris, V. 18, p. 198-214. (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 42-6.) 181, 199. 
1834 Description of the river Usumasinta in Guatemala: in Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Geographical Society, v. 3, p. 59-64, (1833). 
(French trans, in Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, 3d series: 
Paris, 1834, v. 3, p. 147-151. 178. 
Gallatin, Albert 

1845 Notes on the semi-civilized nations of Mexico, Yucatan and of 
Central America; in Transactions of the American Ethnological 
Society, v. 1, p. 1-352. 165, 166, 167, 168, 178, 182, 186. 
Gann, Thomas W. F. 

1918 The Maya Indians of southern Yucatan and northern British 
Honduras: in Bureau of Ethnology , Washington. Bulletin 64, 
8°, 146 p. 28 pis. 207. 



238 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Gaecia, Genaro 

1898 See Spencer, 1873-1910. 
Garcia, Gregorio 

1607 Origen de los Indies de el Nuevo Mundo e Indias Occidentales 
averiguado con discurso de opiniones por el padre presentado 
fray Gregorio Garcia de la orden de Predicadores. Tratanse en 
este libro varias cosas, y puntos curiosos, tocantes a diversas 
ciencias y facultades, con que se haze varia historia, de mucho 
gusto para el ingenio y entendimiento de hombres agudos y 
curiosos: Valencia. (2d ed. Madrid, 1729, 26, 336, (80) p.") 
153. 
Garcia, [Manuel] 

1856 El toro de Sinkeuel. Leyenda hipica, politico-tauromaquica : 
Merida, 24°, 32 ]). 206.' 
Garcia Cubas, Antonio 

1876 The Republic of Mexico in 1876. A political and ethnographical 
division of the population, character, habits, costumes, and 
vocations of its inhabitants. Translated into English by 
George E. Henderson: Mexico, 8°, 130 p. 1 f. 8 p. of music, 
8 pis. map. 169. 
1884 Cuadro geografico, estadistico, descriptive e historico de los 
Estados Unidos Mexicanos: Mexico, 8°, xxxi, 474, iii p. 1 
map, 1 pi., 3 tab. (Another edition, Mexico, 1885.) 159. 
1888-91 Diccionario geogrdfico, historico, y biografico de los Estados 
Unidos Mexicanos: Mexico, 4°, 5 v. 159. 
Garcia y Garcia, Apolinar 

1865 Historia de la guerra de castas en Yucatan : Merida, 4°. 162. 
Garcia Icazbalceta, Joaquin 

See Icazbalceta, Joaquin Garcia. 
Gates, William [E.] 148. 

1914 Concepts linguistiques dans I'Amerique ancienne: in Conipte 

Rendu, Congres International d' Anthropologie et d' Archeologie 
Prehistoriques, 14th Session, Geneva (1912), v. 2, p. 341-348. 
167. 

1915 The unpublished material in the Mayance and southern Mexican 

languages: 8°, MS. 22 If . (Prepared for the meeting of the 
Archaeological Institute of America. San Francisco, 1915.) 
157. 

1920 The distribution of the several branches of the Mayance linguis- 
tic stock: in Morley, 1920. Appendix 12, p. 604-615. 160, 
168. 

1920a [Transcription and translation with notes of page 66 of the 
Cronica de Oxkutzcab] : in Morley, 1920, p. 507-509. 204. 

19206 [Transcription and translation of p. 85 of the Chilam Balam de 
Chumayel]: in Morley, 1920, p. 485. 189. 
(1) Apuntes para el arte de la lengua Maya: 4°, MS. 7 ff. 167. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 239 

(2) [Finding list of MSS. and printed material on the languages of 

the Maya stock]: 4°, MS. 56 if . 157. 

(3) [Maya pronunciation and alphabet]: 4°, MS. 5 ff. 168. 

(4) Photographic reproductions of Maya manuscripts and books. 

For list, see p. 148-149. 
Gatschet, Albert S[amuel] 

1879 Perez' Maya-Spanish dictionary: in American Antiquarian, v. 2, 

p. 30-32. 175. 
1883 Native American languages: in The Critic, New York, v. 3. No. 

61, p. 96-97. (Review of Perez, 1866-77 and Brinton, 1882.) 

175. 
1900 Central-Amerikas Sprachstamme und Dialekte: in Globus, v. 77, 

n. 5, p. 81-84. 159. 
Gerrodette, Frank Hoxore 

1891-92 The linguistic stocks of the Indians of Mexico and Central 

America: sm. 4°, MS. 320 p. Index and map. (In Peabody 

Museum.) 159. 

GoMARA, Francisco Lopez de 

1553 Hispania Victrix. Primera y segvnda parte de la historia general 
de las Indias co todo el descubrimiento, y cosas notables cjue 
han acaescido dende que se ganaron hasta el ano de 1551: 
Medina del Campo, folio, cxxii, cxxxix f¥. (There was evi- 
dently^ another edition, with slightly different title, published 
in Zaragoza in 1553. Also numerous other editions.) (See 
Barcia, 1749.) 180. 

Gomez de Parada, Juan 

1722 Constituciones Sinodales dispuestas por el orden de Libros y 
Titulos y Santos Decretos del Concilio Mexicano III para el 
Obispado de Yucatan por su Obispo el Yll=°o- 8°'- D^- D"^ 
Juan Gomez de Parada del Consejo de su Mag*^- en el Sinodo 
que comenzo en su Yglecia Catedral, el dia seis de Ag*°- de mil 
setecientos veinte 3' dos, y se finalizo el dia primero de 
0'^''®- del mismo ano: fol. 454 p. 139. 

Gordon, George Byron. Editor. 

1913 See Chumayel, Book of Chilam Balam of 

Gordon, James Bentley 

1820 An historical and geographical memoir of the North American 
continent, its nations and tribes: Dublin, 4°, civ, x, 305 p. 161. 
Granado Baeza, Bartolome Jose 

1845 Los indios de Yucatan. Informe dado por el cura de Yaxcabd, 
en contestacion al interrogatorio de 36 preguntas, etc.: in 
Registro Yucateco, v. 1, p. 165-178. (Written in 1813.) 161, 
206. 

GuERRA, Jose Maria 
See Vela, 1848. 



240 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Haebler, Karl 

1895 Die Maya-Litteratur und der Maya-Apparat zu Dresden: in 
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156. 

[Hamy, Ernest Theodore] 

1909 Catalogue de la bibliotheque de feu M. le Docteur E. T. Hamy: 
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Harrisse, Henry 

1866 Bibliotheca americana vetustissima. A description of works re- 
lating to America published between the years 1492 and 1551: 
New York, 1. 8°, liv, 519 p. (Additions, Paris, 1872, 1. 8°, xl, 
199 p.) 154. 

Heller, Carl Bartholomaeus 

1853 Reisen in Mexiko in den Jahren 1845-48: Leipzig, 8°, xxiv, 
432 p. 1 pi. 1 map. 165, 178, 182. 

Henderson, Alexander 145. 
[1852] The Maia primer: Birmingham, 16°, 12 p. (Berendt, 1867, gives 

the date as 1863.) 166. 
1859-66 A Maya dictionarj- of the language as spoken in the District 

of Bacalar, Yucatan. MS. 6 v. averaging 250 pages each. 3 v. 

Maya-English; 3 v. English-Maya: in Bureau of Ethnology 

library. (See note in American Anthropologist (n. s.) 1900. 

V. 2, p. 403-404. 174. 
1870 Ebanhilio Hezu-Clizto hebix Zan Lucaz: London, 16°, 14 p. 

(Four chapters of St. Luke as translated by Ruz, 1, published 

by Kingdon, 1865, and corrected bA' Henderson.) 200. 
§ (1) Book of Genesis in Maya. MS. (according to Berendt, 1867, 

p. 420). [?] 200. 
§ (2) The Psalms in Maya. MS. (according to Berendt, 1867, p. 420). 

[?] 200. 
§ (3) Translation of Beltran's grammar into English. (According to 

Berendt, 1867, p. 420. [?] See Kingdon, 1.) 165. 

Hernandez, Pedro M. 

1905 De los primeros habitantes de la venturosa Yucateca, traducido 
de la Maya al Castellano: Merida, 8° (5 parts in one. Maya 
and Spanish text). 207. 

Herranz y Quiros, Diego Narciso 

1834 Compendio maj-or de gramatica Castellana para uso de los niiios 
que concurren a las escuelas: Madrid. (9th ed. Madrid, 1858.) 
(This is the Spanish grammar translated into Maya bj^ Ruz, 
1844. See Narciso, 1838.) 166. 

Herrera, Alfonso L. and Cicero, Ricardo E. 

1895 Catalogo de la colecion de anthropologia del Museo Nacional de 
Mexico: Mexico, 8°, viii, 164 p. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 241 

Herrera [y Tordesillas], Antonio de 
1601-15. Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas 
i tierra firme del mar oc6ano en quatro dccadas desde el ano 
de 1-192 liasta cl de 1531 : Madrid, 4°, 8 pt. (Other editions.) 
The original edition contains the follo\\ing: 
Los Autores impresos, y de mano, ([ue han escrito cosas 
particulares de las Indias Occidentales. 153. 

Hervas y Panduro, Lorenzo 

1784 Catalogo delle lingiie conosciute e notizia delle loro affinita e 

diversita . . . : Cesena, 4°, 260 p. (V. 17. Idea deU'Uni- 
verso.) 154, 158. 

1785 Origine, forniazione, meccanismo, ed armonia degl' idiomi: 

Cesena, 4°, 180 p. IS ff. (V. 18. Idea deWUniverso.) 179. 

1786 Aritmetica delle nazioni e divisione del tempo fra TOrientali: 

Cesena, 4°, 206 p. (V. 19. Idea deWUniverso.) 182. 

1787 Saggio pratico delle lingue con prolegomeni, e una raccolta di 

orazioni Dominicali in piu di trecento lingue, e dialetti con cui 
si dimostra I'infusione del primo idioma dell'uman genere, e la 
confusione delle lingue in esso poi succeduta, e si additano la 
diramazione, e dispersione della nazioni con molti risultati 
utili alia storia: Cesena, 4°, 256 p. (V. 21. Idea delV Uni- 
verso.) 199. 

1787a Vocabolario poligloto con proligomeni sopra piu di CL. lingue. 
Dove sono delle scoperte nuove, ed utili all'antica storia 
dell'uman genere, ed alia cognizione del meccanismo delle 
parole: Cesena, 4°, 247 p. (V. 20. Idea delV Universo.) 179. 

1800-05 Catalogo de las lenguas de las naciones conocidas, y numer- 
acion, division 3^ clases de estas, segun la diversidad de sus 
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and selective edition of Hervas, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1787a.) 154, 
158. 

Hestermann, p. Ferdinand 

1915 Die Maya-Kultur Mittelamerikas (Sprache, Schrift, Literatur, 
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gischen Gesellschaft, Sitzungsherichte: Vienna, v. 45, p. [8]-[9]. 
162. 

HiERSEMANN, Karl Wilhelm. Editor. 

1891 et seq. Amerikanische Sprachen. (Numerous sale catalogues, 
1891, Nos. 70, 82, 87; 1893, No. 119; 1895, No. 143; 1897, 
No. 179; 1898, No. 200; 1904, No. 301; etc.) 155, 158. 

HocABA, Chilam Balam de 

See Chilam Balam de Kaua. 191. 

HoiL, Juan Jose 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel (see under Chumayel). 



242 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Holmes, William Henry 

1903 Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in Smithsonian 
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HovELAQUE, Abel 

1876 La linguistique : in Bibliotheque des Sciences Conteinporaines, 
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Humboldt, [Friedrick Heinrich] Alexander yon 

1811 Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne, etc. 
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161, 164. 

Humboldt, [Karl] Wilhelm von 

(1) Ueber das Verbum in den amerikanischen Sprachen: MS. 40 p. 

(in Humboldt's writing, 13 p. notes by ?). 164. 

(2) Maya Grammatik: folio MS. 135 p. (36 p. in Humboldt's writ- 

ing, 82 p. and table in writing of his secretaiy, 15 p. notes and 
list of affixes in Humboldt's writing.) 164. 

Icazbalceta, Joaquin Garcia 

1866 Apuntes para un catalogo de escritores en lenguas indigenas de 
America; Mexico, 16°, xiii, 157 p. (Republished in his Obras, 
Mexico, 1898, v. 8, p. 1-181.) (134 titles reprinted in Polemica 
entre el Diario Oficial y la Colonia Espanola, Mexico, 1876.) 155. 

1870 See Mendieta. 

1886 Bibliografia mexicana del siglo xvi. Primera parte. Catalogo 
razonado de libros inipresos en Mexico de 1539 a 1600 con 
biografias de autores y otras ilustraciones ; precedido de una 
noticia acerca de la introduccion de la imprenta en Mexico: 
Mexico, 4°, xxix, 419, p. (3) ff. (See Leon, 1902.) 156. 

IxiL, Chilam Balam de 

MS. owned in Merida. (There is a Berendt copy, 1868, in the 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Gates owns a second 
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Jehan, Louis Francois 

1864 Dictionnaire de linguistique et de philologie comparee. His- 
toire de toutes les langues mortes et vivantes, traite complet 
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clopedic Theologique, v. 34, Paris, 4°, 1448 columns (two to a 
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Johnes, Arthur James 

1846 Philological proofs of the original unity and recent origin of the 
human race. Derived from a comparison of the languages of 
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causes now in operation: London, 8°, Ix, 172, 103 p. 179. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 243 

Joyce, Thomas A[thol] 

1914 Mexican archaeology, an introduction to the archaeology of the 
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JuARROS, Domingo 

1808 Compendio de la historia de la ciudad de Guatemala. . . . 
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JUDIO, LiBRO DE 

See Anon (13-16), Ossado, 1834, Perez (4) and Berendt 1870. 195. 
Kaua, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS. 282 p. owned in Merida (Gates reproduction.) (There is 
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Keane, Augustus Henry 

1901 Central and South America: London, 12°, 2 v. edited by Sir 
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Kennedy, James 

1861 Essays ethnological and linguistic: London, 8°, vi p. (1) f. 230 p. 

(Edited by C. M. Kennedy.) This contains: 
Supplementary notices of the American Indians, the Mayas, 
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KiNGDON, John 145. 
1847 A Yucatecan grammar: translated from the Spanish into Maya 
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1862 [?] [A tentative edition in Maya of chaps, v, xi, xv, xxiii of St. 

Luke's Gospel, published by the British and Foreign Bible 
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1865 Leti u cilich Evangelio Jesu Cristo hebix San Lucas: London, 
16°, 90 p, published by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
200. 

§(1) [Beltran's grammar translated into English]. MS. [?] (Ludewig, 
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New York. Present officers deny this. See Henderson, 3.) 
166. 



244 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

KiNGDON, John {continued). 

§ (2) Dictionary Maya-Spanish-English and English-Spanish-Maya: 
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Klaproth, Julius 

1824-28 Memoires relatifs a I'Asie contenant des recherches histo- 
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Landa, Diego de 141. 

1864 See Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1864. (2d edition, Appendix to the 
Delgado edition of de Rosny, Esmi sur le dechiffrement de 
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and a 3d edition in Coleccion de Docunientos Ineditos (2d 
series): Madrid, 1900, v. 13, p. 265-411). 

§ (1) Arte perfeccionado de la lengua Maj-a: MS. xvi century (miss- 
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§ (2) Doctrina en la lengua Maya [?]. (See Aguilar, 1639; ed. 1892, 
p. 35.) 196. 
Larrainzar, Manuel 

1875-78 Estudios sobre la historia de America, sus ruinas y anti- 
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Latham, Robert Gordon 

1850 The natural history of the varieties of man: London, 8°, xxviii 
574 p. 159. 

1860 Opuscula. Essays chiefly philological and ethnographical : Lon- 
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1862 Elements of comparative philology : London, 8°, xxxii, 774 p. 179. 
Leclerc, Charles 

1867 Bibliotheca americana. Catalogue raisonne d'une tres-precieuse 
collection de livres anciens et modernes sur I'Amerique et les 
Philippines: Paris, 8°, vii, 407 p. 154. 

1878 Bibliotheca americana. Histoire, geographic, voyages, archeo- 
logie et linguistique des deux Ameriques et des lies Philippines : 
Paris, 8°, xx, 737 p. (Enlarged edition of 1867.) (Maya, Nos. 
2279-2294, 2468, 2609.) (Supplements appeared in 1881 and 
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Lehmann, Walter 

1907 Ergebnisse und Aufgaben der mexikanistischen Forschung: in 
Archiv fiir Anthropologie (n. s.) v. 6, p. 113-168. (English 
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156, 162. 
Lejeal, Leon 

1902 Les antiquites mexicaines (Mexique, Yucatan, Amerique-cen- 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY 245 

Leon, Nicolas 

1896 Biblioteca mexicana. Catdlogo para la venta de la porcion mas 
escogida de (su) biblioteca: Alexico, 16°, 37 p. (Sale cata- 
logue.) 158. 
1898 See Ramirez, 1898. 

1900 Familias liiigiiisticas de Mexico: in Memorial de la Sociedad 
Cientifica de "Antonio Alzate," v. 15, p. 275-284. (Republished 
in Anales del Museo Nacional, Mexico, 1903, v. 7, p. 279-309, 
map.) 159. 
1902 Adiciones a la Bibliografia mexicana del siglo xvi: in Boletin del 
Inditido Bibliogrdjico Mexicano, Part 1, p. 43 et seq. (See 
Icazbalceta, 1886.) 156. 
1902a La bibliografia in Mexico en el siglo xix ; in Boletin del Instituto 

Bibliogrdfico Mexicano, Part 3, p. 55-66. 156. 
1902-08 Bibliografia mexicana del siglo xviii: Mexico, sm. 4°, 5 parts. 
(Parts 1-3 in Boletin del Instituto Bibliogrdjico Mexicano, 
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1905 Las lenguas indigenas de Mexico en el siglo xix, Nota biblio- 
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Leon Pinelo, Antonio Rodriguez de 

1629 Epitome de la biblioteca oriental i occidental, nautica i geo- 
grafica: Madrid, 8°, 44 ff., 186, xii p. If. This contains: 
Autores que han escrito en lenguas de las Indias (p. 101-110). 
(See Barcia, 1737-38 for 2d ed.) 150, 153. 
Le Plongeon, Alice [Dixon] 

1879 Notes on Yucatan: in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian 
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papers, Worcester, 1879, p. 69-98.) 196. 
[1889] Here and there in Yucatan. Miscellanies. New York, 12°, 
146 p. 195. 
(1) Maya melodies of Yucatan. Taken from Indian airs of Alice 
Dixon LePlongeon with musical settings by Susanne V. R. 
Lawton. 207. 
Le Plongeon, Augustus 

1877 See Salisbury, Stephen, 1877. 

1879 Letter addressed to the Right Rev. Bishop Courtenay, Bishop of 

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1880 Ensayo sobre la antigiiedad de la lengua Maya: in La Revista 

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[1880a?j [Comparative study of the Maya language.] (A letter in 
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246 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Le Plongeon, Augustus {coniinued). 

18806 [Letter on the antiquity of the Mayas addressed to the Right 
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as 1880a.) 

1881 Maj'^apan and Maya inscriptions: in Proceedings of the American 
Antiquarian Society, (n. s.), v. 1, p. 246-282. 160. 

1881a Vestiges of the Mayas, or, Facts tending to prove that communi- 
cations and intimate relations must have existed, in very 
remote times, between the inhabitants of Mayab and those of 
Asia and Africa: New York, 8°, 68 p. 160. 

1896 Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx: New York, 8°, Ixv, 277 p. 
68 pis. (2d ed. 1900^ 160, 176. 

LizANA, Bernardo de 

1633 Historia de Yucatan. Devocionario de Nuestra Senora de Izmal 
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1893, 8°, (12 ff.), 127 ff. (1) f. Parts of first four chapters pub- 
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translation. Extracts in Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, 
p. 155-160.) 150, 180, 193. 

Lopez Otero, Daniel 

1914 Gramatica Maya. Metodo teorico practico: Merida, 8°, 130 p. 
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LuDEWiG, Hermann Ernst 

1858 The literature of American aboriginal languages. With addi- 
tions and corrections by Professor Wm. W. Turner. Edited 
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Mc Gee, W. J. 

1901 Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in Smithsonian 

Institution, Annual Report, Washington, [1902], p. 65-84. 171. 

1902 Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in Smithsonian 

Institution, Annual Report, Washington, [1903], p. 39-57. 171. 

Maclean, J. P. 

1883 Maya literature: in [some magazine for] October, (n. s.) v. 20, 
p. 438-448. (Pilling, No. 2392a after Brinton.) 194. 

MacNutt, Francis Augustus 
1908 See Cortes, Hernando. 
1912 See Martyr d'Anghera. 

Madier de Montjau, Eduard 

1875 Textes Maj'as: in Archives de la Societe Americaine de France 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY 247 

Maisonneitv'E et Cie. Editors. 

1881 Bibliotheca americana. Histoire, geographie, voyages, arch^o- 

logie, et lingiiistiqiie des deux Ameriques: Paris, 8°, 105 p. 

(This is a supplement to Leclerc, 1878. Another appeared 

in 1887.) 158. 
1897 Catalogues des livres de fonds et en nombre. Histoire, arch^o- 

logie, voyages, mythologie, religions, ethnographic et linguis- 

tique, etc.jde I'Amerique et de I'Oceanie: Paris, 8°, 2, 134 p. 

(Sale catalogue.) 168. 

Malte-Brun, Conrad 

1810-29 Precis de la geographic univcrsclle, ou description de toutes 
les parties du monde, sur un plan nouveau, d'apres les grandes 
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geographic chez les peuples anciens et modernes, etc.: Paris, 
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179. This contains: 
Tableau de renchaincment geographiquc des langues ameri- 
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editions.) 179. 
1824 Gemaldc von Amerika und seinen Bewohnern. Uebersetzt von 
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174. 
1862 Le Mexique illustre, histoire ct geographie. Recit des evene- 
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Malte-Brun, V[ictor] A[dolph] 

1864 Un coup d 'ceil sur le Yucatan: Paris, 8°, 34 p. 180. 

1878 Tableau de la distribution des langues au Mexique: in Proceed- 
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bourg (1877), V. 2, p. 10-44. (Published separatelj^, Nancy, 
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Mani, Chilam Balam de 

1595 circa. [Portions of this MS. called Perez Codex (g. v.), other parts 
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Mani, Cronica de 

1556 etseq. [MS. in Maya described by Stephens, 1843, v. 2, p. 262- 
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Manzano, L. 

1893 Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan. 250 pala- 
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248 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Marietti, Pietro. Editor. 

1870 Oratio Dominica in CCL. lingvas versa et CLXXX charactervm 
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Martinez Alomia, Gustavo 

1902 Introduccion de la imprenta en Campeche y cien portadas de 
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1906 Historiadores de Yucatan. Apuntes biogrdficos y bibliograficos 

de los historiadores de esta peninsula desde su descubrimiento 
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Martinez Hernandez, Juan 149. 

1907 [Essay on Maya calendar]: in El Calendario de Espinosa. 183. 
1909 El Chilam Balam de Mani 6 Codice Perez: Merida, 12°, 18 p. 

(Published originally in El Calendario de Espinosa.) 186. 
1909o Las cronicas Mayas. Revision y traduccion del texto de las 
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1912 Los grandes ciclos de la historia Maya segun el raanuscrito de 

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1913 La creacion del mundo segun los Mayas. Paginas ineditos del 

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national Congress of Americanists, London (1912), p. 164-171. 
188. 
1915 La muerte de los " Ahpulhaob." Retaliacion de Nachi Cocom 
a Tutul Xiu por la destruccion de Mayapan : MS. 183, 

1918 Correlacion entre la cronologia Maj^a y la cristiana. Correlacion 

por katunes desde el ciclo noveno hasta la fundacion de Merida. 
Correlacion de todas las fechas determinadas en los monu- 
mentos arqueologicos Mayas: MS. 183. 
1918a La cronica de Yaxkukul por Ah Macan Pech y Ah Naum Pech'. 
Revision y traduccion del texto: MS. 203. 

1919 El juicio final. (Translation into Spanish of p. 102 of the Chu- 

mayel.) 4°, MS. 2 p. 189. 

1920 Peticion de Juan Xiu (from Xiu Chronicles) : Translation. MS. 

(In collaboration with Adela C. Breton.) 204. 

1920a Testamento de Andres Pat (from Libro de Cacalchen. 1647): 
Translation. MS. (In collaboration with Adela C. Breton.) 
205. 

19206 Ordenanzas de Don Diego Garcia Palacios (from Libro de Cacal- 
chen, 1583): Translation. MS. (In collaboration with Adela 
C. Breton.) 204. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 249 

Martyr D'Anghera, Peter 

1516 De orbe nouo decades: AlcaM, folio, (65), 16 ff. (Numerous other 
editions. Best edition by MacXutt, New York and London, 
1912, 8°, 2 v., vii, iU; "v, 44S p.) 153. 

Maudslay, Alfred Percival. Editor. 
1908-16 See Diaz del Castillo. 

Mayer, Brantz 

1851 Mexico. Aztec, Spanish and Republican . . . with . . . his- 
torical sketch of the late war : and notices of New Mexico and 
California: Hartford, 8°, 2 v. 433, 398 p. (Other editions.) 
185. 

Means, Philip Ainsworth 

1917 History of the Spanish conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas: in 
Papers of the Peabody Museum, v. 7, Cambridge, 8°, xvi, 
206 p. 164, 174. 

Medina, Jose Toribio 

1893 La imprenta en Mexico. Epitome (1539-1810). Seville 8°, 

291 p. (See ed. 1907-12.) 
1898-1907 Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810): Santiago de 

Chili, 4°, 7 V. 155. 
1904 La imprenta en Merida de Yucatan (1813-21). Notas biblio- 

graficas: Santiago de Chile. 8°, xii, 13-32 p. 158. 
1907-12 La imprenta en Mexico (1539-1821). Santiago de Chile, 4°, 

8 V. 151, 155. 

Melgar y Serrano, Jose Maria. 

1873 Juicio sobre lo que servio de base a las primeras teogonias. Tra- 
duccion del manuscrito Maya perteneciente al Seiior Miro: 
Vera Cruz. 182. 

Mena, Carlos 

§ (1) Sermon y opusculos piadosos en lengua de Yucatan: MS. xvii 
centurj^ (missing). 201. 

Mendez, Santiago 

1898 Noticias sobre las costumbres, trabajos, idioma, industria, fisono- 
mia de los Indios de Yucatan: in Boletin de la Sociedad de 
Geografia y Estadistica de la Repiiblica Mexicana. (Repub- 
lished in El Reproductor Campechano, 1899.) 162. 

Mendieta, Geronimo de 

1870 Historia eclesiastica Indiana, obra escrita a fines del siglo xvi. 
... La publica por primera vez Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta: 
Mexico, 4°, xlv, 790 p. (Written about 1590.) 153. 

Mendoza, Eufemio 

1872 Apuntes para un catalogo razonado de las palabras Mexicanas 
introducidas al Castellano: Mexico, 8°, 88 p. This contains: 
Carrillo y Ancona, 1872 (p. 56-88). 



250 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Menendez, Rodolfo 

1906 [Bibliographical note]: in Martinez Alomia, 1906, p. i-iv. 167. 

Menendez y Pelayo, Marcelino 

1888 Inventario bibliografico de la ciencia espanola: in Ciencia 
Espanola, Madrid, v. 3, p. 125-445. (It is v. 64 in Coleccion 
de Escritores Castellanos.) 154. 

Meneses, Jose Maria 
1848 See Perez, 1848. 
(1) [Copy of Diccionario de San Francisco, Maya-Spanish, A-K, 4°, 
MS., 54 ff. ■v^^ith Advertencia preliminar]. 172. 

Merian [Falkach, Andre Adolphe] Baron de 

1828 Prineipes de I'etude comparative des langues par le baron de 
Merian, suivis d'observations sur les racines des langues semi- 
tiques par M. Klaproth: Paris, 8°, viii, 240 p. 179. 

MiGNE, Jacques Paul. Editor. 

1864 Dictionnaire de linguistique (Troisieme et Derniere Encyclop^die 
Theologique, v. 34): Paris, 4°. (See Jehan, 1864.) 

Millspaugh, Charles Frederick 

1895-98 Contributions 1-3 to the flora of Yucatan: in Field Museum 
Puhlications, 4, 15, 25. Botanical Series, v. 1, p. 1-56. i-vii, 
281-339; 345-410. 177, 195. 

1900 Plantse Utowanae : in Field Museum Publications, 43, 50. Botani- 
cal Series, v. 2, p. 1-135. 177, 195. 

1903-04 Plantse Yucatanse: in Field Museum Puhlications, 69, 92. 
Botanical Series, v. 3, p. 1-151, 1 f. 177, 195. 

Ministerio de Fomento, Anales de 

1854 Mexico, v. 1, 8°, 726 p. 1 map. (See also Siliceo, 1857.) 159. 

Mitre, Bartolome 

1909-11 Catalogo razonado de la seccion lenguas Americanas: 
Buenos Aires, 8°, 3 v. xliii, 409 p. 1 f.; 325 p. 1 f.; 318 p. 1 f. 
150, 156, 162, 164, 165, 167. 

1912 Museo Mitre. Lenguas americanas. Catalogo ilustrado de la 
seccion X de la biblioteca. Con muchos facsimiles de portadas: 
Buenos Aires, 8°, 182 p. 155. 

Molina y Solis, Audomaro 

1887 Compendio de la geografia de Yucatan. (See Carrillo y Ancona, 

1887, p. 1-31). 
1905 U molcabthanil camathan. Catecismo de la Doctrina Cristiana 

Merida, 46 p. (Published without name of author.) 197. 
1914 See Lopez Otero, 1914. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 251 

Molina y Solis, Juan Francisco 

1896 Historia del descubrimiento y conquista de Yucatan con una 

resena de la historia antigua de esta peninsula: Merida, 8°, Ix, 
911 p. 162, 168, 181, 186, 188, 190. 

1897 El primer Obispado de la nacion Mejicana. Articulos publicados 

sobre esta materia y sobre otros puntos de nuestra historia: 
Merida, S°, 475 p. 184, 203, 205. 
1904-13 Historia de Yucatan durante la dominacion Espanola: 
Merida, 8°, 3 V. iv, 359; iii, 455; 658 p. 151,158,205. 

Moreno, Pablo 

[Writer on Maya subjects, after Castillo, 1866, p. 255.] 192. 

MORLEY, SyLVANUS GrISWOLD 

1910 The correlation of Ma^va and Christian chronology: in American 

Journal of Archaeology (2d series), v. 14, p. 193-204. 183. 

1911 The historical value of the Books of Chilam Balam: in American 

Journal of Archaeology (2d series), v. 15, p. 195-214. 183. 
1920 The inscriptions at Copan: Washington, 4°, xii, 643 p. 33, 
1 pis. (Carnegie Institution Publication, No. 219.) 183, 189, 
204, 205. 

MoTUL, Diccionario de 

MS. XVI century (missing). Copy, 16°, in John Carter Brown 
Library, Providence, Rhode Island: Maya-Spanish, 465 f!". 
Spanish-Maya, 236 ff. (ff. 83-104, 161, 171-174, 209-216, 233 
missing), (Gates reproduction, 8°.) (Copy by Berendt, 4°, 2 v. , 
viii, 1565, 508 p. with 1 v. of Additions and Corrections, about 
600 p. Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 1. Copy (partial) 
by Le Plongeon in 1884 and copj' (partial) by Miss Thomas, 
1900 et seq. in Bureau of Ethnology. Note of this dictionary 
by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 181.) 170. 

MiJLLER, Friedrich 

1876-88 Grundriss der Sprachwisseuschaf t : Vienna, 8°, 4 v. V. 2, 
part 1 (1882) contains: 

Die Sprachen der schlichthaarigen Rassen. Die Maya- 
Sprachen (p. 305-313). 167. 

MiJLLER, J[ohann] G[eorg] 

1855 Geschichte der amerikanischen Urreligionen : (2d ed., Basel, 
1867, 8°, vii, 706 p.) 162. 

[Murphy, Henry Cruse] 

1884 Catalogue of the magnificent library of . . . consisting almost 
wholly of Americana or books relating to America : New York, 
8^ viii, 434 p. (Sale catalogue.) 154, 158. 

Museo Yucateco, El 

1841-42 Redactado por D. Justo Sierra y D. Vicente Calero Quintana; 
considerado como la piedra miliar en que descansa el edificio, 
levantado a literatura en la peninsula : Campeche, 8°, 2 v. 158. 



252 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Nabula, Chilam Balam de 

[MS. known only by name.] 191. 

Nah, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS. 64 p. Signed by Jose Maria Nah. (Owned by William 
Gates and reproduced by him.) 191. 

Najera, Gaspar de 

§ (1) Relacion de las antigiiedades de Yucatan: MS. xvi century 
(missing). 169. 

Naphegyi, Gabor 

1869 The album of language illustrated by the Lord's Prayer in one 

hundred languages, with historical description of the principal 
languages, interlinear translation and pronunciation of each 
prayer, a dissertation on the languages of the world and tables 
exhibiting all known languages, dead and living: Phila- 
delphia, fol. 4, 11-323, (1) p. 199. 

Narciso, J. 
[1838 Arte de la lengua Ma.ya]. (This is mentioned by Squier, p. 38 
but it is clearly a mistake. The work is the Spanish grammar 
of Diego Narciso Herranz y Quiros, translated into Maya by 
Ruz.) 165. 

New York Public Library, Bulletin of 

1909 List of works in New York Public Library relating to Mexico: 
V. 13, n. 10-12, New York, p. 622-662, 675-737, 748-829. 
150, 156. 

NicoLi, Jose P. 

1870 Las ruinas de Yucatan y los viajeros: in Boletin de la Sociedad 

de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana. (2d 
series), v. 2, p. 510-524. 194. 

[NOLASCO DE LOS ReYES, PeDRO] 

1869 El ejercicio del santo via crusis puesto en lengua Maya y 
copiado de un antiguo manuscrito : Lo da a la prensa con su- 
perior permiso el Dr. D. J. Vicente Solis Rosales quien desea 
se propague esta devocion entre los fieles, principalmente de 
la clase indigena. Va corregida por el R. P. Fr. M. Antonio 
Peralta: Mexico, 16°, 31 p. (Gates reproduction.) (See 
Madier de Montiau, 1875, and Anon. 17.) 198. 

Norman, B[enjamin] M[oore] 

1843 Rambles in Yucatan including a visit to the remarkable ruins of 
Chi-Chen, Kabah, Zaj-i, Uxmal, etc.: New York, 8°, 304 p. 
(Other editions.) 165, 168, 174, 199. 

NUTTALL, ZeLIA. 

1901 Fundamental principles of old and new world civilizations: in 
Papers of the Peabody Museum, v. 2, Cambridge, 602 p. 179 (2) . 

1903 A suggestion to Maj^a scholars: in American Anthropologist, 
(n. s.) v. 5, p. 667-678. 181. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 253 

Ober, Frederick A[lbion] 

1884 Travels in Mexico and life among the Mexicans: Boston, 8°, 
xxii, 672 p. 160. 

O'Neil 6 O'Kelly, Arturo 

1795 Descripcion, poblacion, y censo de la Provincia de Yucatan en 
la Nueva Espana: MS. (Copy in Library of Cathedral of 
Mexico City according to Beristain }• Souza, 1816-21, v. 2, 
p. 355). (Name of author is written "Oneil u Oneylli".) 161. 

Ordonez Ramon de 

(1) Historia de la creacion del cielo y de la tierra, conforme al systema 
de la gentilidad Americana, etc.: MS. 253 ff. (Copied by 
Brasseur de Bourbourg in 1848 and 1849.) Part 2, 50 p. in- 
complete. (See Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1871, p. 112-113.) 
178. 

Orozco y Berr.\, jNIanuel 

1864 Geografia de las lenguas y carta etnografica de ]\Iexico, prece- 

didas de un ensayo de clasificacion de las mismas lenguas y de 

apuntes para las inmigraciones de las tribus: Mexico, 4°, xiv, 

392 p. 1 map. 159, 162, 187. 
1880 Historia antigua y de la conquista de Mexico: Mexico, 8°, 4 v. 

ix, 584; 603; 527; 694 p. and atlas, fol. 181, 194. 

OssADO, RicARDO, ciUas El Judio 

1534 Conocimiento de j'erbas Yucatecas, etc.: Merida, 16°, 80 p. 

(Unique imprint owned by Gates.) 195. 

Oviedo y Valdes, Gonzalo Fernandez de 

1535 La historia general de las Indias, etc.: Seville. 4°. (French 

trans, of first 10 books. Paris, 1555. Ed. Madrid, 1851-55. 
4°, 4 v.). (Berendt copj' of Maya words in Oviedo in Berendt 
Linguistic Collection Nos. 42- li, and 180.) 161, 169. 

OXKUTZCAB, ChILAM BaLAM DE 

1689 Pronosticos de los ahaues del libro de Chilam Balam de Oxkutz- 
cab. (This is a partial copy from Perez collection, copied b3'' 
Berendt, 1868f/, in Berendt Linguistic Collection, Xo. 43-8, 
p. 185-224. Notes on this copy taken by C. P. Bowditch. 
These reproduced by Gates.) 190. 

OxKUTZCAB, CrONICA DE 

See Xiu Chronicles. 

Pacheco Cruz, Santiago 

1912 Compendio del "Idioma Yucateco": Merida, 12°, 122 (3) p. (2d 
ed. Aumentada, corregida y reformada. Merida, 12°, 5 en- 
tregas.) 167. 
1919 Lexico de la fauna Yucateca: ]Merida, 12°, 76 p. 177. 
(1) Traduccion literal de los descretos del Gobernador E. Avila, d, 
la lengua Maya. 206. 



2M BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Palma y Palma, Eulogio 

1901 Los Mayos (Disertaciones historico-filologicas) : Motul (Yuca- 
tan), 8°, viii, 753, (2) p. Among other items this book con- 
tains : 

Arqueologfa e historia, p. 1-63. 

Filologia, gramatica, y escritura, p. 83-474. 162, 165, 167, 

168, 177, 182. 
Disquisiciones historicas, p. 475-712. 
Voces aztecas castellanizadas y sus equivalentes en Maya, 

p. 718-735. 138. 
Voces mayas castellanizadas, p. 735-738. 178. 
Dioses y genios malignos de la mitologia maya, p. 742-749. 
La serie de los ka tunes (Perez, 1842). 186. 

Parisio, Nicola 

(1) De' pretesi elementi fonetici nelle antiche scriture del Messico e 
del Yucatan: Rasscgna Storica Napolitana di Letter e et Arte. 
V. 1, pts. 3-5, p. 17-34, 65-82, Naples. 177. 

Pat, Jacinto and others 

1847 [circa] Cartas particulares (en la lengua Maj^a )de la sublevacion 
de 1847. Mssel. MSS. (owned by Gates and reproduced by 
him, 4°, 9 p.). 206. 

Pech Manuscript 

See Chicxulub, Cronica de 

Penafiel, Antonio 

1886 Libros mexicanos antiguos y modernos. Catalogo descriptivo 
de la biblioteca del Dr Penafiel. 158. 

1897 Division y clasificacion de las lenguas y dialectos que usaron los 
antiguos habitantes del actual territorio Mexicano. Su estado 
presenter in Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of 
Americanists, Mexico, (1895), p. 91-96. 159. 

1900 Censo general de la Republica Mexicano, verificado el 20 de 
Octubre de 1895: Mexico. (Published by the Ministerio de 
Fomento, Direccion General de Estadisiica.) 169. 

Pennsylvania Bible Society, 

(1) Specimen verses in 164 languages and dialects in which the Holy 

Scriptures have been printed and circulated by the Pennsyl- 
vania Bible Society: Philadelphia, 18°, 46 p. 200. 

(2) Specimen verses in 215 languages and dialects in which the Holy 

Scriptures have been printed and circulated by the Pennsyl- 
vania Bible Society: Philadelphia, 16°, 48 p. 200. 

Peralta, Antonio 

1869 See Nolasco de los Reyes, 1869. 

Perez, Benito 

1803 See Cervera, Jose Tiburcio. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 255 

Perez, Juan Pio 143. 

1836 [Copy of the Diccionario de Ticul.] (Missing.) 173. 

1838 Tomo 2°, de la coordinacion alfabetica de las palabras reunidas 
en los apuntes 6 cuadernos hechos para la formacion de un 
diccionario de la lengua Maya (Letras L-0) : 4° MS. lOS ff. 
(The first volume has no title nor date. It contains letters 
A-K, 84 ff.) 175. 

1838o Diccionario de la lengua Maya, 6 mas bien, apuntes para la for- 
macion de un diccionario de la lengua Maya y Espanola: 4°, 
MS. 1108 (4) ff. 175. 

[1840] Carta a Don Vicente Calero Quintana sobre la literatura de los 
Indios. Written at Peto: in Registro Yucateco, v. 2. (Repub- 
lished in Carrillo y Ancona, 1883, p. 591-592.) 191. 

1842 Principales epocas de la historia antigua de Yucatan: (Original 

MS., a part of the Chilam Balam de Mani, copied and trans- 
lated by Perez, Peto, 1842. His copy (8°, 13, 2 p.) given to 
Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 465-469) who published it and pre- 
sented the MS. to the Xew York Historical Society. Copy in 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43-1). (See Mani, Chilam 
Balam de.) (Also called the Codex Perez.) 144, 180, 184. 

[1842a] Notas sobre la lengua Maya [pronunciation of various Maj'a 
sounds and letters adopted for these sounds. MS. given to 
Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 178) and now in the New York His- 
torical Society as a preliminary notice to the Codex Perez]. 
166, 168. 

[18426] [Dictionary of 4000 Maya words. MS. given to Stephens 
(1843, V. 2, p. 278) and now in the New York Historical 
Society.] 175. 

1843 Cronologia antigua de Yucatan y examen del metodo con que los 

Indios contaban el tiempo, sacados de varios documentos 
antiguos: English translation in Stephens, 1843, v. 1, p. 434- 
459. There is a Brasseur de Bourbourg-Pilling copy with the 
following title : Explicacion \ del Calendario y de la cronologica \ 
antiqua de Yucatan, \ escrita por D. Pio Perez, \ juez que fue de 
Peto: folio, MS. 14 ff. There is also a copy in the Peabody 
Museum with the following title: Cronologia antigua \ de 
Yucatan \ y examen del metodo con que los Indios contaban el 
tiempo. I Sacada de varios documentos antiguos, por D. Juan Pio 
Perez \ jefe politico de Peto, Yucatan: 8°, MS. 20 ff. (See Pilling, 
1885, No. 2950.) 145, 186. 

[1844] Carta a Don Vicente Calero Quintana (sobre el idioma Maya). 
Peto: in Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, p. 182-186. 166. 

1845 Apuntes del diccionario de la lengua Maya, compuestos en \dsta 
de varios catalogos antiguos de sus voces y aumentado con 
gran suma de las de uso comun y otras que se han extractado 
de manuscritos antiguos por un Yucateco aficionado a la 
lengua: 4°, MS. 4, 468 p. 8ff. in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 5. (A partial copy was made by Berendt.) 175. 



256 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perez, Juan Pio {continued). 

1847 [2d copy of the Diccionario de Ticul: 4°, MS. 146 p.] 175. 
1847a Coordinacion alfab^tica de las palabras Maj^as que se hallan en 

la anterior parte Castellana: 4°, MS. 133 p. (This is the Dic- 
cionario de Ticul arranged bj' Perez in Maya-Spanish order. 
Copied by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 2, 
V. 2.) 173, 175. 

1848 Una proclama destinada A los Indios sublevados. (Translated 

into Maya by Perez and Meneses.) 206. 

1866-77 Diccionario de la lengua Maya: Merida, 4°, x, xx, 437 p. 
(Maya-Spanish). 175. 

1898 Coordinacion alfabetica de las voces del idioma Maya que se hal- 
lan en el arte y obras del Padre Fr. Pedro Beltran de Santa 
Rosa, con las equivalencias castellanas que en las mismas se 
hallan: Merida, 8°, vi, 296 p. (p. 123-296 contain the Ticul 
dictionary). 173, 174, 176, 181. 

(1) Apuntes para una grama tica IVIaya, etc., copia de los fragmentos 

en poder de D. Pedro Regil: Merida, 12°, MS., 144 p. (Copied 
by Berendt from notes of Perez in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 11.) This is a note-book with pages numbered 45 
to 188. It contains: • 

Apuntes para una gramatica, p. 45-132, 173-179. 166. 

Indice alfabetico, p. 132. 

Berendt (1871«), p. 137-163. 

Perez (7), p. 165-184. 

Berendt (8), p. 185-188. 

(2) Chilam Balam. Articulos y fragmentos de manuscritos antiguos 

en lengua Maya colectados por Perez: MS. (Copy by Berendt 

(1870), 4°, vi,'258 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 50.) 

144, 183 (2), 205. 

This volume contains the following: 

Parte primera. 

1. Calendario espanol para todos los dias del aiio en relacion 

con el calendario yucateco, con pronosticos para todos 
los dias y todos los meses; p. 1. 

2. Relaciones astrologicos entre los siete plane tas y los dias 

de la semana; p. 25. 

3. Historieta de le Donsella Teodora; p. 31. 184. 

4. Influencias planetarias; p. 38. 

5. Influencias de los signos del zodiaco; p. 39. 

6. Indicaciones sobre sangrias; p. 39. 

7. Pronosticos de los ailos segun comienzan con uno u otro 

dia de la semana; p. 41. 

8. Pronosticos de los signos del zodiaco; p. 43. 

9. Nota de D. Pio Perez; p. 47. 

10. Apuntes historias del Chilam Balam de Mani; p. 48. 184. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 257 

11. Relacion del ano yucateco con el espanol; p. 50. 

12. Calendario espanol para todos los dias del ano en su rela- 

cion al calendario yucateco; p. 51. 
Parte segunda. 

13. Las profecias de los sacerdotes mayas; p. 65. 193. 

14. Los Ahaues; p. 75. 

15. Explicacion de la cronologia antigua; p. 90. 

16. Tabla del nimiero de horas en el dia y en la noche para 

todos los meses del ano; p. 93. 

17. Los dias del mes maya en relacion a cientos Santos del 

calendario cristiano; p. 93. 

18. U mutil vine zanzamal (fama diaria del hombre); p. 94. 

19. Los Katunes; p. 95. 

20. Calendario maj^a para cuatro meses; p. 95. 

21. Rueda para el computo del calendario maya; p. 99 bis. 

22. Explicacion del calendario maj'a en espanol (1595); 

p. 100. 

23. Cuceb. Explicacion de la cronologia antigua; p. 101. 

24. Explicacionesde la cronologia antigua; p. 122. 

25. Las epocas de la historia antigua de Yucatan; p. 134. 
Parte tercera. 

26. Tabla de anos con los dias en que cae 7 poop; p. 138. 

27. Tabla de correspondencia de los dos calendarios; p. 139. 

28. Calendario espanol en su relacion con el yucateco con pro- 

nosticos para todas los dias; p. 140. 

29. Pronosticos de los Ahaues; p. 152. 

30. Las profecias de los sacerdotes mayas; p. 166. 193. 

31. Ruedas cronologicas con su explicacion; p. 174. 189,190. 

32. Bukxok. Tabla para el computo de fechas del ano maya 

con explicacion de D. Pio Perez (no concluida y com- 
pletada por el copiante); p. 178. 
Apendice. 

33. Documento sobre un convenio entre varios pueblos de la 

Sierra Alta; p. 181. 

34. Documentosde tierras del pueblo de Sotuta; p. 187. 206. 

35. Documentos de tierras del pueblo Chacxulubciien; p. 201. 

203. 

(3) Fragmentos sobre la cronologia de los Mayas. Tomados de la 

coleccion de ]\ISS. en lengua Maya de Pio Perez. (Copj^ bj^ 
Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43-5, p. 87-106. 
Notes on this MS. by C. P. Bowditch reproduced by Gates.) 
186. 

(4) Recetarios de Indios en lengua Maya. Indices de plantas medi- 

cinales y de enfermedades coordinados: 4°, MS., So ff. (Be- 
rendt made extracts, notes and additions to this. See Berendt, 
1870. Gates has a copj'.) 196. 



258 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perez, Juan Pio, (continued). 

(5) Los anos de la era Cristiana arreglados al computo de los Mayas : 

4°, MS. 13 ff. (Copy 12°, 79 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 44-4.) 183. 

(6) Las epocas de la historia antigua de Yucatan. Texto del Codice 

Perez confrontado con el del Codice de Tizimin, Chilam Balam 
de Mani; 12°, MS., 18 p. (in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 44-3). 184, 185, 189. 

(7) Extractos de la introduccion que puso A su transcripcion del 

diccionario de Ticul: (See Perez, 1898, p. 123-127. Copy by 
Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 11, p. 165-184). 
173. 

(8) Fragmentos de la historia sagrada traducido en lengua Maj^a y 

copiado de un libro de Chilam Balam que fue hallado en el 
Pueblo de Ixil: 4°, MS. cuaderno, 4 p. (Copy by Berendt, 
12°, 7 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 44-2.) 190. 

(9) Predicciones de los meses. Fragmento de un calendario antiguo 

del ano 1701 en lengua Maya: 4°, MS. cuaderno, 20 p. (Copy 
by Berendt 12°, 22 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 
44-1.) 186. 

(10) Estudios de la gramatica. Unos fragmentos: 8°, MS. 48 p. 

(This probably contains some of the same material that is in 
Perez, 1.) 166. 

(11) [Copy of the San Francisco Dictionary]: 4°, Introduction, v. p. 

Maya-Spanish, 93 ff. Beltran's vocabularies, 8 p. Adiciones 
marginales que se hallan en la parte Maya, p. 9-10: Spanish- 
Maya, 87 ff. Complemento del diccionario, 87a, 87b, 87c ff. 
Adiciones marginales del diccionario, 88-101 ff. (Gates re- 
production. Copy by Berendt, 1870, 4°, 2 v., vii, 364; 386 p. 
in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 3.) 172. 
Perez, Manuel Luciano 

1870 Carta a Carrillo y Ancona: in La Revista de Merida, p. 128. (This 
relates to sending the Tizimin MS. to Carrillo y Ancona. 
.Quoted in Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, p. 146. Partial 
copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49, p. 102. Eng- 
lish translation in Pilling, 1885, p. 161-162.) 189. 
Perez Codex. 

See Perez, Juan Pio, 1842. 
Peto, Chilam Balam de [?] 

(See Pio Perez, 1840, in Carrillo y Ancona, 1883, p. 592.) 191. 
Pilling, James Constantine 

1879-80 Catalogue of linguistic manuscripts in the library of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington : in 1st Annual Report [1881] 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, Wasliington, p. 553-577. 178. 
1885 Proof-sheets of a bibliograph}^ of the languages of the North 
American Indians: Washington, 1. 4°, xl, 1135 p. (Publica- 
tion of the Bureau of Ethnology.) 145, 155. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 259 

PiMENTEL, Francisco 

1860 Algunas observa clones sobre las palabras Mayo y Maya: in 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica 
Mexicana. (Republished in Pimentel, 1862-65, v. 2, p. 35-38; 
ed. 1874-75, v. 3, p. 133-137.) 180. 

1862-65 Cuadro descriptivo v comparativo de las lenguas indigenas 
de Mexico: Mexico,' 8°, 2 v. lii, 539 p.; vi., 427 p., 2 ff. 
(2d edition, 3 v. Mexico, 12°, 1874-75. xvi, 426; 472; 570, 
p. If.) (German ed. by Epstein, New York, 1877.) 164. 

1876 Cuadro sinoptico de las lenguas indigenas de Mexico. 159. 

PiNART, AlPHONSE LoUIS 

1883 Catalogue de livres rares et precieux, manuscrits et imprimes, 
principalement sur I'Amerique et sur les langues du monde 
entier, composant la bibliotheque de M. A. L. P., et compre- 
nant ... la bibliotheque mexico-guatemalienne de M. I'abbe 
Brasseur de Bourbourg: Paris, 8°, viii, 248 p. 155. 

Platzmann, Julius 

1871 Amerikanisch-asiatische Et\Tnologien via Behring-Strasse "from 

the east to the west": Leipzig, 8°, (3) ff., 112 p. map. 179. 
1876 Verzeichniss einer auswahl amerikanischer Grammatiken, Wor- 
terbiicher, Katechismen, u. s. w. : Leipzig, 8°, (6) 38 p. 155. 

1903 Verzeichniss der werthvollen an Seltenheiten reichen Bibliothek 
des verstorbenen Amerikanisten Dr Julius Platzmann welche 
nebst einigen anderen linguistischen Beitragen am 10 bis 13 
Juni 1903 in Leipzig versteigert werden soil: Leipzig, 8°, 112 p. 
(Sale catalogue.) 155, 158. 

Pott, August Friedrich 

1847 Die quinare und vigesimale Zahlmethode bei Volkern aller Welt- 
theile nebst ausfiihrlicheren Bemerkungen uber die Zahl- 
w5rter indogermanischen Stammes, und einem Anhange iiber 
Fingernamen: Halle, 8°, viii, 304 p. 182. 

Pousse, A. 

1886 Sur les notations numeriques dans les manuscrits hieratiques de 
Yucatan: in Archives de la Societe Americaine de France (2d 
series), V. 4, p. 97-110.- 181. 

Powell, John Wesley 

1900 Report of the Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in 
Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report, Washington [1901], 
p. 58-72. 171. 

Prescott, William H[ickling] 

1843 History of the conquest of Mexico with a preliminary view of the 
ancient Mexican civilization and the life of the conqueror, 
Hernando Cortes: New York, 8°, 3 v. (Numerous other 
editions.) 180. 



260 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Prichard, James Cowles 

1836-47 Researches into the physical history of mankind: London, 8°, 

5 V. (Enlarged edition of 1826, London, 8°, 2 v. Numerous 

other editions.) 179, 182. 
1843 Natural history of man, etc. : London, 8°, xvi, 556 p. (Numerous 

other editions.) 161. 

Profecias de LOS Mayas, Las 

[These are found in several of the Books of Chilam Balam. They 
first appeared in Lizana, 1633. Those from Mani, Ixil,. and 
Chumayel MSS. are in Berendt Linguistic Collection, Nos. 
43-3, 43-6. Notes by C. P. Bowditeh, reproduced by Gates.] 
192. 

QuARiTCH, Bernard. Editor. 

1873 ei se^. (Numerous sale catalogues. For hst, see Mitre, 1909-11, 
V. 1, p. 62-63.) 154, 158. 

R. Y. 

[Initials of writer on Maya language in Repertorio Pintoresco of 
Merida.] 

Ramirez, Jose Fernando 

1880 Bibliotheca Mexicana : or, A catalogue of the Ubrary of rare books 

and important manuscripts relating to Mexico and other 

parts of Spanish America: London, 8°, iv, 165 p. (Sale 

Catalogue.) 155, 158. 
1898 Bibhoteca Hispano-Americana Septentrional. Adiciones y cor- 

recciones que a su fallecimiento dejo manuscritas el Sr. lie. D. 

Jose Fernando Ramirez, y son las que cita con el nombre de 

" Suplemento " ; 6 " Adicion " en las apostillas que paso a 

su ejemplar de la Biblioteca hispano-americana del Dr. D. J. 

Mariano de Beristain y Souza: Mexico, 12°, xlvii, (4), 662 p. 

(Nicolas Leon, Editor.) (See Beristain y Souza, 1816-21.) 

156. 

Raynaud, Georges 

1891-92 L'histoire Maya d'apres les documents en langue Yucateque 
(Chilam Balam): in Archives de la Societe Americaine de 
France (n. s.) v. 7, p. 145-159. 186, 188, 189. 

Regil, Jose Maria and Peon, A. M. 

1852 Estadistica de Yucatan. Publicarse por acuerdo de la R. Socie- 
dad de Geografia y Estadistica, de 27 de Enero de 1853: in 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica 
Mexicana, v. 3, p: 237-340. 159. 

Registro Yucateco 

1845-49 Periodico Uterario (edited by Justo Sierra): Merida and 
Campeche. 151, 158, 186, 204.' 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 261 

Rejon Espinola, Fr.\ncisco 

1893 Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan. 250 pala- 
bras en la lengua Maya y Ca«tellano de la villa de Tizimin : 
Copy, 4°, 4 ff. in Peabody Museum. 177, 181. 

Re J ox Garcia, Manuel (Marcos de Chimay) 

1905 Los Mayas primitivos. Algunos estudios sobre su origen, idioma 

y costumbres : Merida, 16°, 124 p. 1 f . 167, 180, 207. 
1905a Supersticiones y leyendas Mayas: Merida, 16°, 147 p. 181, 194. 
1910 Etimologias Mayas. Los nombres de varias jjoblaciones 

Yucatecas. Algo sobre su origen: Merida, sm. 4°, vi, 75 p. 

181. 

Remesal, Antonio de 

1620 Historia general de las Indias Ocidentales y particular de la go- 
vernacion de Chiapa, y Guatemala, escrivese juntamente los 
principios de la religion de nuestro glorioso padre Santo Do- 
mingo, y de las demas religiones: Madrid, 4°, 6ff., 784 p. 
(1619 on eng. tp. There is a second title, Historia de la 
Provincia de S Vicente de Chyapas y Guatemala de la orden de 
Santo Domingo). 153. 

Repertorio Pintoresco 

1863 See Carrillo y Ancona, 1863. 

Revista de Merida, La 

1859-1915, 1918- [A newspaper of Merida often publishing articles 
on the Maya language.] 158. 

Revista Yucateca, La 

1849 Periodico politico y noticioso sedienta de saber la inteligencia 
abarca el uni verso en su gran vuelo: Merida, 2 v. 158. 

Rich, Obadiah 

1835 Bibliotheca Americana Nova; or, A catalogue of books in various 
languages relating to America, printed since the year 1700: 
London, 8°, 2 ff. 424 p. (Numerous other catalogues by Rich.) 
154. 

RiNCON, Antonio del 

§ (1) Sermones en la lengua de los naturales: MS. xvii century (mis- 
sing). 201. 

Ripalda, Geronimo de 

See Ruz, 1847 and Charencj^, 1892o. 

RiVA Palacio, Vicente. Editor. 

1887-89 Mexico a traves de los siglos: historia general y completa 
del desenvolvimiento social, poKtico, religioso, militar, artis- 
tico, cientifico y literario de Mexico desde la antigiiedad mas 
remota hasta la epoca actual; obra unica en su genero: Mex- 
ico, fol. 5 V. (v. 1, author, Alfredo Chavero, subtitle of volume, 
Historia antigua y de la conqidsta). 189, 190. 



262 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

RivAS Gastelu, Diego 

§ (1) Gramatica de la lengua de los Lacandones (de Guatemala): 
MS. XVII Century (missing). 163. 

Rivera Agustin 

1878 Compendio de la historia antigua de Mexico; desde los tiempos 
primitivos hasta el desembarco de Juan de Grijalva: San Juan 
de los Lagos, 8°, v. 1, 447 p. 183. 

RiVERO FiGUEROA, JoSE DOLORES 

1918 Dos vidas ejemplares. Ensayos biograficos del Ilmo. Sr. Obispo 
de Yucatan, Don Crescendo Carrillo y Ancona y de Monsenor 
Norberto Dominguez: Havana, 8°, 86 p. (Francisco Canton 
Rosado, joint author.) 147. 

RoBELO, Cecilio A. 

1902 Toponimia Maya-Hispano-Nahoa : Cuernavaca, 8°, 81 p. 180. 

RocKSTROH, Edwin and Berendt, C. H. 

1878 Los ihdigenas de la America Central y sus idiomas, resefia ethno- 
grafica, compilado de los eecritos y apuntes del Doctor C. 
Hermann Berendt. Edicion de la Sociedad Economica, 
Guatemala. (Only the first 16 p. were ever completed). 
Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection. This copied by 
Schuller and reproduced by Gates.) 162, 178. 

Romero, Jose Guadalupe 

1860 Noticia de las personas que han escrito algunas obras sobre idio- 
mas que se hablan en la Republica: in Boletin de la Sociedad de 
Geografia y Estadistica de la RepxMica Mezicana, p. 374-386, 
156. 

Romero Fuentes, Luis C. 

1910 La lengua Maya. Al alcance de todos. Manuel que contiene 34 
lecciones compuestas de las frases mas usuales, presentadas 
con un metodo sencillo para facilitar su aprendizaje: Merida, 
12°, 100 p. and errata. 167. 

RosNY, Leon [Louis Lucien Prunol] de 

1875 L'interpretation des anciens textes Mayas, suivie d'un apergu de 
la grammaire Ma3^a, d'un choix de textes originaux avec tra- 
duc<^ion et d'un vocabulaire : Paris, 8°, 70 p. 1 f . (Originally 
published in Archives de la Societe Americaine de France, 2d. 
series, v. 1, p. 53-118. Spanish edition with notes by Juan 
de Dios de la Rada y Delgado, Madrid, 1881. Republished in 
de Rosny, 1904, p. 75-166.) 157, 165, 166, 176, 194, 199. 

1875a Memoire sur la numeration dans la langue et dans I'ecriture 
sacree des anciens Mayas: in Proceedings of the 1st Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists, Nancj^ v. 2, p. 439-458. 
(Republished in his 1904, p. 167-192.) 182. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 263 

1887 Codex Peresianus. Manuscrit hi^ratique des anciens Indiens de 
I'Am^rique Centrale conserve a la Bibliotheque Nationale de 
Paris, public en couleurs: 4°, 94 p. 28 pl.s. (2d ed. Paris, 
1888, without colors.) 176. 

1904 L'Amerique pr6-Colornbienne. fitudes d'histoire, de linguistique 
& de paleographie sur les anciens temps du Nouveau-Monde: 
Paris, 8°, xiv, 376 p. (This contains reprints of his 1875. 
lS75rt, etc. ) 157, 165, 176, 194, 199. 

RoviROSA, Jose N. 

ISSS Xonibres geograficos del estado de Tabasco: Mexico, 8°, 36 p. 
180. 

Roys, Ralph L. 

1920 A Maya account of creation (pis. 60-62, Chilam Balam de Chu- 
maj'el): in American Anthropologist (n. s.) v. 22, p. 360-366. 
189. 

Ruz, [Jose] Joaquin [Francisco Carrillo de]. 142. 

1822 Catecismo historico 6 compendio de la istoria sagrada .y de la 
Doctrina Cristiana. Con preguntas, y respuestas, y lecciones 
seguidas por el Abad Fleuri; y traducidos del Castellano al 
idioma Yucateco con un breve exhorto para el entrego del 
Santo Cristo a los enfermos: Merida, 16°, 3 ff., 3-186 p., 2 f. 
(Gates reproduction. Title and 2 p. (185, 186) and errata 
missing.) 197. 

1835 El devoto instruido en el Santo Sacrificio de la Misa; por el P. 
Luiz Lanzi. Traduccion libre al idioma Yucateco con unos 
afectos: Merida, 4°, 9 ff. (MS. copy, 16°, 62 p., made by 
Berendt in 1873, in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 32.) 
(Leon gives an edition of 1839.) 198. 

1844 Gramatica Yucateca — formada para la instruccion de los indige- 

nas, sobre el compendio de D. Diego Narciso Herranz y Quiros: 
Merida 16°, (7), 8-119 p. (Gates reproduction.) (English ed. 
by Kingdon, 1847.) 165. 

1845 Cartilla 6 silabario de lengua Ma,ya para la ensenanza de los 

ninos indigenas: Merida, 24°, 16 p. (2d ed. Berendt, 1871. 
Another ed. Merida, 1882.) (Pilling has an edition of 1845, 
12°, 20 p.) 165, 166. 

1846 Manual Romano Toledano y Yucateco para la administracion 

de los Santos Sacramentos: Merida, 8°, 9ff., 6-191 p. (Por- 
tion published hx Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1869-70, v. 2, p. 121- 
122.) 198. 
1846-50 Coleccion de sermones para los domingos de todo el ano, y 
Cuaresma, tomados de varios autores, y traducidos libremente 
al idioma Yucateco : Merida, 8°, 4 v. 202. The contents are 
as follows : 

v. 1 (11, 145 p. 1846) contiene las dominicas desde adviento 
hasta quincuagesima. 



264 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ruz, [Jose] Joaquin [Francisco Carrillo de] (continued). 
184G-50 Coleccion de sermones, etc. (continued). 

V. 2 (268 p. 1849) contiene desde ceniza, viernes de cua- 

resma y dommicas hasta pentescotes. 
V. 3 (254 p. 1850) contiene desde pentescotes hasta la 

dominica vigesimacuarta. 
V. 4 (228 p. 1850) contiene las festividades principales del 
Seiior, de Nuestra Senora, de algunos Santos, y cuatro 
platicas de aniraas, sobre el dogma. 
1847 Catecismo y exposition breve de la Doctrina Cristiana por el P. 
]\Iaestro Geronimo Ripalda, de la compaiiia de Jesus. Tra- 
ducida al idioma Yucateco, con unos afectos para socorrer a 
los moribundos: ISIerida, 16°, 88 p. (2d ed. published by 
Charency, 1892o.) 197. 
1847a ExpUcacion de una parte de la Doctrina Cristiana : Instrucciones 
dogmatico-morales en que se vierte toda la Doctrina del Cate- 
cismo romano, por el R. P. M. Fr. Placido Rico Frontaura: 
se ampUan los diferentes puntos que el mismo Catecismo remite 
d los parrocos para su extencion: y se tratan de nuevo otros 
importantes, traducido al idioma Yucateco: Merida, part I, 
8°, 390, 3 p. (Part II never pubUshed.) 197. 
18476 See Kingdon, 1847. 

1849 Via Sacra del Divino Amante Corazon de Jesus dispuesta por las 
cruces del Calvario, por el Presbitero Jose de Herrera Villa- 
vicencio . . . traducida al idioma Yucateco: Merida, 21°, 
34 p. (Gates reproduction.) 198. 
1851 Analisis del idioma Yucateco, al Castellano: ^^lerida, 16°, 16 p. 
(Gates reproduction.) 197. 

(1) Leti u cilich Evangelio Jesu Cristo hebix San Lucas. MS. 106 p. 

in :Merida. (Original translation of chaps. 5, 11, 15, 23 of St. 
Luke. See Kingdon, 1862, 1865, and Henderson, 1870.) 199. 

(2) Catecismo explicado en treinta y nueve instrucciones, sacadas del 

romano: P parte, ISIerida, 4°, about 200 p. (This is given by 
Carrillo y .Incona and Leon, 1905, p. 188. Pilling, 1885, No. 
3427 suggests that this is the same as his 1822.) 197. 

(3) Ebanheho Hezu Clizto (Zan Lucas): No title, p. 1-14, 16. 

(Tliis is taken with few changes from his 1.) 199. 

Sabin, Joseph 

1868-92 A dictionary of books relating to America; from its discovery 
to the present time: New York, 8°, 20 v. 154. 

Salisbury, Stephen 

1877 Dr Le Plongeon in Yucatan [containing letter written to Mr. 
Salisbury by Le Plongeon from Island of Cozumel, June 15, 
1877]: in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester, p. 70-119. (Letter originally pubhshed in Boston 
Daily Advertiser, September 3, 4, 1877.) 160. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 265 

San Buenaventura, Gabriel de 

1684 Arte de la lengiia Maya: Mexico, 8°, (8) ff. 4 p. 5-9, (2), 10^1 ff, 

(Gates reijroduction. Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 

No. 8. For 2d ed. see 1888.) (Ludewig notes an edition of 

1560. This is a mistake.) 163, 198. 

1888 Facsimile reprint of 1684 edition: Me.xico, (8) ff. 4 p. 5-9, (2), 

10-41 ff., viii ]). (Icazbalceta, editor.) 
§ (1) Diccionario Maya-Hispano e Hispano-Maj^a, medico-botanico 
regional; 3 v. about 500 ff. MS. xvii century (missing.) 174. 
Sanchez de Aguil.\r, Pedro 
(See Aguilar.) 

Sanchez, Jesus 

1886 Lingiiistica de la Republica Mexicana: in Ancdes del Museo 
Nacional, Mexico, v. 3, p. 279-280. 151, 156. 

San Francisco, Diccionario de 

MS, XVII century (missing). (Copy by Perez: 4°, MS. Maya- 
Spanish, V p. 93 ff. 10 p.; Spanish-Maya, 101 ff., ex-tra leaves 
at 87a, 876, 87c. (Gates reproduction. Copy by Berendt, 
1870, 4°, 2 v., vii, 364; 386 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 3. See Perez, 11 and Meneses, 1.) 172, 174. 

Sapper, Karl 

1893 Beitrage zur Ethnographie der Republik Guatemala: in Peter- 

mariJi's MitteUungen, Gotha, v. 39, p. 1-14, pi. 1. 159. 
[1895, circa.] La lengua de San Luis (Peten): 16°, MS. note book, 6 ff., 

in possession of author of this work. 177. 
1895a Beitrage zur Ethnographie von Siidost-Mexiko und Britisch- 
Honduras: in Petermann's MitteUungen, Gotha, v. 41, p. 177- 
186, pi. 12. 159. 
1897 Das nordliche Mittel-Amerika nebst einem Ausflug nach dem 
Hochland von Anahuac. Reisen und Studien aus den Jahren 
1888-95. Braunschweig, 8°, xii, 436 p., 8 maps. 159. Ap- 
pendix 4 (p. 407-436) contains: 
Vergleichendes Vocabular culturgeschichtlich interessanter 
Worter der Maj^asprachen. Nach eigenen Vocabularen 
und Stoll's Ethnographie zusammengestellt. 178. 
1905 Der gegenwartige Stand der ethnographischen Kenntnis von 
Mittelamerika : in Archiv fiir Anthropologic (n. f.) v. 3, p. 1- 
38, pis. i-vii, map. 159. 
Saville, Marshal H[oward]. Editor. 

1921 Reports on the Maya Indians of Yucatan: in Indian Notes arid 
Monographs of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye 
Foundation, New York, v. 9, p. 137-226. This volume con- 
tains the following English translations: 

Santiago Mendez: The Maya Indians of Yucatan in 1861. 
Sanchez de Aguilar: Notes on the superstitions of the 
Indians of Yucatan (1639). 



266 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Saville, Marshal H[oward]. Editor (continued). 
1921 Reports, etc. {continued). 

Francisco Hernandez : On the religious beliefs of the Indians 

of Yucatan in 1545 (from Las Casas). 
Glossary of Maya terms. 
Bibliography. 157. 

Sayce, Archibald Henry 

1875 The principles of comparative philology: (2d ed. revised and 
enlarged, London, 1875, 16°, xxx, (1) f., 416 p. Numerous 
other editions.) 166. 

SCHOMBURGK, RoBERT H[eRMANN] 

1848 Contributions to the philological ethnography of South America: 
in Proceedings of the Philological Society of London, v. 3, p. 228- 
237. This contains : 

Affinity of words in Guinau with other languages and dia- 
lects of America (p. 236-237). 179. 

ScHULLER, Rudolph R. Collator. 

(1) [Collation of various documents in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion.] (Gates reproduction.) 147. This volume includes: 
Rockstroh, 1878. 

Utzolan u Xocol from Mani MS. 184. 
Canciones en lengua Maya (Berendt, 1868c), etc. 

Schultz-Sellack, Carl 

1879 Die amerikanischen Gotter der vier Weltgegenden und ihre 
Tempel in Palenque: in Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie, v. 11, p. 209- 
229. 194. 

Seler, Eduard 

1887 Das Konjugationssj^stem der Maya-Sprachen : Leipzig, 8°, 

51 p. (RepubUshed in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur 
Amerikanischen. Sprach- und Alter thumskunde, Berlin, v. 1, 
1902, p. 65-126.) 167 (2). 

1888 Die Tageszeichen der aztekischen und der Maj^a-Handschriften 

und ihre Gottheiten : in Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, v. 20, p. 10- 

97. (Republished in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen, etc. v. 1, 

p. 417-503.) 177. 
1892 On Maj-a chronology: in Science, v. 20, n. 496. (Republished in 

his Gesammelte Abhandlungen, etc., v. 1, p. 557.) 183, 186. 
1895 Die wirkliche Lange des Katun's der Maya-Chroniken und der 

Jahresanfang in der Dresdener Handschrift und auf den 

Copan-Stelen: m Zeitschrift fiXr Ethnologie, y. 27, p. (441)-(449). 

(Republished in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen, etc., v. 1, 

p. 577-587. 183, 186, 188, 189. 
1895a Bedeutung des Maj^a-Kalenders fiir die historische Chronologic: 

in Globus, v. 68, p. 37-41. (RepubUshed in his Gesammelte 

Abhandlungen, etc., v. 1, p. 588-599.) 183. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 267 

1898 Quetzalcouatl-Kukulcan in Yucatan: in Zeitschriftfur Ethnologie, 
V. 30, p. 377-410. (Republished in his Gesammelte Abhand- 
lungen, etc., v. 1, p. 668-705.) 189. 

Semanario Yucateco, El 

1878-82 [A periodical published in Merida, often containing articles on 
the Maya language.] 158. 

Seminario Conciliar, El 

[A periodical published in Merida.] 158. 

Shea, John Gilmary 

1873-76 Languages of the American Indians: in American Cyclopaedia 
(Ripley G. and Dana, C. A. editors). New York, 8°, v. 1, 
p. 407-414. 166. 

Short, John T[homas] 

1880 The North Americans of antiquity. Their origin, migrations, 
and type of civilization considered: New York, 8°, 544 p. 
(2d ed. 1880). 187. 

Sierra, Justo 

1841 [?] Profetas Yucatecas: in Museo Yucateco. (Repubhshed in 
1842 edition of CogoUudo, 1688.) 192. 

1842-45 2d ed. of CogoUudo (1688). (This contains in Appendix a 
discussion of the Maya sounds. This is reprinted in the 3d ed. 
1867-1868, V. 1, p. 595.) 168. 
Sierra, Justo and Vicente Calero 

[Articles in El Museo Yucateco and El Registro Yucateco.] 

Siliceo, Manuel 

1857 Memoria de la Secretaria . . . de Fomento: Mexico, folio, map. 
159. 

SivERS, Jegor von 

1861 L^eber Madeira und die Antillen nach Mittelamerika. Reise- 
denkwlirdigkeiten und Forschungen: Leipzig, sm. 8°, xii, 
388 p. 181. 

SoBRON, Felix C. 

1875 Los idiomas de la America Latina. Estudios biografico-biblio- 
graficos: Madrid, 12°, 137 p. 141. 

SOLANA, AlONSO DE 141. 

1580 Vocabulario muy copioso en lengua Espafiola e Maya de Yucatan : 
sm. 4°, MS. 115 ff. XVI century: in Library of the Hispanic 
Society of America, New York. [Hispanic MS. maj^ be a 
XVII century copy of the xvi century original.] 169. 

§ (1) Sermones de dominicas y Santos en lengua Maya: MS. xvi 
centurj^ (missing). 201. 

§ (2) Noticias sagradas y profanas de las antigiiedades y conversion de 
los Indios de Yucatan: MS. xvi century (missing). 196. 

§ (3) Apuntaciones sobre las antigiiedades Mayas o Yucatecas: MS. 
XVI century (missing.) (Probably a variant title for 2. Molina, 



268 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

SoLANA, Alonso de, (3) (continued). 

1904-10, V. 1, p. 329, gives a third variant Historia de las 

antiguedades de los Indios Mayas y de la predicacion de la fe en 

Yucatan). 169, 
§ (4) Estudios historicos sobre los Indios, MS. xvi century (missing). 

169. 
§ (5) Apuntes de las Santas Escrituras: MS. xvi century (missing). 

(Molina, 1904-10, v. 1, p. 329 gives a variant title, Vidas de 

varones aposiolicos.) 169. 
§ (6) Apuntamientos historicos y sagrados de la promulgacion del 

Evangelic en Yucathan, y sus misiones: MS. xvi century 

(missing). (After Alcedo.) 169. 

SOLIS Y ROSALES, JoSE ViCENTE 

1869 See Nolasco de los Reyes, 1869. 

1870 Vocabulario de la lengua Maya compuesto y redactado por el 

uso del Sr. Abate Brasseur de Bourbourg: Folio MS. 18 ff. 
176. 

SosA [Escalante], Francisco 

1866 Manuel de biografia Yucateca: Merida, 12°, 228 p. 157. 

1873 Don Crescendo Carrillo. Ensayo biografico: in Boletin de la 

Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana 

(Series 3), v. 1, p. 733-742. 147. 
1884 Biografias de Mexicanos distinguidos: Mexico, 8°, xii, 1115, 8 p. 

167 (2). 

SOTUTA, DOCUMENTOS DEL PUEBLO DE 

[Various papers in Maya.] (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 50-34, p. 187-200. See Perez (2). Caspar Antonio 
Xiu, possible author.) 205. 

SOTUTA, LiBRO DEL JuDIO DE 

4°, MS. en lengua Maya (incomplete), 58 p.; (owned by Gates 
and reproduced by him). 195. 

Spence, Lewis 
[1913] The myths of Mexico and Peru: New York, 8°, xiii, 366 p. 168. 

Spencer, Herbert 

1873-1910 Descriptive sociology or groups of sociological facts classi- 
fied and arranged : London and New York, folio, 10 v. (Partial 
Spanish ed. bv Genaro Garcia, El antiguo Yucatan: Mexico, 
1898, 8°, 153 p.) 162. 

Squier, Ephraim George 

1857 Nouvelles d^couvertes d'antiquites monumentales dans I'Ameri- 
que Centrale: in Nouvelles Ayinales des Voyages et des Sciences 
Geographiques, Paris, v. 153, p. 175-182. (This communica- 
tion introduces a letter from J. A. Urrutia, p. 182-186.) 178. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 269 

1858 The states of Central America; their geography, topography, 
climate, population, resources, productions, commerce, politi- 
cal organization, aborigines, etc.: New York, 8°, xvi, 17-782, 
maps, pis. (German ed. Leipzig, 1865.) 178. 

1861 Monograph of authors who have \\Titten on the languages of 
Central America, and collected vocabularies or composed 
works in the native dialects of that country: New York, 8°, 
xvi, 17-70 p. (Another ed., London, 1861.) 151, 156. 

Starr, Frederick 
1901-04 Notes upon the ethnography of southern Mexico: in Proceeds 
ings of the Davenport Academy of Sciences, Davenport, Iowa, 
V. 8, p. 102-198; v. 9, p. 63-162, pis. (Published separately.) 

178. 

1908 In Indian Mexico. A narrative of travel and labor: Chicago, 

8°, xi, 425 p. 177. 

Stein, Henri 

1897 Manuel de bibliographie generale. (Bibliotheca bibhographica 
nova): Paris, 8°, xx, 895 p. This contains: 
Philologie Amerique (p. 261-262). 155. 

Stephens, John L[loyd] 

1843 Incidents of travel in Yucatan: New York, 8°, 2 v. xii, 9-459; 
xvi 9-478 p. (Other editions with slight variations in imprint 
are: New York, 1847, 1848, 1855, 1856, 1858, 1860, 1868. 
English ed. London, 1843. Spanish ed. by Justo Sierra, Cam- 
peche, 1848-50. German ed. by Meissner, Leipzig, 1853.) 
180, 185, 186, 205. 

Stoll, Otto ^ ^^ 

1884 Zur Ethnographic der Republik Guatemala: Ziirich, 8 , l/o, 

5 p. map. 157, 159, 168, 178. 
1886 Guatemala. Reisen und Schilderungen aus den Jahren 1878- 

83; Leipzig, 8°, xii, 519 p., 2 maps. 159, 178. 

Swanton, John R. and Thomas, Cyrus 

1911 See Thomas, Cyrus and Swanton, John R. 

Tapia Zenteno, Carlos 

1767 For copy with marginal words in Maya, see Berendt, 1867a. 

Teabo, Cuaderno de 

(Copy by Berendt, 1868, p. 93-96, in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 49.) 195. 

Teabo, Oraciones de 

12°, MS. en la lengua Maya, 30, 76 p. circa 1865-1884. (Owned 
by Gates and reproduced by him.) 202. 

Tekax, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS. 36 p. (incomplete). (Owned by Gates and reproduced by- 
him.) 191. 



270 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Teodora, Historia de la Doncella 

(Copiado del Chilam Balam de Mani por Juan Pio Perez. Copy 
by Berendt, 1868d, v. 2, p. 225-240 in Berendt Linguistic Col- 
lection, No. 43-9. See also Perez, 2., p. 31-37, in Berendt 
Linguistic Collection, No. 50-3. Same is found in Chilam 
Balam de Kaua.) 184. 

Ternaux-Compans, Henri 

1837 Bibliotheque americaine ou Catalogue des ouvrages relatifs a 
I'Amerique qui ont paru depuis sa decouverte jusqu'a I'an 
1700: Paris, 8°, viii, 191 p. 154. 

1840-41 Vocabulaire des prineipales langues du Mexique: in Nouvelles 
Annales des Voyages et des Sciences Geographiques, Paris, v. 88, 
p. 5-37, V. 92, p. 257-287. (Copy of numerals in Berendt Lin- 
guistic Collection, No. 42-7.) 178, 182. 

1843 Notice sur le Yucathan tiree des ecrivains espanols: in Nouvelles 
Annales des Voyages et des Sciences Geographiques: Paris, v. 97, 
p. 30-52. 161, 180. 

Thomas, Cyrus 

1881-82 Notes on certain Maya and Mexican manuscripts: in Bureau 

of Ethnology, Washington, 3d Report, p. 7-65, pis. i-iv. 190. 

This contains: 

Symbols of the cardinal points, p. 37-65. 
1882 Study of the manuscript Troano: in Contributions to North 

American Ethnology, Washington, v. 5, 4°, xxxvii, 237 p. 8 pis. 

(Introduction by D. G. Brinton.) 185. 
1894 The Maya language: in American Antiquarian, v. 16, p. 244. 

161. 
1897-98 Numeral systems of Mexico and Central America; in Bureau 

of Ethnology, Washington, 19th Report, part 2, p. 853-956. 

182. 
1902 Provisional list of linguistic families, languages, and dialects of 

Mexico and Central America: in American Anthropologist 

(n. s.) v. 4, p. 207-216. 160. 
Thomas, Cyrus and Swanton, John R[eed] 

1911 Indian languages of Mexico and Central America and their 

geographical distribution : in Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 44, 

Washington, 8°, vii, 108 p. map. 160. 

TiBURCio Cervera, Jose 

[Writer on Maya language in Repertorio Pintoresco of Merida.] 

TicuL, Diccionario de 

1690 MS. Spanish-Maya, 154 ff. Original MS. missing. Copy by 
Perez (1836) missing. Another copy by Perez (1847, 146 p.). 
Printed in Perez (1898, p. 123-296), with following title Co- 
ordinacion alfabetica de la coleccion de voces de la lengua Maya, 
compuesta por varios autores, hallada en el Archivo de Libros 
Bautismales del Pueblo de Ticul en el ano de 1836, copiada en 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 271 

dicho ano por Juan Pio Perez y arreglada en 18^7 por el mismo. 
(Rearranged in Maya-Spanish order by Perez (IS47a), 133 p. 
Copy by Berendt (1870) of Maya-Spanish and Spanish- Maya : 
4°, 2 V. 268; 241 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No." 2. 
See Perez, 1836: 1847: 1847a: 1898: 7.) 173. 

TiCUL, DOCUMENTOS DE 

1760 et seq. MS. collection of deeds and legal papers. 4°, 62 p. 
(owned by Gates and reproduced by him). 205. 

TicuL, Manuscrito de 

See Xiu Chronicles. 
TiHOSUCO, Chilam Balam de 

[MS. known only by name.] 191. 
TixcocoB, Chilam Balam de 

[MS. known only by name.] 191. 

TiziMiN, Chilam Bal.\m de 

4°, MS., 52 p. (Gates reproduction.) (There is a Berendt copy, 
1868, in the Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Gates 
owns second copy, 8°, 35 ff., also reproduced by him.) (This 
MS. is also called the Codice Anonimo.) 189. 

Torquemada, Juan de 

1613 Los veinte i un libros rituales i monarchia Indiana, con el 
origen y guerras de los Indios occidentals, de sus poblagiones, 
descubrimiento, conquista, conversion, y otras cosas maravil- 
losas de la mesma tierra: Madrid. (2d ed. by Barcia, IMadrid, 
1723, 4°, 3 V. 768; 623; iv, 634 p. Other editions.) 153. 

ToRRALVA, Francisco de 
§ (1) Sermones de Dominicas y Santos, para predicar a los Indios todos 
los dias, en lengua Maya 6 lucateca, mui clara i elegante: 
MS. xvi-xvii century (missing). 201. 

Tozzer, Alfred M[arston]. 

1901 Modern Maya texts with Spanish translation and grammatical 
notes, collected near Valladolid, Yucatan: 8°, MS. 175 p. 207. 

1902-05 Reports of the Fellow in American Archaeolog}^ of the Ar- 
chaeological Institute of America: in American Journal of 
Archaeology (2d series). Supplements, v. 6, p. 2-4; v. 7, p. 45- 
49; V. 8, p. 54-56; v. 9, p. 45-47. 162. 

1906 Notes on the Maya pronoun: in Boas Anniversary Volume, New 

York, p. 85-87. 167. 

1907 A comparative study of the Mayas and the Lacandones: New 

York, 8°, 195 p., xxix pis. 168, 207. 

1910 The animal figures in the Maya codices: in Papers of the Peabody 
Museum, Cambridge, v. 3, p. 272-372, 39 pis. (Glover M. 
Allen, joint author.) 168. 

1912 A classification of Maya verbs: in Proceedings of the 17th Inter- 
national Congres6 of Americanists, Mexico (1910), p. 233-237. 
167. 



272 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

TozzER, Alfred M[arston] (continued). 

1917 The Chilam Balam books and the possibility of their translation: 

in Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of American- 
ists, Washington (1915), p. 178-186. 157, 182, 195. 

1918 Bibliographical notes on the linguistic and other material from 

Middle America in the Bancroft Library of the University of 
California, Berkeley: 4°, MS. 101 ff. 156. 
Tregear, Edward 

1898 Notes on Maya and Malay: in Journal of the Polynesian Society, 
V. 7, p. 101-108. 161. 
T[roncoso], F[rancisco del] P[aso y] Translator. 

1883 Los Libros de Chilam Balam: (Translation of Brinton, 18826,) 
in Anales del Museo Nacional, Mexico, v. 3, p. 92-109, (with 
many original notes). 183, 185, 191, 193, 194. 

Trttbner, Nicolas 

1858 Editor of Ludewig, 1858. 

1865 American literary intelligence : in. American and Oriental Literary 
Record, No. 1, London. 170. 

TrIjbner and Co. Editors. 

1882 Catalogue of dictionaries and grammars of the principal lan- 
guages and dialects of the world: London, 2d. ed. 12°, viii, 
170 p. (Sale catalogue.) (Also many previous catalogues.) 
158. 
Umery, J. 

1863 Sur I'identite du mot mere dans les idiomes de tous les peuples: 
in Revue Orientale et Americaine, Memoires de la Societe d'Ethno- 
graphie, Series 1, Paris, v. 8, p. 335-338. 179. 

Urrutia, J. A. 

1857 See Squier, 1857. 

Valentini, Philipp J[ohann] J[osef] 

1880 The katunes of Maya history: in Proceedings of the American 

Antiquarian Society, (1879), p. 71-117. (Published separately, 

Worcester, 1880.) 185, 186. 
1896 Das geschichthche in den mj^thischen Stadten "Tulan": in 

Zeitschrijt fiir Ethnologic, v. 28, p. 44-55. 185. 

Vales, Jose Pilar. Translator. 

[1870] U oibhuun hach noh tzicbenil Ahaucaan Ahmiatz Leandro 
Rodriguez de la Gala ti u hach yamailoob mohenoob yanoob 
tu nachilcahtaliloob Nohol y Chikin ti le luumcabil Yucatan 
laa: Ho (Merida), 8°, 8 p. (Pastoral sermon translated into 
Maya.) (Gates Reproduction.) 202. 

Valez, Manuel A. 
1893 Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan, 250 palabras 
en la lengua Maj-a y Castellano del pueblo de Sotuta: Copy, 
4°, MS., 4 ff. in Peabody Museum. 177, 181. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 273 

Valladolid, Bernardino de 141. 
§ (1) Conclusiones de toclas las materias de los Sacramentos en Latin 

y en Yucateco: MS. xvii century (missing). 197. 
§ (2) Dioscorides en lengua de Yucatan, con adiciones et conciones 

theologicas en idioma Yucateco: MS. xvii century (missing), 

201. 
§ (3) Vocabulario: MS. xvii century, [?] missing. (After Ludewig, 

1858, p. 103.) 172. 

Vater, Johann Severin 

1806-17 See Adelung. 

1810 Untersuchungen iiber Amerika's Bevolkerung aus dem alten 
Kontinente dem Herrn Kammerherrn Alexander von Hum- 
boldt: Leipzig, 8°, xii, 212 p. 179. 

1815 Linguarum totius orbis index alphabeticus, quarum grammaticae, 
lexica, coUectiones vocabularum recensentur, patria significa- 
tur historiaadumbratur: Berlin, 8°, 10,259 p. (Text in German 
and Latin. This contains the bibliographical notices in first 
two volumes and the first part of v. 3 of Adelung, 1806-1817. 
German edition by B. Jiilg, Berlin, 1847.) 154. 

Vela, Jose Canuto. Translator. 

1848 Pastoral del Ilustrisimo Senor Obispo (Jose Maria Guerra) diri- 
gida a los indigenas de esta diocesis: Merida, 16°, 8 p. in Maya 
and Spanish. (Gates reproduction.) (There is possibly a 
later edition of this. See Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, 
p. 186.) 202. 

1848a Carta que yo presidente de la Mision evangelica dirijo A los 
caudillos de los Indios sublevados del Sur y Oriente de esta 
peninsula de Yucatan, Ven Tekax, 23 de febrero de 1848: 1 
leaf, Merida. 202. 
(1) [Some grammatical notes on the Maya language. MS. once 
owned by Carrillo y Ancona. See his 1870; ed. 1872, p. 187.] 
166. 

ViDALEs, Luis 

§ (1) Vocabulario Hispano-Maya y Maya-Hispano : MS. xvii century 

(missing). 172. 
§ (2) Sintaxis de la lengua Maya: MS. xvii century (missing). 163. 
§ (3) Florilegia medicinal propio de la provincia de Yucatan: MS. 
xvii century (missing?). 195. 

Villagutierre y Sotomayor, Juan 

1701 Historia de la conquista de la provincia de el Itza, reduccion y 
progressos de la de el Lacandon y otras naciones de Indios 
barbaros, de la mediacion de el reyno de Guatimala, a las 
provincias de Yucatan, en la America Septentrional; Primera 
parte. 4°, Madrid, 33 ff., 660 p., 17 ff. 153, 180. 



274 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ViLLALPANDO, LuiS DE 144. 

1571 Diccionario de la lengua Maya: Mexico, 4° (see 1). (Brinton, 
1882, p. 74, states one copy at least is in existence.) 169. 

§ (1) Arte de la lengua Maya: MS. xvi century (missing). 162, 169. 

§ (2) Doctrina Cristiana en idioma Yucateco 6 Maya: MS. xvi cen- 
tury (missing). 196. 

ViLLANUEVA, JuAN JosE. Translator. 
1864 Proclama del Comisario. Traducida en lengua Maya. Impresso 
en hoja suelta. (Copy, 12°, 5 p. by Berendt in Berendt Linguis- 
tic Collection, No. 42-17.) 206. 

ViNAZA, [CiPRIANO MaNZANO], CoNDE DE La 

1892 Bibliografia Espanola de lenguas indigenas de America: Madrid, 
8°, XXV, 1 f. 427, (5) p. 150, 151, 155. 

Waldeck, Frederic 

1838 Voyage pittoresque et arch^ologique dans la Province d'Yucatan 
(Amerique Centrale), pendant les annees 1834 et 1836: Paris, 
folio, X, 110 p. map, pis. This contains: 

Vocabulaire Maya avec les noms de nombre et quelques 
phrases a I'usage des voyageurs (Spanish, French, Maya), 
p. 79-80. (Cop3' in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 
42-13.) 176 (2),' 180, 181, 206. 

WiLKiNS, E. Percival 

1919 [Report and translation of one chapter of Ritual of the Bacabs, 
read by Gates at meetings of the American Anthropological 
Association, Cambridge, December, 1919]. 196. 
(1) Ritual of the Bacabs. (Text and translation in preparation.) 
196. 

[Wilkinson, Paul] 

1914 The library of . . . scarce books, manuscripts and other ma- 

terial relating to Mexico: New York, 8°, 81 p. (Sale cata- 
logue.) 156, 158. 

1915 Illustrated catalogue of books, maps and documents relating to 

Mexico, Central America and the Maya Indians of Yucatan: 
New York, 8°, 483 nos. (Sale catalogue.) 156, 158, 204. 
(1) Bio-bibliographical accounts of the writers on Yucatan and 
Central America with special relation to those who have 
treated of the Maya race and "Mayaland " : 4°, MS. contained 
in a loose-leaved note-book in the Library of Congress, Wash- 
ington (Handbook of manuscripts, p. 265). 156. Among 
other items this volume contains : 

An incomplete list of the works of Acosta, Berendt, Brasseur 
de Bourbourg, Brinton, Carrillo y Ancona, Las Casas, 
Cortes, Bernal Diaz, Juan Diaz, Gage, Gomara, Herrera, 
Martyr, Oviedo, Perez, Ruz, Solis, and Squier. 
List of the Relaciones (from Coleccidn de Documentos Ineditos 
(1898-1900). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 275 

Tentative arrangement of the Maya dialects. 160. 

Definition of Spanish terms, such as adelantado, audiencia, 
etc. 

Article on Folk-Lore. 

List of ]\Ia3'a codices. 

List of Books of Chilam Balam and Maya prophecies. 

List of Chronicles. 

Bibliographies of bibliographies. 

Special bibliographies such as Bandelier and Haebler. 

General bibliographies such as Leon Pinelo and Nicolas 
Antonio. 

Bibliography of general works such as Fiske and Winsor. 

Bibliography of writers on Maya inscriptions (four entries 
only). 

Entries regarding Columbus. 

Books on the discover}^ of America. 

Early maps and navigation. 

Early suggestions and accounts of Yucatan. 

The main body of the manuscript is taken up with a general 
bibliography, arranged chronologically, of books and 
manuscripts dating from 1524 to 1912. The entries are 
taken, for the most part, from Medina (1898-1907), 
Martinez Alomia (1906), Squier (1861), Beristain y Souza 
(1816-21), and Gates (2). 
WiNSOR, Justin 

1889 Narrativeandcriticalhistory of America: Boston, 1. 8°, 8 v. 155, 
162. 

Xiu, Gaspar Antonio [also called Chi or Herrera] 
§ 1582 Relacion sobre las costumbres de los indios de Yucatan (missing). 
169. 
§ (1) Vocabulario Maya 6 de la lengua de Yucatan: MS. xvi century 
(missing). 169. 
See also Sotuta, Documentos de. 

Xiu Chronicles 

1608 et seq. 4°, MS. 1608-1817, 164 p., owned by Peabody Museum. 
(Reproduced by Gates and by C. P. Bowditch, latter with in- 
troduction by A. C. Breton.) (Also called the Ticul MS. and 
the Cronica de Oxkutzcab.) 203. 
Xiu de Oxkutzcab 

See Oxkutzcab, Chilam Balam de 

Xtepen, Papeles de 

Dos piezas de las papeles de la Hacienda Xtepen de Don Joaquin 
Hiibbe (en lengua Maya). (Copy, 12°, 2 p. in Berendt Linguis- 
tic Collection No. 44-8.) 205. 

Zavala, M. 

1896 Gramatica Maya: Merida, 8°, 94 p. 167. 



276 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Zavala, M. and Medina, A. 

1898 Vocabulario Espanol-Maya : Merida, 8°, 72 p. 177. 

Zayas Enriquez, Rafael de 

1908 El estado de Yucatdn, su pasado, su presente, su porvenir: New 
York, 8°, 366 p. 160. 

ZUNIGA, P. 

(1) [MS. formerly in Carrillo y Ancona collection regarding deriva- 
tion of word Yucatan.] 180. 



Anon. 

1514-72 Un libro que contiene varias cartas escritas a S. M. por los 
governadores, obispos, oficiales reales, caciques, e indios de la 
provincia de Yucatan: 4°, MS. in El Archivo General de Indias, 
S^illa. (Several of the letters are in the Maya language.) 
206. 
. 1542 [Official document in Maya still preserved on authority of D. G. 
Brinton.] 203. 

1803 Modo de confesar en lengua Maya: 12°, MS. from Campeche, 
38 ff. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 26. (Copy by 
Berendt in Berendt, 1868a, p. 231-257. This copy reproduced 
by Gates.) 198. 

1820 Apuntes sobre algunas plantas medicinales de Yucatan, escritos 
por un fraile franciscano de Campeche : 4°, MS., 20 ff. (Owned 
by Gates.) 195. 

1845 Manuscrito antiguo (probably the Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab) : 
in Registro Yucateco, v. 1, p. 360. 190. 

1860 Coleccion polidiomica Mexicana que contiene la Oracion Domin- 
ical vertida en cincuenta y dos idiomas indigenos de aquella 
Republica: Mexico, 1. 8°, vii, 52 p. (Reprint in Boletin de la 
Sociedad Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana 
(Ser. 4), V. 1, 1888, p. 151-179.) (Pilhng mentions an earlier 
ed. of 1859.) 199. 

1868 Bibliotheca Mexicana. Catalogue d'une collection de livres 
rares (principalement sur I'histoire et la Hnguistique) reunie au 
Mexique par M. * * * : Paris, 8°, 47 p. 155, 158. 

1871 Dos oraciones en lengua Maya. (Copiados de una hoja suelta 
numerada 21, que es de alguno libro: MS. en poder de Car- 
rillo y Ancona. Copy, 12°, 4 p., in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 44-10). 2b2. 

1883 Doctrina anonima (en lengua Maya) : Merida (with approval of 
Bishop de la Gala by Secretary, Carrillo y Ancona). (See 
Baeza, 1883.) 198. 

1891 The Lord's Prayer in three hundred languages: London. 199. 
[1893] Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan. 250 pala- 
bras en la lengua Maya y Castellano del pueblo de Sotuta: 
Copy, 4°, MS., 4 ff. in"Peabody Museum. 177, 181. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 277 

1897 Modo de administrar los santos Sacramentos de Sagrada Vidtico 
'''' Matrimonio Extrema Uncion en lengua Maya con -a b^-« 

explicacion acerca del examen de Conciencia y la Comumon. 

1897a Hc^na&'?anebr^s tdbutados a la memoria del Ilustrisimo 
''''" Senor Doctor Don Crescencio Carrillo Y /r^' ^^^^^^^^^ ^ 
Yucatan, con motivo de su muerte, acaecida el 19 de Marzo de 

1898 Volabulario'dt'las^ palabras de las lenguas Maya y Mejicana 
'''' "^"usadas y expUcada's de las relaciones. in Co^.ca^ de Documen- 

tos Ineditos, (2d series), v. 11, p. 43o-13b I7a. 
1900 The Henderson Maya dictionary: in A mer^canAn0^r apologist 
1900 1 he^ Menae^^ ^ ^^^y^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, 1867, p. 420-421.) 174. 
1905 See Audomaro Molina, 1905. r" Toniado de un 

Merida," by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, Mo. 

42-14.) 198. . , ,. . ifi° M^ 

(2) Algunos apuntes sobre la historia antigua de Yucatan. 16 Mb 

(2) ^g^"^°^.^Pgi^ii^,j^.q^, Nationale, Paris. (Gates reproduction.) 

(3) Alocucion de Indios Mayas a Maximilian (en lengua Maya.) 

(3) Alocuc^ion^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^. ^ ^ .^ ^^^^^^^ ^.^^^^^^^^^^ Collection, 

No. 42-18.) 206. ^. 19° MS 4 D 

(4) Borrador de un sermon (en lengua Maya). 1,2 ^^^ * P' 
^^ (" MS. del autor del Vocabulario en lengua de Maya en P ov- 

idence" (Motul dictionary): in Berendt Linguistic CoUec- 
tion No 42^). (See Anon, 30.) 201. 

(5) Dicciokario de la lengua Maya: 12° MS. xvm century, 1 f. No. 

277 " va." Owned by Gates and reproduced by him 174. 

(6) Doctrina en el dialecto de la Montana de Holmul (Peten): 4 

MS 12 ff. (Berendt copy, Sacluc, 1867, in Berendt Linguistic 
Collection, No. 42-10.) 197. 

(7) Doctrina en lengua Maya : 8°, MS. xvm century, 34 p. (Owned 

by Gates and reproduced by him.) 197. _ 

(8) Documentos en la lengua Maya desde el ano 1571, 1663 etc.. 
^ Mssel. MSS. (mostly 4°). (Owned by Gates and reproduced, 

4° 101 p., by him.) 203. 

(9) Doctrina necesaria para confesarse en la regla. Dispuesta en 

lengua Maya : Merida, 24 p. (This is probably the same work 
as Baeza, 1883.) 198. . , t w 

riO) " Especie de circular 6 manifiesto de la reina de Inglaterra . . . 

^ ^ d manera de cartelon, con grandes y hermosos caracteres en 
idioma Maya, el cual fue desprendido de una esquina de calle 
publica." (Mentioned by Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 18/^, 
p. 190.) 206. 



278 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Anon, {continued). 

(11) Forma de administrar el Viatico en lengua Maya. (" Copia 

[12°, 12 p.] tomada de un ms. moderno de principios de este 
siglo, en poder de Presbitero D. Crescencio Carrillo, Merida, 
September, 1868 " by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 42-12.) 198. 

(12) Hari va vuh ru lokolah evangelio cheri Kanim Ahauh, Kanima 

Kolonel, Jesu Christo Incheel Tantzibatal Rome San Marco: 
16°, 79 p. 200. 

(13) Judio, Libro del: 16°, MS. en lengua Maya, 156 p. (Original in 

Peabody Museum, Gates reproduction.) 195. 

(14) El libro de los medicos, yervateros de Yucatan 6 noticias sobre 

yervas y animales medicinales Yucatecos sacados de los anti- 
guos libros Mayas de Chilam Balam, calendarios y demas co- 
pias curiosas. 8°, MS., 72-117 ff. of a note book. (Gates 
reproduction.) 195. 

(15) Medicina, Libro de: 12°, MS. en lengua Maya, 176 p. (Owned 

by Gates and reproduced by him.) 195. 

(16) Medicina Maya. 4°, MS. in lengua Maya. 94, 2 ff. (ff. 8, 52-57, 

60-73, 75-92 missing. Owned by Gates and reproduced by 
him). 195. 

(17) Modo de administrar el sagrado viatico en lengua Maya. Copi- 

ado del Via Crusis: 12°, MS. 2 p. (in Berendt Linguistic Col- 
lection, No. 42-16. See Nolasco de los Reyes, 1869). 198 (2). 

(18) Modo de administrar el Santissimo Sacramento de la Eucaristia 

como viatico (en lengua Maj^a). MS. (copy 12°, 7 p. by 
Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-15). 198. 

(19) Noticias de varias plantas y sus virtudes (de Yucatan). MS. in 

Merida (copy by Berendt, 16°, 29 p. Reproduction by Gates 
of Berendt copy). 195. 

(20) Pasion domini en la lengua Maya: 12°, MS., 44 p. (Owned by 

Gates and reproduced bj^ him.) 198. 

(21) Sermones en la lengua Maj'a: 4°, MS., 144 p. (Owned by Gates 

and reproduced by him.) 202. 

(22) Sermones en la lengua Maya: 4°, MS., 196 ff., xviii century. 

(Copy by Berendt, 1868a. p. 119-229: in Berendt Linguistic 
Collection, No. 47. Reproduction by Gates of Berendt copy.) 
201. 

(23) De Trinitate Dei en la lengua Maya 6 del Ser de Dios: 8°, MS., 

incomplete, 12 p. (Gates reproduction.) 198. 

(24) U mutil vine zanzamal (fama diaria del hombre) : MS. 1 p. : in 

Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 50-18. (See Perez, 2, 
p. 94.) 206. 

(25) Vocabulario de la lengua Maya: 8°, MS., (in la Libreria de San 

Gregorio de Mexico, after Vinaza, No. 1134). 177. 

(26) Vocabulario de la lengua Maya (with a short list of grammatical 

forms): 8°, MS. modern, 98 p. (Owned by Gates and repro- 
duced by him.) 166, 177. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 279 

(27) Vocabulaire de la langue Maya en Anglais, d'en\'iron deux mille 
mots, travail moderne, tres-incomplet fait a Belize. (MS. once 
belonging to Brasseur de Bourbourg. See his 1857-59, v. 1, 
p. Ixxxix.) 176. 
§(28) Vocabulario grande Yucatano (after Cogolludo lib. iv. cap. vi.) 
171. 

(29) Cuento de \neja. U tzichbal xnuc: Broadside, 1 sheet. Parallel 

columns, Spanish and Maya. Merida. 207. 

(30) [Two sermons in Maya] 16°, MS. 6 ff. in John Carter Brown 

Librarj', Providence. (This is probably the same as Anon, 4.) 
201. 
§(31) Un librillo escrito ... en el idioma de los Indios. MS. xvi cen- 
turj' (missing, after Cogolludo, lib. 2, cap. xiv.) 192. 

Harvard University 
May 21, 1921 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 



PARADIGMS 

Verb Classification 



Verbs of action or state. 



Class Ia. 

Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in) het-ik 

Future hen (he-in) het-ik-e 

kin (ki-in) het-ik 

bin in het-e 
Past tin (t-in) het-ah 

o'in (o'on-in) het-ah 

in het-m-ah 
Imperative het-e 

Intransitive 

Present tin (tan-in) het-el or het-el-in- 

kah (het-I-in-kah) 
Future hen (he-in) het-el-e 

bin-het-ak-en 

het-en or t'-het-en 



Past 



o'in het-el 
Imperative het-en 

Passive 

Present tiin (ta^-u) het-s-el 

Future hu (he-u) het-s-el-e, or bin 

het-s-ak-i 
Past het-s-ah-b-i, or het-s-ah-n-i 



Class Ib. Verbs of action or state 

Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in), kim-s-ik 

Future hen (he-in) kim-s-ik-e 
kin (ki-in) kim-s-ik 
bin in kim-s-e, or bin in kim-e 

Past tin (t-in) kim-s-ah 

o'in (o'ok-in) kim-s-ah 
in kim-s-m-ah 

Imperative kim-s-e or kim-e-s 

283 



I am opening something, my open- 
ing something 
I shall open something 
I may open something 
I am going to open something 
I opened something 
I have just opened something 
I opened something a long time ago 
open it 

I am performing the act of opening 

I shall open 

I am going to open 

I performed the act of opening, I 

- opened 

I have just opened 

open 

it is being opened, its being affected 

by someone causing it to open 
it will be opened 

it was opened 
with causal 

I am killing something, my causing 

death to something 
I shall kill something 
I may kill something 
-s I am going to kill something 
I killed something 
I have just killed something 
I killed something a long time ago 
kill it 



284 



APPENDIX I 



Class Ib. Verbs of action or state with causal (continued) 

Intransitive 

Present tin (tan-in) kim-il, or kim-il 

in-kah (kim-1-in-kah) 
Future hen (he-in) kim-il-e 

bin kim-ak-en 
Past kim-i, or t'-kim-i 

o'u kim-i 
Imperative kim-en 

Passive 

Present tin (tan-in) kim-s-il 



I am dying, my being affected by 

death 
I shall die 
I am going to die 
he died 

he has just died 
die 



Future 

Past 
Class II 



hen (he-in) kim-s-il-e, or 
bin kim-s-ak-en 
kim-s-ah-b-i, or kim-s-ah-n-i 



Verbs in t-al, "endowed 
Present tin (tan-in) kus-t-al 
Future hen (he-in) kus-t-al-e 

bin kus-tal-ak-en 
Past kul-t-al-ah-en or kus-1-ah-en 

Imperative kus-t-en or kus-t-al- en 

Class IIIa. Nominal verbs 

Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in) D'on-ik 

Future hen (he-in) o'on-ik-e 

kin (ki-in), o'on-ik 

bin in o'on-e 
Past tin (t-in) o'on-ah 

o'in (o'ok-in) o'on-ah 

in D'on-m-ah 
Imperative o'on-e 

Intransitive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'on (o'on-in-kah) 

Future hen (he-in) o'on-e 

bin o'on-ak-en 
Past o'on-n-ah-en 

o'in (o'ok-in) o'on 

o'on-n-ah-ah-en 
Imperative o'on-en 

Passive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'on-ol 

Future hen (he-in) o'on-ol-e 

Past o'on-ah-b-en or o'on-ah-n-en 



I am being killed, my being afifected 

by someone causing my death 
I shall be killed 
I am going to be killed, 
he was killed 

with." 
I am living 
I shall be living 
I am going to live 
I lived 
live 



I am shooting something, my 

gunning something 
I shall shoot something 
I may shoot something 
I am going to shoot something 
I shot something 
I have just shot something 
I shot something a long time ago 
shoot it 

I am shooting or my gunning 

I shall shoot 

I am going to shoot 

I shot 

I have just shot 

I shot a long time ago 

shoot 

I am being shot, I am affected by 

a gun 
I shall be shot 
I was shot, I was gunned 



PARADIGMS 



285 



Nominal verbs with agent 



Class IIIb. 

Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'ib-t-ik 

Future hen (he-in) o'ib-t-ik-e 

kin (ki-ih) o'ib-t-ik 

bin in o'ib-t-e 
Past tin (t-in) o'ib-t-ah 

o'in (o'ok-in) o'ib-t-ah 

in o'ib-t-m-ah 
Imperative o'ib-t-e 

Intransitive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'ib 

Future hen (he-in) o'ib-e 
bin o'ib-n-ak-en 

Past o'ib-n-ah-en 

o'in (o ok-in) o'ib 
o'ib-n-ah-ah-n-en 

Imperative o'ib-en 

Passive 

Present tun (tan-u) o'ib-t-il or o'ib-t 

Future hu (he-u) o'ib-t-il-e 

Past o'ib-t-ah-b-i, or o'ib-t-ah-n- 



:-al 



I am WTiting something, my writ- 
ing something 
I shall write something 
I may write something 
I am going to write something 
I wrote something 
I have just written something 
I wrote something a long time ago 
write it 

I am writing, my writing 

I shall write 

I am going to write 

I wrote 

I have just written 

I wrote a long time ago 

write 



it is being written 
it will be written 
■i it was written 



Class IV. Verb "to he'' 




Present winik-en 


I am a man 


Future hen (he-in) wimk-tal-e, or 


I shall be a man, I shall become a 


winik-tsal-e 


man 


bin wimk-tal-ak-en 


I am going to become a man 


Past winik-h-en 


I was a man 



286 



APPENDIX II 



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Q 

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PARADIGMS 



287 



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9) 

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288 



APPENDIX 11 











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PARADIGMS 



289 



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APPENDIX III 

LIST OF NUMERAL CLASSIFIERS ^ 

Ak, For canoes, boats, houses, lots, seats, earthen vessels, churches, altars, 

caves, holes or pits, troughs, villages, or maize fields. 
Ahau. For the twenty-year groups of the Maya calendar, which are like our 

indictions, although they consist of a larger number of years than these. 

The native century or era contained 13 ahaues, or 260 years. 
Awat. For distances; miles or quarters of leagues. 
Baq. For 400; because just as we count by thousands, the Indians counted by 

400, sayinq hunbaq, kabaq, etc. 
Bal. For ends of ropes, of thread, etc. 

For things [z]. 
Balats. For strokes, of measurements made by rule, line or compass. 
Balaq. For the turns given to cords laid in circles, or to similar things which 

are twisted or twined. (Compare Koo'.) 
Ban. For things in heaps. The same as banab, which also serves for counting 

small flocks or herds of animals. 
Em. For births. 
Kat. For quadrupeds [z]. 
Kot. For quadrupeds. 

KoD. For lengths of threads, cords, rods or staffs; for " pieces " of time. 
Koo'. For rolls or circular twists, " a roll of cord " (made of native vines). 

Compare Balaq. 
Kuk. For elbow measurements. 
Kuts. For loads. 

Kul. For shrubs, young trees, maize plants, and balls or lumps of dough. 
Qan. For rope. 
Qas. For closets, rooms, etc. 
Tsats. For handfuls of herbs or hair. 
Tsinab. For what is measured by gemes, i.e., the space from the end of the 

thumb to the end of the forefinger extended. 
Ts'iik. For incised wounds made by arrows, lances, knives, sticks, etc., which 

are thrown and remain sticking in the flesh. 
Ts'ot. For counts of skeins of thread. 
Ts'ui. For bunches of fruit, strings of beads, necklaces, braids, bags, and 

things which are carried hanging from the hand. 
Hah. For splinters [z]. 

1 This list was originally published by Beltran (1746; ed. 1859, p. 203-208). 
An English translation was made by Nuttall (1903, p. 674-678). Several addi- 
tions have been made from Zavala (indicated by Z) and from the author's own 
investigations. 

290 



LIST OF NUMERAL CLASSIFIERS 291 

Hat. For mantles or " pati " for piernas of mantles or pati; also for splinters 

of wood. 
Hau. For fjoiird vessels split into halves, pages of writing, quarters of dead 

animals, and slices of fruit. 
Heb, Hebal, Hebel. For piernas of mantles or pati; also for the counting of 

provinces. 
Hets. For hours and pages of books. Also used in counting strings of bells. 
Heq. For branches or bunches. 
Lat'. For dishes of food. 

Lat'abqin. For hours; hun lat'abqin " one hour." 
Lem. For times; hun lem " once." (Compare Mai and Muk.) 
Lot. For counting in pairs, such as kan lot " four pairs." 
Lub. For counting leagues. 

Mai. For counting numbers of times. (Compare Lem.) 
Miik. For the same count of times and for duplications, such as paying " twice 

as much " " three times as much," etc. 
Muts'. For small heaps of seeds, stones, earth, or for crowds of animals, birds, 

and people. 
Mol. For things that are united or congregated. 
Nab. For handbreadths as a measure. 
Nak. For things that are close to each other, such as jugs, staffs, or seated 

men. 
Nakat. For recumbent living beings. 
Num. For times, when expressed by ordinal numbers. 
Ok. For things measured by handfuls. 

Paak. For mantles or paties of four edges (i.e., square pieces of stuff). 
Paq. For blows, times, years. 
Pats. For birds and other animals; employed from number 9 to 19, after 

which the expression hun tab, " twenty " is used. 
Pai. For things which are long and not thin, such as beehives, canoes, sea- 
boats, wooden beams, bales of cloth, and skeins of thread. 
Pek, For circular things, such as consecrated wafers, maize-cakes, and others 

which are flat. 
Pet. For maize-fields and for pastures. 
Peo'. For chapters of books and for orations and songs. 
Pis. For years, days, months, and coin currency (a real or peso or dollar). 
Pits'. For pieces of a thing cut off and for mouthfuls. 
Poq. For fish, birds, and animals. 
Pul. For lashes given with a whip or blows dealt with the flat side of the blade 

of a sword. 
P'eel. For all inanimate things in general. 
P'ik. For a written chapter or articles of faith; or for rows of stones, each 

row or stone being above the other. 
P'is. For any kind of measure or weight. At the same time this particle 

usually expresses a fanega or measure consisting of twelve almudes. 
P'ots. For bunches of fruit. 
P'uuk. For plants and trees. The particle sek is more popularly used. 



292 APPENDIX III 

P'uk. For mouthfuls of food or swallows of liquid. 

Sap. For counts of arm's lengths; each contains two yards. 

Sek. For trees and other plants. 

Tas. For things which follow each other in order or in line; also for heavens. 

Te. For counts of years, months, days, leagues, cocoa, eggs, and calabashes 

or squashes. 
Ten, Tenak. For numbers of times, and tenak for past times. Tenel is also 

used for times, but with the particle bahun or bahuns or another. 
Tenel. For number of times in questions, (z) 
Tuk, For heaps of things. 
Tul. For men, women, angels, and souls. 

T'il, oool. For things placed in order or file and for the subdivisions of a house. 
T'ol. For lines, furrows, ditches, or trenches, and for pages, printed columns, 

naves of churches, etc. 
Oiil. For the selvage of mantles or cloths and for folds of paper or the leaves 

of books. 
Ouk. For towns, paragraphs, articles, chapters, notices, heaps or piles, divi- 
sions of a whole in various parts. 
O'ak. For steps, grades, crowns, or things which are placed one over the other, 

or for something that succeeds another, such as one governor after another. 

It is then an ordinal number. 
O'am. For consecrated wafers, pamphlets, shoes, and of all things which are 

counted in pairs. 
O'ik. For persons, this particle being specially dedicated to the persons of 

the Holy Trinity. It is also employed for counting fingers as well as for 

the husbands or wives that a person has had. 
O'it. For candles; cane pipes; long fruits, such as bananas; also alligator 

pears, ears of corn, the mamey fruit, etc. 
Wal. For leaves of tobacco, of banana trees, etc. 
Wao'. For counting journeys or the number of times a person goes and comes 

in performing some business. 
Wol. For balls of dough, bundles of cotton or of wool, balls of thread and other 

round things. 
Wuo'. For folded cloths and similar things. 
Yal. For sheaths or things that are brought together. 



APPENDIX IV 

COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 

Introduction 

The following vocabulary is made up, first of all, of a collection 
of Maya words gathered in 1893 from various towns in Yucatan. 
The document, which is a typewritten copy of the original lists 
of words, was purchased from Paul Wilkinson in the sale of his 
library by Mr. Charles P. Bowditch and presented by him to the 
Peabody Museum. This manuscript has an introduction on Maya 
pronunciation by Crescencio Carrillo y Ancona. It is probable 
that the collection of words was made for a contemplated work 
by him on the Maya language. 

The vocabulary from Peto was made l)y Presbitero D. Manuel 
A. Valez, that from Valladolid by Licenciado L. Manzano, that 
from Tizimin by Francisco Rejon Espinola, and that from Sotuta 
is unsigned. These towns are widely separated. Valladolid is the 
most eastern town in the settled portion of the peninsula, Tizimin 
is almost directly north of Valladolid, about half way to the coast, 
Peto is in the south-central part of Yucatan, and Sotuta is north 
of Peto about a third of the way to the northern coast. ^ 

A careful study of these words together with grammatical forms 
collected in the same areas would probably show slight dialectical 
differences in the language.- 

In order that a comparison may be made between these modern 
vocabularies and those of early date, corresponding terms are 
given, wherever possible, from the Motul, the San Francisco, and 
the Ticul dictionaries. These early works probably date from the 
end of the xvi to the end of the xvii century. 

There are comparatively few cases where words of the three 
early authorities differ entirely from those of the four modern 

1 It is well to point out that there is a Book of Chilam Balam from Tizimin 
and a collection of documents in Maya from Sotuta as well as a Libro del 
Judio from the same locality. 

2 See note by Palma y Palma, Part I, p. 14. 

293 



294 APPENDIX IV 

lists. It is much more common to find the earlier terms for the 
same word differ among themselves and the later words agreeing 
some with one and some with others of the older lists. Of the later 
vocabularies, the words in the Peto, Tizimin, and Valladolid lists 
are much more frequently in agreement than the corresponding 
words from the Sotuta collection. 

In words where there is a possibility for single or double vowels, 
the Peto collector is more inclined to use the double vowels than 
any of the others. In the Sotuta and Ticul vocabularies, on the 
other hand, the single vowel occurs most frequently. The Peto list, 
for example, uses eight single to seventeen double vowels while 
the Sotuta uses fifteen single to six double vowels and the Ticul 
eleven single to three double vowels.^ 

In the Valladolid and the Tizimin lists the use of n in place of m 
is common. There is also often a different usage in the earlier 
vocabularies in this respect, the Motul and the Valladolid using 
sinbal, and all the others have the more common form, simbal. 
In the later fists, the Peto, the Sotuta, and the Valladolid use 
hun, the Tizimin alone using hum. 

The use of the fortis forms differs greatly. In the Peto and 
Sotuta vocabularies one 'finds oa, or oah, to give ; in all the others 
the form is o'a or o'ah. 

The differences in many of the verbal forms are due to the fact 
that in some cases the verb is understood in a transitive sense and 
in others as an intransitive. 

Disregarding the failure to recognize the proper form of the 
verb, the use of the semi-vowels, w and y, before vowel stems, 
and the use of the masculine and feminine prefixes, there is a sur- 
prising agreement between the earlier and later vocabularies. It 
is only fair to point out, however, that the words given in the 
lists are common every-day terms and one would not expect to 
find many changes in these. Words for spring, summer, autumn, 
and winter are given in the later vocabularies except the Tizimin, 
the author of which notes, quite properly, that there are no words 
in Maya exactly corresponding to these terms. The words for 
ice and snow are naturally not found in the earlier lists. 

^ Note the discussion of the use of the double vowel in Part I, p. 30. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



295 



abdomen, 
afternoon, 

all, 

arch (arco), 

arm, 

armadillo, 

arrow, 

autumn, 

axe, 

bad, 

bark (ladrar), 

bark (corteza), 

bat, 

bear (oso), 

beard, 

bird, 

black, 

blood, 

blue. 



boar (jabali), 

body, 

bone, 

boy, 

breast, ^ 

breasts of woman, 

brother, elder, 

brother, younger, 

buzzard, 

canoe, 

chatter (charlar), 

chief, 

child. 



Vocabularies ^ 

naq, p, s, v, z : m. homtan-il, s. qo, m. 

o-qin, m, f, t, o-qin-al, z. o-qn-al, z. o-qin-il, z. 

okan-qin, j), v. sis-qin, s. 
lah — , z. tulakal, all. tu-sin-il, m, f. 
pun, s. p'un, z. p'um, p : m, t. uo'-bil-tse, v. 
qab, s, z : m, f, t. noh-qab, p. o'ik-qab, p. o'it-qab, v. 
wets, p, z. h-wets, 8, v. ibats, t. 
hul, s, V, z. hul-eb, p. hal-al, t. 
its-ha-ha-lil, p. qini-yas-le, v. no word, z. 
baat, all. 

lob, s, V : m, f, t. qas, p, s, z. ma patan, m. 
tsi-bal, p, z. ha-hai-tsi-bal, s. awat-tsi-bal, v. yawat- 

peq, m, f. u qeyah-peq, m. f. 
sool, z. sol-tse, s. sool-tse, p. pats, v. bos, f, t. bos- 

el-tse, f. 
SCO', p, s, V, z : t. 

san-hool, p. saan-hool, z. sam-hol, t. kab-noh, m, f. 
nets, s. noots, p, v, z. mes, m. mees, f, t. keb, m. 
ts'its', s : m, f, t. tsiits, v. ts'iits, p. ts'iits', z. 
bos, p, s, V, z : f, t. eq, z : f. eeq, p : f. 
qiq, s : m, f, t. qiiq, p, v, z. 
yas, z. ya-yas, t. yas-kab, m, f. yas-kaben, f. yas- 

top'en, f. yas-sak-nohen, v. yas-il-kaan, z. sak- 

yaas, p. 
kitam, s, z. 

winkil, p. winklil, s, z. h-wiklil, v. kukut, m, f, t. 
bak, all. 

pal, z. paal, m. si-pal, p, s, v, z. sibi-pal, z. 
oem, p, s, V, z. tan, m, f. 
im, p, s, z. yim, v. 

sukun, s : m, t. sukuun, p, z : f. nohots sukvm, v. 
io'in, s : m, f, t. wioin, p. wio'in, p, z. h-wio'in, v. 
ts'om, p, s, V, z. 
tsem, p, s, V, z. ts'em, p. 
oik-bal, p. ban-kab-klu-bal, s. ts'o-ts'op-tsi, v. sakats- 

t'an, z. t'an-t'an-ah, z. 
holil, p. noh-tsil, p. halats winik, s, z. yim-oil, v. 

H-meq-tan, z. kuts-kab, z. meq-tan-kah, z. 
tsam-pal, p, v. tsan-tsan-pal, m, f, t. tsan-si-pal, s, 

tsan-ts'u-pal, s. mehen-pal, m, f. 



yas-sak-nohen, v. yas-il-kaan, z. 
qas-i-qeqen, p, v. qas-il-qeqem, s. 



1 The letters following the Maya words refer to the various vocabularies 
where the terms occur: p, Peto; s, Sotuta; v, Valladolid; z, Tizimin; m, 
Motul; s, San Francisco; and t, Ticul. A colon separates the older from the 
later authorities. 



296 



APPENDIX IV 



chile, 

cigarette, 

cold, 

come, 

corn, 

coyote, 

cradle (cuna), 

crow (cuervo), 
crow (cacarear), 



cry out (gritar), 
dance, 



ik, p, z : t. iq, s, v. 

tsamal, z. ts'uts'-lem, f. tsuts-lem, t. 

sis, s : t. siis, p, z. keel, p, v : m, f. keel-en, t. 

tal, z : m, f. tal-el, p, s : m, f, t. u-tal, v. 

isim, s : m, f, t. slim, p, v, z. isiim, p, z. 

u-peqil-qaas, p. h-wayu, v. 

tas-tse-qan, p. qu-pal, s. kuts-il u o'a-bal pal-al tan tu 

sihil, V. qu-tsam-pal, z. 
tsom, s. ts'om, v, z. tsim-toq, p. 

qo-qoan-kil, z. qo-qoan-kil u-liim, t. tokan-kil u kal u 
lun, m. to-tokan-kil u kal u lum, f. to-tok-t'ere, p, 
s. tsa-tsak t'oloan-kil, z. awat u lun, m. awat u 
lum, f. 
awat, all. ta-tah-awat, m. 
oqot, all. 
daughter, by father, s-mehen, z. is-mehen, m, f, t. wis-mehen, p, z. s- 

ts'upu-is-mehen, s. ts'up-lal, v. 
daughter, by mother, al, m, f. wal, z. tsu-pal, t. tsup-lal, m. ts'u-pal, p. 

ts'up-lal, f. s-tsup-wal, s, z. tsupu-al, v. 
qin, all. sasil-qin, s. sasil, t. 
kimen, all. 

keh, V, z : f, t. keeh, p. sibil-keh, s. 
peq, all. 
uq-ul, all. 

ts'ah, V, z. ts'ah-al, p. ts'ah-al-haa, m. tsah-al-haa, f, 
t'ah-al, t. t'ah-al-haa, m, f. t'lmul-haa, m, f. 
ts'ab-il, s. 
kuo-a, f. ku3-ha, p, z : t. kuo-haa, s. patus-ha, p. 
sikin, p, V, z : m, f, t. lee sikin, s. 
liun, s : m. luum, p, v, z : f, t. kab, z. 
han-al, all. oentah-ba, z. 
kan-il-ha, p. 

he, p, V, z : f, t. hee, s. eel, s, z. 
its, s, z : m, f, t. wits, v. tuq-nel-its, p. 
its, p, s, z : m, f, t. wits, v. tan-its, p. 
nats, s, z : f. naats, p, v, z. nats-il, z. 
yiun, s, z : m, f, t. Hum, p. yum-bil, t. tata, v. tat, z. 
qu-qum, all. 

al-qab, z. yal-qab, p, s, z. ts'il-bi-qab, v. mots, z: m. 
mots-qab, m. mots'-qab, f, t. 
finger-nail, its'ak, p, s, v, z. 

fire, qaq, s, z : m, f. qaaq, p, v. 

fish (pez), kai, p, s, v, z : m, t. oaqin, f. yio, f. ts'a, f. 

fish (bobo), sohol-kai, v. 

fish (bagre), lu, p, v, z. lim, s. bos-kai, p. 

fly, yas-kats, s, v, z : m, f. yaas-kats, p. 

foot, ok, all. 



day, 

dead, 

deer, 

dog, 

drink, 

drop (gotear), 



duck, 

ear, 

earth (tierra) 

eat, 

eel, 

egg, 

eye, 

face, 

far, 

father, 

feather, 

finger. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



297 



forehead, 

forest, 

forget, 

friend, 



frijol, 

fox (zorra), 

girl, 

give, 

go- 
god, 
gold, 
good, 
goodness, 
goose (ganso), 
gourd, 
grave, 
green, 

groan (bramar), 

hair, 

hand, 

he, 

head, 

heart, 

herb, 

here, 

hill, 

horse, 

house, 

house of palm, 

husband, 

I, 

ice, 

indian, 

island, 

kettle, 

kill, 
knife, 
lake, 
large, 



lek, s, z : m, f, t. lek-tsi, z. tsi-lek, p, v. 

qas, m. qaas, p, s, v, z. pok-ts'e, m. t§'en-tse, m. 

tub-ul, s : ni, t. tub-olal, z. tub-sa, v. tub-sah, p : f. 

tub-esah, ni. 
etool, {). etail, z : m, f, t. yukunah winik, s. yukuna 

h-winik, v. nup-t'an, m, f. hun-pel u lak, f. hun- 

p'el u lak, m. 
buul, all. 

ots, p, s, V. tsomac, z. tsamak, m. ts'amak, f. 
s-ts'u-pal, s, V, . z. s-ts'upu-pal, z. ts'up-lal-paal, f . 

tsup-lal-paal, m. 
oa, p. oah, s. o'a, m, f, t. o'ah, p, z. u-o'a-bal, v. 

hah, s. 
bin, p, v. bin-el, p, s, z : t. ben, m, f. ben-el, m, f, t. 
qu, all. kits-kelem-yum, s. 
qan-maskab, p. qan-qan-taqin, m, f, t. 
uo, all. mal-ob, p, s, z. tibil, m, f, t. 
uo-il, p, z : m, f . yuD-il-in-puqsiqal, v. tibil uo-il, f. 
yak-bok, p. 

qum, s, z. quum, p, v : m, f. 

muk-nal, p, s, v, z : t. muk-sah, f. muk-kimen, f. 
yas, s. yaas, p. v, z : m, f, t. ya-yas, m, f. yaasil-kaas, 

z. (" se confunden el verde y el azul " z). 
akan, all. 

oooo, all. ooo-el, z. 
qab, p, V, z : m, f, t. tan-qab, s. 
le, p, z. leti, p, s, v, z. 
pol, p, s, V, z : m, t. hool, p, z : m, f, t. 
pusiiq, z. puksiqal, all. 
siu, all. 

wai, z : m. waye, p, v, z : t. tela, s, z. 
puuk, p, z : f, t. wio, s. mul, z. muul, v. noh-muul, 

v. qaas, p. 
Dimin, all. 

na, p, V, z : m, f, t. nah, s. otots, z : m, f. 
sani-na, v. sanil-na, p, s, z. pasel, z. yukil-na, z. 
itsam, m, f. h-witsam, v. witsam, p, s, z. 
ten, p, s, V, z. 

yeeb, p. noh-tat-yeeb, p. bat, s, v, z. 
masewal, p, v, z. H-maya-bil, z. 

peten, z. petem, s. oukub-luum, p. hay luum its ha, v. 
maskab-kum, p, z : f. kum maskab, t. u-kutsil, v. 

lokansa-ha, v. 
kim-sah, p, s, z : m, f. kin-sah, v. 
qupeb, p. soteb, p, s, z. tsan-qab-maskab, v. 
soo-ha, v. o'ao', z. aqal, p, z. tsi-tsan-qanaab, p. 
noh, m, f, t. nohots, p, s, v, z : t. 



298 



APPENDIX IV 



laugh, 
laziness, 

leaf, 
leg, 

lie (mentir), 
lightning, 

living, 
lizard, 



love <amar), 
love (amor), 
man, 

many, 

meat, 

memory, 

moon, 

morning, 

mosquito, 

mother, 

mouse, 

mouth, 

name, 

near, 

neck, 

night, 

no, 

nose, 

ocean, 

old, 

people, 

pigeon, 

pine, 

pipe, 

plain (llano), 

priest, 

puma, 

rabbit, 
rain (lluvia). 



tseh, V. tseeh, p. z : f, t. muqluk u tseeh, m. tsek, s. 
ma-qol, m. ma-qobal, s. ma-qolal, v, z : f, t. ma- 

qolil, p. 
le, p, V, z : m, f. u-leh tse, t. leh tse, s. 
ok, s : f. muq-ok, p. p'ul-ok, v, z. oeiek, z. 
tus, all. 
lemba, t. lemba-kaan, m, f. lemba-tsak, p, s. lemba- 

tsaak, z. 
ku-san, s, z. ku-saan, p, v. 

tolok, p, z. is-mets, m. is-me-mets, s, z : f. merets, 
v. is-be-bets, s. s-seluts, s. pikuneil, z. silwoh, z. 
is-tulub, s, z. 
yakuna, v. yakunah, p, z : m, f, t. yakunah-il, s. 
yukuna, v, z. yakunah, p, s : m, f, t. 
winik, z : m, f, t. bal-kab winik, m. sib, v, s. H-sib, 

p, z. 
yab, s. yaab, p, v, z : m, f. 
baq, all. 

qah-sa, v. qah-sah, p, z : f. qah-lai, s, z : m. 
u, all. 

samal, p, z : m, f. hao-kab, v, z. hao-kab-qin, s. 
qas-ol, m. qos-ol, p, s, v, z : f. 
na, p, z. naa, m, t. nah, s. na-il, z. mama, v. 
ts'o, p, v, z : m, f, t. ts'oo, s. 
tsi, p, V, z : m, f. tsii, s : t. 
qaba, all. 

nao-ti, p. nao'-ti, s, v, z. naq-lik, z. 
kal, all. 
aqab, all. 

ma, p, s, V, z : m. maa, f. matan, m, f. 
ni, p, V, z : m. nii, s : f, t. 
qab-nab, s, v. qa-naab, p. qaq-nab, m. qaq-nab-e, m, 

qaq-naab, z. 
noh-sib, f, t. nu-sib, p, s, v, z. lab, z. utsben, z. 
maak, p, z. winik, s, v. 
ukum, s, z : m, f, t. kastran-ukum, p. kastlan-ukum, z. 

sak-pakal, z. ku-kut-kib, z. ououi, z. 
hu-hub, p. 
hobon-tse, v. 

tas-kab, p, z. ta-tas-luiun, s. uoi-luum, v. 
ah-qin, m, f. H-qin, p, s, z. yun-qin, v. yun-h-qin, z. 

pisnal-yum-oil, s. ah-meqtan-pisan, z. iq-kab, z. 
koh, V : m, f. tsak-koh, p. qan-koh, z. balam, t. 

tsak-bolai, m. 
t'ul, s, V : m, f, t. t'uul, p, z. 

ha, p. kasal-ha, s, z. kasal-haa, m. ha-hal, v. haa- 
haal, m. tsaak, p, z. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



299 



rain (lloviznar), 

rain water, 

rattle-snake, 
reason, 

red, 
river, 

rob, 

run, 

salt, 

sandal (guarache) 

scorpion, 

see, 

silver, 

sing, 

sister, elder, 

sister, younger, 

sit, 

sky, 

sleep, 

small, 

soldier, 



snake, 

snow, 

son, by mother, 

son, by father, 

speak, 

spring, 

squirrel, 

stand (pararse), 

star, 

stone, 

strong, 

summer, 

sun, 
tejon, 
temple, 
that, 



tos-ha, p, s, V, z : t. tos-haa, f, m. to-tos-ha, p. tosol- 

ha, z. oabal-ha, f. oabal-haa, in. 
t§ulub, z. tsulub-ha, z : t. tsakil-haa, m. tsakiqal- 

haa, f. kanil-haa, m. kaanil-haa, f. 
oab-kan, p, s, v, z. ahau-kan, z. 
naat, m, f. toh-t'an, p, s. kusolal, z : m, f, t. u nuk- 

t'an, V. 
tsak, p, V, z : m, f. tsa-tsak, p, z : m, f, t. tsu-tsak, s. 
bekan, z. bekan-ha, p. hai-ha, v. yats-ha, z. yok- 

ha, f, t. yok-haa, m. 
okol, p, s, V, z. koo, m, f, t. paa-koa, m, f. 
alkab, all. 
taab, all. 

sanab, p, z. sanab-kewel, p, s, v, z, 
sinan, s. sinaan, p, v, z : m, f. 
ilah, s, z. ilmah, {permitir) m, f, t. pakat, p, v. 
sak-maskab, p. sak-taqin, m, f, t. 
qai, all. 

kik, p, s, z : f, t. kiik, m. nohots kik, v. 
io'in, m, f, t. wio'in, p, z. tsup-io'in, s. tsupu-io'in, v. 
kutal, p, s, v, z. sekba, z. 
kaan, all. 
wen-el, all. 
tsi-tsan, p, s, v, z. tsan-tsan, m, t. ma-tsan-tsan, m, f. 

manob, m. mehen, m, f. o'eo', t. 
qatun, m, f, t. H-qatim, z. qaatvm, v. qatun-maak, s. 

bateel, p. batel-naal, p. H-batel, z. boteel, m. 

H-p'isba, z. holkan, f. 
kan, V, z : m, f, t. qanal-kan, s. quqi-kan, p, v. quqil- 

kan, s. 
yeeb, p, s, v. 

al, m, f, t. wal, p, z. sibi-al, s, v. sibi-bal, z. 
mehen, p, z : m, f, t. laq-pal, v, z. sibi-is-mehen, s. 
fan, s, v, z : m, f, t. tetan, p. 

yas-qm, m. its-yas-qin, p. yas-tsun-hab, v. no word, z. 
kuuk, p, s, V, z. 
watal, all. 
eq, all. 

tim, p. tunits, all. buq-tim, z. 

t'a, s. tsits, p, V, z. qaam, z. um-qan, v. mu-qaan, z. 
yas-qin, p. qin-im-yabil, t. qin tim yaabil, m, f. qini- 

qil-kab, v. lub-tsak, p. no word, z. 
qin, all. 

tsab, p. sib, s. emuts, v. 
quna, p, v, z : m, f. qvmah, s. yotots qu, m, f. 
le — e, z. lai, s. lailo, z. le letieele, p. leti-wale, v. 

halo, m. 



300 
there, 

they, 

this, 

thought, 

thumb, 

thunder, 

thunder-clap, 

tiger (tigre) 

time, 
toad, 
tobacco, 
to-day, 

toe, 

to-morrow, 

toiigue, 

tooth, 

tree, 

true, 
turkey, 
turtle, 
valley, 

village, 

walk, 

warble 'gorjear), 

warm, 

water, 

we, 

who, 

white, 

wife, 

will (voluntad), 

wind, 

wing, 

winter, 

wolf (loho), 

woman, 

wood, 



APPENDIX IV 

te, f. telo, V, z. tel-lo, t. tlo, z. tolo, p, s, z. lelo, p. 

— o, z. 
leti-ob, V, z. le-ob-ti, p, s, z. te-ob-ti-ob, p. 
le, z. lela, z. le — a, z. letiela, p, s, v. 
tukul, all. 

na-qab, p, v, z : m, f, t. naa-qab, s. 
kil-ba, V. kil-bal, p. amba, z. ambah, s. 
tsaak, z. amba-tsak, s. hvim-tsaak, p, z. u pek-tsak, 

t. yakan-tsak, v. 
t>alam, s : m. balam-tsak-eqel, z. tsak-mool, p, v, z. 

tsak-eqel, s, z. 
qin, z : t. qin-il, p, s, z. u-qin-il, v : m, f. 
muts, all. uo, p, s. 
quo, s, V, z : f. quuD, p. 
hele, f. be-hele, z. be-hela, z. be-helae, z. be-helak, 

V. ba-hele, p, s. 
al-ok, z. yal-ok, p, s. tsil-bi-ok, v. sau, m. 
samal, p, s, v, z. hao-kab, v : m, f. 
aq, p, s, z : m, f, t. hu-aq, v. 
ko, all. 
kul, z. kulul-tse, p. watal-tse, s. wiklil un p'el tse, v. 

ts'e, m. tse, t. tse-el, f. 
ha, s. hah, v, z : m, f, t. ha-hil, p, z. ha-hi-lil, p. 
DO, p, z. 000, s. oun, s. ulum, v, z. tus, z. 
ak, m, f, t. aak, p, s, v, z. 
qop, m, f, t. qoop, z. qom, m, f, t. tsa-qan, p. tao- 

luum, v. hem-lum, t. 
kah, all. noh-kah, s. tan-kah, p. tsan-kah, s. kah- 

talil, p. noh-kab, p. ka-kab, z. 
simbal, p, s, z : f, t. sinbal, v : m. 
qai, z : m. qo-qo-qai, p. hum, m, awat, m. 
tsoko, p, s, z. tsokoh, v. tsakau, m, f. 
ha, p, V, z : t. haa, s : m, f. 
toon, p, s, V, z. 
mak, m, f. maks, t. mas, s, z. maas, p, v. he-mas, z. 

heken-maas, z. 
sak, p, s, V, z : f, t. sasak, p, z : f, t. 
watan, p, s, z. h-waten, v. 
olah, p, s, z. u sihil tin puqsiqal, v. 
iq, all. 
siq, all. 
its-kelil, p. qmi-keel, v. aq-yebil (tiempo de aguas), m, 

f, t. no word, z. 
kab-koh, p, s. 

s-ts'up, p, s, v, z. tsup-lal, f. ts'up-lal, m. 
tse, all. 



work, 
world, 

yellow, 
yes, 

yesterday, 
you '■plural), 

you, 

young. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



301 



meya, v. meyah, p, z. menyah, s : in, f, t. 
yoqol-kab, z : m, f, t. baal-kah, f. bal-kal, t. baal- 

kal, ni. 
qan, p, v, z : m, f, t. qan-qan, p, z : m. qun-qan, s. 
bei, p, V. bai, p. la, s, z. 
holhe, p, s, V, z : f, t. holohe, p. 
tees, p, s, z. toon, v. mulanil, v. 
tets, p, s, V, z. 
tan-kelem, p, s, v, z. 



Numeration ^ 



Peto • 


Sotuta 




Tizimin 


Valladolid 


1. hun 


hiin 




hum 




un 


2. ka 


ka 




ka 




ka 


3. OS 


OS 




OS 




OS 


4. kam 


kan 




kan 




kan 


5. ho 


ho 




ho 




hok 


6. wak 


wak 




wak 




wak 


7. usuk 


wuk 




wuk 




huk 


8. wasak 


wasak 




wasak 




wasak 


9. bolom 


bolon 




bolon 




bolon 


10. la-hun 


la-hun 




la-hun 




la-hun 


11. buluk-hun 


bulvik 




buluk 




buluk 
un la-hun 


12. lah-ka 


lah-ka 




lah-ka 




ka-la-him 


20. hun-qaal 


hun-qal 




hun-qal 




un-qal 


30. la-hun-ka-qaal 


la-hu-ka-qal 


la-hun-ka-qal 


os-qal ' 


40. ka-qaal 


ka-qal 




ka-qaal 




kan-la-hun 


50. la-hun-yos qaal 


la-hu-yos 


-qal 


la-hu-yos- 


-qaal 


la-hun-yos-qal 


60. os-qaal 


os-qal 




os-qal 




un-la-hun-yos-qal 


70. la-hun-kan-qaal 


la-hu-kan-qal 


la-hun-kan-qaal 


ka-la-hun-yos-qal 


80. kan-qaal 


kan-qal 




kan-qaal 




kan-qal 


90. la-hun-ho-qaal 


la-hu-yo- 


qal 


la-hun-ho-qaal 


un-kan-la-hun-qal 


100. ho-qaal 


ho-qal 




ho-qal 




ho-qal 


1000. pik 


h\im-pik 




la-hun-os- 
hum-pik - 


-baaq 


xin-pik 



1 The numbers given here may be compared with those of Beltran on 

p. 99-100. 

2 The author of the Tizimin list states that anciently pik means 8000. See 
the statement regarding the present use of the term pik in Part I, p. 103. 

3 Many of the terms from this point onward are obviously incorrect. 



PRINTED AT 

THE HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., U.S. A. 



PAPERS 

OF THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY. HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Volume X 



INDIAN TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

BY 

WILLL\M CURTIS FARABEE 



INTRODUCTION 

BT 

LOUIS JOHN DE MILHAU 



TWENTY-EIGHT PLATES AND TIVESTV ILLUSTRATIONS 
IN THE TEXT 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 

PUBLISHED BY THE MUSEUM 

1922 



COPYRIGHT, 1922 

BY THE PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 

AND ETHNOU3GY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



V 



TO 
LOUIS JOHN DE MELHAU 

PATRON 

PARTNER IN HARDSHIPS 
ON MANY TRAILS 



INTRODUCTION 

By good fortune, when a junior in Harvard College, I became a 
member of the party organized by Dr. Farabee to explore the in- 
terior of Iceland during the summer of 1905. While this is not the 
place to tell the story of that expedition, I refer to it because it was 
due to my association in the field with Dr. Farabee at that time 
that the South American expedition which forms the subject of this 
volume became a reality. Both my companion, John Walter Hast- 
ings, and myself became intensely interested in the general sub- 
ject of anthropology, and particularly in the field work connected 
with it. On our way home from Iceland, we decided that there 
would be an expedition during the next year and that Dr. Farabee 
would be the leader of it. The details were worked out during the 
following winter. The interior of Peru, east of the Andes, was se- 
lected as a most promising and virgin field, for this was before the 
days of the numerous university expeditions which have since 
followed one another into the South American jungle. 

The expedition was under the auspices of the Peabody Museum. 
Besides Dr. Farabee, the party consisted of Hastings and myself 
as ethnologists, and a surgeon. Dr. Edward Franklin Horr, who 
had served for a number of years in Cuba and the Philippines 
as an officer in the Army Medical Corps. President Roosevelt 
found time, amidst his numerous activities, to receive Hastings 
and myself at the White House, when he wished us luck, and gave 
us a strong personal letter to all our diplomatic officials. His 
Eminence, the late Cardinal Gibbons, wrote for me a letter 
which was an open sesame within ecclesiastical circles at the Vati- 
can and elsewhere. Many others, too many, unfortunately, to 
mention individually, in a limited space, gave evidence of their 
interest and good wishes toward us. In December, 1906, Dr. Fara- 
bee, Hastings, and I sailed from New York, southward bound, fol- 
fowed some weeks later by Dr. Horr. On our arrival in Lima, we 
were officially presented to the President, Senor Pardo, and his 



vi INTRODUCTION 

Minister of Finance, Seiior Leguia, now President of the Republic, 
and were the recipients of many courtesies and hospitahties from 
both Americans and Peruvians. From Lima we continued to Are- 
quipa, where is situated the Harvard Observatory, which city 
became our base during the time we were in Peru. A short period 
was devoted to preparation for the actual field work and to short 
side trips to La Paz and other nearby places. Little could be 
learned of conditions in the interior beyond the mountains, and so 
the first journey was somewhat in the nature of a preliminary in- 
vestigation of the field. 

In all, three journeys were made across the Andes and down 
into the lowlands running eastward from the Atlantic slope of the 
mountains, as is shown in the map, plate 28 of this volume. On 
the first incursion, which lasted about six months, we started from 
the station of Tirapata on the then uncompleted railroad to Cuzco, 
and w^ent over the tableland and through Aricoma Pass, at an eleva- 
tion of 16,500 feet; whence the trail descended the eastern slope of 
the mountains to the rubber camp at Astillero on the Tambopata 
River. There we waited, short of food and tobacco, for six weeks, 
until the flooded river could subside sufficiently for canoe travel. 
From this little settlement we proceeded, with many halts, down 
the Tambopata and Madre de Dios to Rivera Alta on the Beni and 
thence overland to Guayamerin, on the Marmore. Ascending this 
last river and its tributary, the Chapare, we found ourselves at the 
trail head in BoHvia, whence a journey on mule-back brought us to 
the city of Cochabamba. The arrival of the pack train with its party 
of "Norte Americanos" which, after six months in the field with 
limited impedimenta, was a pretty rough looking crowd, created 
somewhat of a sensation in the plaza. It was with great difficulty, 
later, that the Faculty of the University of Cochabamba could be 
convinced that such a band could really be " scientificos " from a 
great university. A stage trip to Oruro and La Paz and a voyage 
across Lake Titicaca brought this first journey to a close. Hast- 
ings and I shortly afterward returned to the United States, leav- 
ing Drs. Farabee and Horr to continue the work of the expedition. 
The sudden and accidental death of Hastings not long after his 
arrival home was a great shock to all of us, who will remember him 
with affection as a good comrade and true friend. 



INTRODUCTION vii 

The experience gained in the first journey was most helpful in 
planning the second, during which the party, starting from Cuzco, 
descended the Urubamba River, past the ancient fortress Ollantay- 
tambo, the scene of the defeat of Hernando Pizarro by the Inca, 
Manco Capac, to Cahuide near where the river is joined by the 
Paucartambo, Here the expedition spent three months in camp with 
the Macheyenga Indians, returning to Cuzco, via the Yanatile 
River, Lara, and the ancient sun temple at Pisac. 

The third journey was the longest and in many ways the most 
important. The Peruvian Government, which, at this time, was 




Members of the Expedition in camp on the Tambopata River; seated, left to right, 
Dr. Farabee, Dr. Horr, Mr. de Milhau, Mr. Hastings 

interested in the extension of the railroad at Cerro de Pasco to 
some navigable point upon the Ucayali River, invited the mem- 
bers of the expedition to accompany the party of engineers 
engaged in making a preliminary location and survey. This invita- 
tion was particularly attractive, because it was anticipated that 
the party would pass for more than a hundred and fifty miles 
through an unknown territory supposedly inhabited by savage 
tribes, where opportunity would offer itself to make observations 
and collections. As a matter of fact, these anticipations were only 
partly realized, as only a few tribes were encountered along the 



viii INTRODUCTION 

rivers, the great interior showing no traces of inhabitants, either 
past or present. The route of the party was from Cerro de Pasco 
via the Pichis road through Tarma to the Pachitea River. De- 
scending this river to the Ucayah, the party then embarked upon 
a government launch for Iquitos, at which port Dr. Farabee 
shipped to New York by Atlantic steamer the collections which 
had been made en route. From Iquitos, which is just below the 
point where the Ucayali and the Maranon form the Amazon, the 
party followed the latter river to Tabatinga upon the border of 
Brazil and then, retracing in part its steps, returned to the West 
Coast. The homeward route was along the Amazon, Ucayah, 
Urubamba and Mishagua Rivers to the divide at Varadero Vargas, 
whence a portage was made to the Manu River, which was followed 
to the Madre de Dios. From this river the party came to the 
Andean plateau over the route by which it had descended into the 
interior upon its first journey, namely by the Tambopata River to 
Astillero and over the mountain trail to Tirapata. During the 
eleven months spent in the headwaters the expedition was able to 
do much work among the tribes of the Panoan, Arawakan, Tupian, 
and other stocks, the results of which are set forth in this treatise. 
In addition a great deal of geographical work was done, including 
the taking of observations and the mapping of a hitherto unknown 
region, a full report of which was made to the Peruvian authorities. 
The work of the expedition was done under varying and trying 
conditions, sometimes in the cold high altitude of the Andean 
plateau, at other times in the torrid jungle of the Amazon head- 
waters, in dry season and in rainy, under a blazing sun, or in the 
chill of a "temporal" from the mountains. Transportation was 
by almost every conceivable method; by steam train, hand-car, 
stage coach and horseback in the mountains (to say nothing of one 
well remembered nightmare of a ride up the eastern slope of the 
Andes from the Chapare to Cochabamba upon the pack saddles 
of a mule train returning from the delivery of its cargo at the trail's 
end), by river steamer, by rowboat or native bark canoe, or on 
foot. The food, too, varied from the garlic impregnated dishes of 
the Spanish hotel to the roast monkey and parrot of the hospitable 
savage. Malarial fever was a constant and unavoidable companion, 
but aside from this affliction, and the pests of small and biting 
things that flew or crawled, we remained in good health without 



INTRODUCTION ix 

serious illness or accident. The success of the expedition is pri- 
marily due to the leadership, tireless enerp;y, tact, and abiUty of 
Dr. Faral)ee; while Dr. Horr, the surgeon, was responsible in great 
part for the good health of its members, and also for the prestige 
which it acquired by the presence of an untiring and unselfish 
physician, whose services were called upon frequently by Whites 
and Indians wherever he went. Besides the material results of the 
expedition, as shown by this volume, by the collections in the Pea- 
body Museum, and by the scientific observations of various sorts, 
reported to the Peruvian Government and to our own, I believe 
that it has been not unhelpful in promoting to some degree right 
understanding and good will between Peru and our own country. 
Indeed, I think I may say that Dr. Farabee's appointment as an 
honorary member of the Faculty of the University of San Marcos 
at Lima (the oldest university in both Americas), and his selection 
by President Harding as one of the American Commission to the 
Peruvian Centennial, with the rank of Envoy Extraordinary, are 
good evidences of this fact. While the appearance of this volume 
has been somewhat delayed, for many reasons, including among 
others. Dr. Farabee's absence upon other and distinguished ex- 
plorations in Brazil and the Guianas, I am glad of its publication 
at this time, not only because of its scientific value, but also be- 
cause it is, in a way, an appreciation of the splendid work accom- 
plished by my comrades of the expedition. 

Louis J. deMilhau. 

New York, January 5, 1922. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



It gives me pleasure to acknowledge my indebtedness to the follow- 
ing persons who contributed so largely to the success of the ex- 
pedition: to Mr. Louis J. de Milhau, whose splendid liberality 
made the work possible, for advice and assistance in the field; to 
the late Professor Frederick W. Putnam, for instruction and hearty 
cooperation; to Mr. John W. Hastings, who will always be held 
in affectionate memory by his comrades; to Dr. Edward Horr, my 
constant companion and efficient assistant for three years, for 
looking after the health of our party and administering to hundreds 
of natives and Indians along the way; to the Inca Mining and 
Rubber Company for transportation and suppUes; to the numer- 
ous Government officials and others in Peru and Bolivia whose 
assistance and genial hospitahty made our travels so enjoyable; 
to Mr. Charles C. Willoughby, Director of the Peabody Museum, 
for putting the volume through the press. 



William Curtis Farabee. 



Cambridge, Massachusetts 
August 30, 1921. 



CONTENTS 

ARAWAKAN STOCK 

Macheyenga 

PAQE 

Distril)ution 1 

Organization 2 

Hunting and Fishing 2 

Preparation of Game 5 

Household Utensils 6 

Drinks 6 

The Dance 7 

Tobacco '^ 

Games 8 

Dress and Ornamentation 9 

Diseases H 

Music 11 

The Dead 12 

Religion 14 

Salutations 15 

Cosmogony 15 

Measures 16 

Marriage 16 

Childbirth 18 

The Family 19 

Physical Development 19 

Deformation 20 

Language 21 

Grammar 23 

Vocabulary 38 

Campa 

Vocabulary 49 

PiRO 

Distribution 53 

Organization 53 

Houses 54 

Food Supply 55 



xii CONTENTS 

Dress and Ornamentation 57 

Marriage 59 

Medicine Men 60 

The Dead 60 

Personal Habits 61 

Cats Cradles 62 

Vocabulary 62 

Mash CO 

Distribution and General Culture 77 

Marriage "7 

The Dead 77 

Personal Appearance 77 

Vocabulary 78 



PANOAN STOCK 

History 79 

CONEBO 

Distribution ^^ 

Houses 81 

Dress and Ornamentation 82 

Food Supply 8S 

Canoes S3 

The Dead 84 

Religion 84 

Music 84 

Marriage 85 

Personal Appearance 86 

Pottery 86 

Grammar 88 

Vocabulary 91 

SiPIBO 

Distribution and General Culture 96 

Home Life 96 

Dress and Ornamentation 97 

Tobacco 100 

Artistic Designs 100 

Marriage 101 

The Dead 103 

Religion 104 

Medicine Men 104 



CONTENTS xiii 

Amahuaca 

Distribution and General Culture 105 

Signal Code 106 

Dress and Ornamentation 107 

Marriage 107 

The Dead 108 

Warfare 108 

Character 109 

Yocahularv HO 



JIVARAN STOCK 

Distrilnition of Tribes 115 

Home Life 115 

Food Supply 110 

Fire Making 117 

Dress and Ornamentation 117 

Marriage 118 

The Dead 119 

Religion 119 

Medicine Men 119 

Mummified Heads 120 

Dances 123 

Myths 123 

Vocabulary 125 



WITOTAN STOCK 

Distribution 136 

Organization 137 

Houses 137 

Food Supply 138 

Jaliko, the Feast of the Pole 139 

Other Amusements 140 

Dress and Ornamentation 141 

Marriage 141 

The Dead 143 

Medicine Men 143 

Cosmogony 14o 

Religion 146 

Warfare 146 

Signal Code 147 

Grammar 148 

Vocabulary 149 



xiv CONTENTS 

MIRANHAN GROUP 

Vocabulary 152 

TUPIAN STOCK 

TiATINAGUA 

Distribution 154 

Organization 154 

Food Supply 154 

Dress and Ornamentation 156 

Marriage 156 

The Dead 157 

Religion 157 

Personal Appearance 157 

Grammar 158 

Vocabulary 158 

Atsahuaca 

Vocabulary 162 

Mabenaro 

Vocabular}'^ 164 

SOMATIC CHARACTERS 

Measurements 165 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS 

Mounds at Trinidad, Bolivia 180 

Burial Towers, Colocolo, Bolivia 180 

Circular Burial Tower, Peru 180 

Petroglyphs 180 

Collections 181 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 183 

INDEX 189 



INDIAN TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

ARAWAKAN STOCK 

MACHEYENGA 

Distribution. The Macheyenga, an Arawakan tribe related to 
the Campa, occupy the territory along the middle course of the 
Urubamba River and its local tributaries. With other Campa 
tribes these Indians were in contact with the Inca east of the 
Andes, but were never absorbed by them. The Inca applied the 
term " Antis " to all the tribes without distinction, but the Campa 
group called themselves by different local names and were known 
to the interior tribes by these names. On the middle course of the 
Urubamba River they are known as Machiganga; on the Perene, 
as Acheyenga; and at San Lorenzo, as Achenega. The present 
study was made at Cahuide on the Yavero, or Paucartambo 
River, a branch of the Urubamba above Pongo Manique, Peru. 

A few years ago some forty families of the Macheyenga lived 
in the vicinity of Cahuide, contented and happy; but today, on 
account of the raids of slave traders, there are but six or eight 
famihes left, numbering about twenty individuals. No enumera- 
tion of the Macheyenga has ever been made, and no exact infor- 
mation can now be secured because of the system of carrying 
away the children and selling them down river where they soon 
loose their language and identity. A very rough estimate, based 
upon careful inquiry in many locaUties, would be about two 
thousand. 

Most of my information was obtained from two very competent 
authorities: Sr. Max Richarte, a very intelligent man of good 
family and education, who had lived for several years among the 
Macheyenga and spoke their language; and the best possible 
authority, Simasiri, a Macheyenga boy, whose father at his death 
had given him to Richarte. Simasiri was taken to Cuzco, where 
he lived in Richarte's family, and attended school for five years. 
He spoke and read Spanish very well. A year before my visit he 



2 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

was taken back to the interior to serve as an interpreter among 
his own people. We found him at Cahuide, and had him with us 
for three months. After his return to the interior, he met one of 
his cousins who told him of the fate of his family. His father and 
mother had been captured and sent to different places down river; 
his sister had been dressed up and sold to a rubber gatherer; his 
brothers had been killed, and he alone had escaped. Simasiri was 
so angry at these acts of barbarism perpetrated by white men, 
that he threw away his civilized clothing, put on his old Indian 
dress, and went away into the forest to live with the savages. 
The Peruvian Government has since prohibited this slave traffic, 
and punished the offenders. I was delighted to see one of the 
worst offenders against this tribe carried away in chains for trial. 

Organization. There is no tribal organization, no tribal meet- 
ings, and no chief of the whole tribe. Each locality, comprising a 
few families situated near together on the same river or near the 
confluence of two rivers, has its own curaca, or head-man, who is 
selected because of his ability and influence. The habits of life 
of these tribes do not encourage organization. They have no large 
villages, or large communal houses. There are, instead, several 
families living along the banks of a river in the same vicinity, each 
with its own chacara, or small clearing, in the fertile lowland, 
where an abundant and constant food supply is guaranteed. There 
is no criminal code or system of punishment, because there are so 
few criminals. Theft, unfaithfulness, and murder are practically 
unknown. If children are too intimate before marriage, they are 
severely beaten by their parents. A lazy man is compelled to 
work because no one will give him food, yet anyone will allow him 
to work in his field for food. 

The Macheyenga are not war-like, but when other tribes carry 
off their women they declare war. The women and children go 
to war with the men, carry arrows, and have them ready as fast 
as needed. It has been reported that they use poisoned arrows, 
but they know no arrow poison. 

Hunting and Fishing. In hunting and fishing, the Macheyenga 
use a very strong flat bow (plate 3) made of chonta palm {Oreo- 
doxa), five feet long and an inch and a half wide. The bow is 
held upright, with the surplus fiber string wound around the lower 
end. The arrow is held under the forefinger on the left side of the 



Peabody Museum Papers 



'y 



Vol. X, Plate 1 




Macheyenga Indians 



ARAWAK.\N STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 3 

bow. The bow is drawn with the thumb and index finger holding 
the arrowshaft on the string. The arrowshaft is made of the 
straight top of the wild cane {Gynerium saccharoides) , and is three 
or four feet long. The feathers are put on spirally, wrapped with 
cotton thread, and pitched. The foreshaft is made of chonta palm 
or bamboo, without any other point. Different types of arrows 
are used for birds, fish, monkeys, and pigs. The men hunt and 
fish together, and divide the catch. There is no definite rule 
about the division of any particular animal, or of the whole catch. 
They use also a number of devices for capturing birds and animals. 

The latex of the Castilloa elastica, or that of some other tree, is 
used to make a sort of lime which they call " popa." With it they 
catch birds by smearing hmbs of trees frequented by them. For 
big game, sharpened sticks are planted in their runways. For 
smaller animals, snares are made by planting two poles in the 
ground, one on either side of the runway, wider apart at the top 
than at the bottom. A double rope is placed around the poles, 
five or six feet up; hanging from this double rope is a double 
loop with a slip-knot hanging near the ground. An animal pass- 
ing through in either direction picks up the noose, which pulls 
tight around his neck, stranghng him to death. This is one of the 
simplest and most effective snares in use among any people. They 
build a Wind near the water hole of a certain animal or bird, and 
shoot it when it comes to drink. They know the habits of the 
animals, and the times of day they usually take water. 

For catching fish they never use the hook, but have other de- 
vices. A very small flat fish, three to five inches long, which feeds 
under stones in shallow water, is caught in the hands, and killed by 
biting it through the head. When the rivers are in flood, the fish 
feed along the shallow water. To catch these the natives use a 
small round net about three feet in diameter, fastened on a bent, 
pole which they hold in their hands, and push before them as 
they wade along the banks. They use a large net with stone 
sinkers for seining in the deep holes along the small rivers. These 
nets are very well made of cotton strings, with small oval river 
stones notched and pitched to hold the string. 

Their most successful and ingenious method of catching fish is 
by building a trap and using poison. A narrow shallow place in a 
small river is selected, and wings of stones are built on both sides 



4 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

in order to confine the water to a space fifteen or twenty feet wide, 
as shown in figure 1. At the inner ends of the wings, long poles are 
so placed that the upstream ends are on the ground, and the other 
ends held in forked sticks. Across these poles are placed others 
in a horizontal position, the upstream one being under the surface 
of the water. Then a large mat, about twelve feet long and eighteen 
feet wide, made of wild cane and bast, is so placed upon this platform 
of poles that the upstream end is under the surface of the water, 
and the other end is two or three feet higher. The sides of the mat 




Figure 1 
Macheyenga Indian fish trap 



are turned up about a foot to prevent the fish from rolling off into 
the water below the wings. All the poles and the mat are held in 
place and made secure with well-tied lianas or vines. The mesh 
of the mat must be just the right size; if too large the smaller fish 
will get through, if too small the resistance to the rapid water will 
carry the trap away. After some three hours of hard labor for 
half a dozen men, the trap is completed, and the time for rest has 
come. While the trap is being made, some men collect bundles 
of roots of the cavenithi, a small shrub which grows abundantly 
in the neighborhood. These roots are taken a mile or more u^d- 
stream, and pounded on the rocks in the river. The fish along the 
river for the whole distance, overcome by the poison, rise to the 
surface, and float out on the trap, where the largest ones are 



ARAWAKAX STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 5 

gathered up, and the smaller ones thrown back into the river to 
float on for possibly another mile before recovering from the effect 
of the drug. By this method practically every fish in the river is 
captured, but the device has its limitations: it cannot be used in 
large rivers, deep water, or small streams; and the trap is carried 
away by the first high water. The poison has no deleterious effect 
upon the flesh of the fish, which may be eaten without danger. 

All Indians in the region are very successful in imitating the 
cries of animals and birds. They are thus able to call them within 
range of their arrows, or to approach near to them. On the river 
or trail they continually call for the game which frequents that 
particular vicinity. The grunt of the pig, the whistle of the tapir 
or the monkey, and the call of the turkey-like curassow, are each 
perfectly reproduced. When hunting or on a journey, an Indian 
always carries over his shoulder a coil of cord which he loops 
around his feet when he climbs trees for game, fruit, nuts, or vines. 
The loops catch over his insteps in such a way as to allow him to 
clamp his feet against the sides of the tree. 

When the trail crosses a river which is not too wide, a very 
serviceable bridge is built by felling a tree from either side, and 
connecting the two with long poles and cross sticks. 

Preparation of Game. Fish are drawn, scraped, thoroughly 
roasted, and smoked with the head left on. Birds are plucked, 
washed, scraped, and drawn, and then either boiled or roasted. 
At home the commonest method is to cut up the bird, and boil 
it with plantains in a large pot. When traveling, everything is 
roasted: game, plantains, and yucca. 

Monkeys and pigs are always singed, thoroughly washed in the 
river, scraped, and drawn. The intestines are carefully cleaned 
and eaten. They are considered great delicacies. The flesh is 
roasted and smoked. A big fire is built, and the animal is held in 
the flames until all the hair is singed off; while it is being dressed, 
the fire has burned down until a large bed of live coals remains, 
then a barbecue is made over them, and the flesh slowly roasted 
with the cut surface upward, so that all the juices are held in the 
meat. 

When on a hunt it is always necessary, on account of the heat, 
to stop early in the evening to roast and smoke the meat to pre- 
serve it. When traveling, fresh meat is preserved for five or six 



6 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

days by placing it over the fire every evening. At home the meat 
is kept hanging over the fire in a suspended tray or on poles, 
until it is all consumed. The tray is made by bending a stick or 
vine into a circle two feet in diameter, and weaving in strips of 
bast. The smoke preserves the meat, and keeps away the flies. 
The tray keeps the food out of reach of dogs and other pets. 

All members of the family eat together, and any strangers or 
visitors present eat with them. They use salt freely on their meat 
and roasted green corn, but use no other mineral foods. 

Household Utensils. The Macheyenga make a very rude coaree 
pottery for cooking purposes, and for water storage. All their 
food bowls and finer ware they get from the Conebo by exchange. 
They make baskets of palm leaves for all kinds of temporary use. 
For storage of trinkets, clothing, etc., they make a very good 
telescope basket of wild cane, two feet or more long, a foot wide, 
and when extended, one and a half feet high. They still use the 
peccary tusk knife, but depend upon steel knives for hard usage. 
When using a modern knife, they sharpen it on one side only, 
hold it with the blade at the ulnar side of the hand, and always 
cut with a drawn stroke; or, in other words, they use it as they 
do one of their own knives. 

Fire is made by twirhng a stick between the palms of the hands. 
A certain kind of palm tree called " mokavirintclii," has root- 
stalks growing above the ground. These are cut, and when well 
cured, one is flattened for the hearth, and another rounded for the 
drill. There is no tradition about the origin of fire — they " always 
made it this way." 

Drinks. Chicha, a fermented drink, is made by young women 
from cassava and corn. The sweet cassava (Manihot aipi), a 
starchy tuber, after being boiled and cooled, is chewed by the 
young women until the saliva is thoroughly mixed with it, and 
then it is placed in a wooden trough in the sun for four or five 
days to ferment. The corn is ground very fine by rocking a semi- 
lunar-shaped stone on a flat one used as a base. The corn meal is 
then placed to soak in a trough of water. When fermentation has 
progressed sufficiently, the corn and masticated cassava are mixed 
together in a larger trough with more water, and allowed to stand 
two or three days longer. While the mixture is ripening, short 
stemmed gourds are prepared for the storage of the chicha. The 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 2 




Macheyenga Indians: a, Weaving cotton cloth; h, Making chicha 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 7 

mass is then dipped from the trough with a gourd, strained through 
a long basket into a large pot, antl poured through a funnel made 
of corn-husks into neckless gourds which hold about a gallon each, 
as shown in plate 2, b. The operator continually expectorates into 
the gourtls as she fills them. When all are filled they are corked 
with corn-cobs, and set away for future use. We saw them make 
ten gallons at one time. When fresh, chicha is a pleasant refresh- 
ing drink, but in a few days it becomes very intoxicating. As a 
matter of hospitality it is always offered to visitors, who must, 
of course, accept and drink it. Fortunately one learns to drink, 
and to relish it, before he knows how it is prepared. Once the ap- 
petite has been formed, sentiment no longer affects the stomach. 
The natives drink freely, but seldom to excess. 

The Dance. There are no established dances for regular seasons 
of the year. When there is a wedding dance it comes at the first 
of harvest season, but there may not be a wedding each year. The 
visitor's dance is given at any time when a few persons come from 
a distance. This is the men's dance and takes place around a fire on 
the outside of a house. The leader carries a small drum which he 
taps with his fingers while the men catch hands and dance in a 
circle. They may dance every day for a week; it is just their 
method of entertainment and means nothing whatever. 

The drum is made by stretching the skin of a howling monkey 
across the ends of a hollow tree trunk eighteen inches long and 
twelve inches in diameter. The snare is prepared by stringing 
beads on a cord across one end. The skin is placed in wood 
ashes to remove the hair and to tan it. This is the only use made 
of the skin of any animal. The drum is used for dances, and for 
a man's amusement when he is drunk; he lies on the floor and 
taps the drum with his fingers by the hour. Upon hearing the 
drum, I went many times, and always found the same thing true, 
— some fellow was lying on the floor on his back, tapping the 
drum, while no one else was paying any attention to it. 

Tobacco. The men grow their own tobacco, " sedi," and smoke 
it in large wooden pipes, called " penarintci," made of the root 
of a tree called "camona." They do not use tobacco in any other 
way. The pipe has a long tubular bowl with a short bird-bone 
stem set at a right angle, similar to the one shown at the left in 
figure 7. 



8 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

Games. Children play few games. The principal ones are 
shooting at a target with bows and arrows, and throwing seeds at 
each other. They have no ball or stick games of any kind. The 
boys blow up the bladders of animals and use them for balls. 
The girls are taught to make cats cradles. The following examples 
were obtained at Cahuide. They are the very simple types found 
in many parts of the world. 

Guatuari, a snare. String around the neck, right hand string 
around neck again; right string under left forming a loop with 
rest of string; loop over the head with the cross of strings behind; 
pull the loop with both hands, and the string comes off the neck. 

Yohateaka, a tray. Left hand palm vertical with string around 
hand on top of thumb ; index of right under palm string, between 
thumb and index of left, hook over dorsal string, pull through, 
twist palm of right up, loop over index of left; repeat between 
each finger with loop over the next ; release the thumb; pull palm 
string and the animal escapes. 

Sitikali, releasing the fly. String around thumb of left hand with 
both strings on the dorsal side ; wrap once around the wrist ; take 
up loose loop on right thumb; with right little finger take up the 
two palmar strings of the left from behind over the right thumb 
strings; with the right little finger take up the right thumb strings 
over the little finger strings; with right thumb and index remove 
the four dorsal strings of the left hand to the palmar side, thus 
making a knot of all the strings between the palms, with one loop 
over each thumb and two over each little finger; slap palms to- 
gether, release little fingers, and draw apart showing string on 
thumbs with no knot. 

Tabor inga, shelters. Loop around middle fingers; take up on 
thumbs the ulnar string over the radial; take up radial on little 
fingers; take up middle loops over thumb strings with opposite 
ring fingers; slip thumb strings and take them up over middle 
finger string; slip little finger strings and take them up over ring 
finger strings; slip middle and ring finger loops; draw out and a 
double diamond remains between the palms. 

Potengia. Same as the last, except that the ring finger strings are 
twisted once toward the thumbs when put on. 

Ani, river. Loop over thumb and index of left hand and thumlj 
of right; hook over string between thumb and index of left with 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 9 

index of right and take up with turn to right ; Httle fingers under 
ulnar index, over radial index strings and take up ulnar thumb 
string on backs of little fingers; release thumbs; take up radial 
little finger strings on backs of thumbs over index strings; place 
index loops over thumbs also; place former thumb string loops 
over little fingers; take off former little finger loops; release 
indexes; draw out and a double string winds around the outside 
strings like the bends of the river. 

Sigarintci, spider's web. Loop over the thumb and index of 
left hand and thumb of right; hook index of right over string 
between thumb and index of left and take it up with turn to right; 
little fingers under ulnar and radial index strings and take up 
ulnar thumb string on backs of little fingers; release thumbs; 
take up radial little finger string on backs of thumbs; place index 
loops over thumbs; take off former thumb loops; place ends of 
indexes downward through former thumb loops and turn palms 
outward releasing all but thumbs and indexes. 

Pankotci, a house. String over thumbs and little fingers; take 
up palm string on indexes; take up ulnar little finger string in 
middle with teeth beneath other palmar strings and drop the loop 
over other strings; take up in middle at crossing in teeth the ulnar 
thumb string and radial index string, holding these until end; 
remove loops from indexes and httle fingers, catching the two 
together (i.e. the ulnar of indexes and radials of little fingers) and 
place both over little fingers; take up on indexes from under 
ulnar side all strings between thumb and little finger strings, the 
loop thrown over by teeth first; place little finger loops with half 
turn to ulnar side over middle fingers; place thumb loops under 
other strings over little fingers; place index loops over thumbs 
with half turn, release strings from teeth and draw out, first shift- 
ing thumb and httle finger loops well down and middle finger 
loops well up. A house frame with ridge pole, rafters, and plates 
result. 

Dress and Ornamentation. The most common dress for both 
men and women is the cushma, a loose fitting sleeveless shirt- 
like cotton garment, which hangs from the shoulders and reaches 
below the knees, as illustrated in plate 1, Cotton is not cultivated, 
but wild cotton is collected by the women, spun into very fine 
thread, and woven into cloth (plate 2, a). To make a cushma, a 



10 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

strip is woven four times as long as the required garment, and about 
a half yard in width. It is then cut into two pieces and sewed along" 
the middle, except for about a foot in the center which is left open 
to slip the head through; the sides are sewed up with the excep- 
tion of a small hole on either side for the arms. The woman's 
cushma has the hole for the head cut crosswise instead of length- 
wise. The cushma is worn plain white, or dyed a dull red with 
the pulp of a plant called "atcohte" {Bixa oreUana). Children 
run about naked until the approach of puberty. Among some of 
the groups all go naked a part of the time, others wear bark 
cushmas, and still others wear the breech cloth. 

The cotton is gathered by the women, and stored in rough bas- 
kets made of palm leaves. The seeds are removed by hand, as the 
cotton is needed for spinning. The spindle is made of chonta 
palm about a foot long, with a stone whorl. The spindle rests in 
a gourd cup, and is spun by twisting with the thumb and 
fore-finger. The thread is used to make cushmas, bags, and 
bands for their arms and legs; or cord to make bags, nets, 
and ropes. 

The ornamentation of these people is not profuse or elaborate, 
and is nearly the same for both men and women. The only object 
attached to the body is the nose ornament. The septum is pierced, 
and suspended from it on a cotton thread is a small thin disc of 
silver about the size of a dime, which just covers the hp. Often 
two or four small beads of stone or bone are worn on the thread 
with the silver disc. 

On the shoulders, attached to the cushma, the women wear tufts 
of feathers, claws of animals, bones, and seeds. The men often 
have tufts of feathers and bird skins attached to the cushma, hang- 
ing down the back. These are mere ornaments, and have no sig- 
nificance whatever. The Macheyenga, along with many other 
tribes, admire plump arms and legs, hence the women always wear 
bands or cords of woven cotton around the wrists and ankles, 
and above the elbows. The men sometimes wear these same bands 
with monkey teeth attached. The women often wear long neck- 
laces of different colored seeds, berries, pods of vanilla, teeth of 
monkeys and other animals, and bone beads (plate 3). All the 
people paint their bodies and faces in lines or spots, for on other 
purpose than the protection against the bites of flies. 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 3 '^ 




Macheyenga bow and arrows, necklaces, and feather ornaments. (About 1/11.) 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 11 

Diseases. The Maeheyenga are a very hardy people, and are 
free from loathsome diseases. There are no evidences of tuber- 
culosis, venereal diseases, or insanity among them. Many are 
pitted from smallpox and we saw two individuals who had each 
lost an eye from this disease. One is apt to mistake scars made by 
the bite of the vampire bat for pox marks. Many have such marks 
on the nose and forehead. 

There is no medicine man but everybody knows certain herbs 
which are used for different diseases. Old persons consult together 
in serious cases. Malaria is common among them. They give no 
medicine internally, but in order to reduce the temperature they 
wash the body with a tea made from the roots of a tall grass called 
" chipanaci " that grows in swamps. They use the same medicine 
to attract fish to certain deep pools. The plant can be distin- 
guished only by the flower, and as it was not then in bloom, we 
were unable to obtain it for identification. This plant is worthy 
of a careful study. For diarrhea and headache they make a tea 
of the leaves of the plant Dioscorea. 

There are a few poisonous serpents in the region, and in spite 
of great care the natives are occasionally bitten. When one is 
bitten, he at once cuts the wound open and squeezes into it the 
juice of the leaves and bark of the cavinithi tree. The leaves and 
scraped inner bark are heated over a fire, and then the juice is 
squeezed into the wound. It is said to be a sure cure, preventing 
pain and swelling. The next day, to hasten the cure, the patient 
chews red peppers, and spits the juice on the wound. If allowed 
to sleep the patient will die, hence a great noise is kept up all night 
to keep him awake. One night we heard a loud noise which was 
kept up continuously, until we were unable to sleep. Upon in- 
vestigation we learned that one of the men had been bitten by a 
snake the evening before. His leg was badly swollen, and he seemed 
to be in considerable pain in spite of their treatment. However, 
he recovered completely in a few days. The snake was not found, 
so it was impossible to know whether or not it was the most pois- 
onous variety, as supposed. 

Music. The Maeheyenga sing a few songs, but cannot be con- 
sidered musical. When men return from a long journey, they give 
a dance, and sing their experiences for the benefit of their friends. 
They catch hands and dance in a circle facing each other. 



12 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



On the trail it is often difficult to get dry kindling, and fire- 
making is a slow and painstaking operation. As the man blows 
his fire, he sings the following song in a very low tone to encourage 
the fire to burn. 



rihi 


1 1 






1 




/ '^ -^ <i 


■^ 


(^ 


<? 




^ r^ 


tf ^ 1 




d m 


M 


^ 




v.; 4 






• 




tJ 













tci - tci 
Fire 



val - o - ri val - o - ri val - o - ri tci - tci 
burn burn burn fire 



D.C. 



:i=i^ 



-f2_ 



val - o - ri val - o - ri i - i - i 
burn burn 



1 - 1 



The second example is a cradle song used by mothers to soothe 
their children when sick or when put to bed in the evening. Two 
mothers singing at the same time usually sing in octaves on the 
outside tones, and come together in unison on the middle tones. 
No words are used, that can be heard, but all the notes were 
hummed in a very low voice. 




i 






^^ 



^ 



=3=J 



^^. 



D.C. 



3 



f 



3 



tJ 



b 



The Dead. The Macheyenga have no fear of the dead. They 
handle the body with impunity, and dispose of it without cere- 
mony. When anyone dies, two men, relatives or friends, take the 
corpse by the head and feet, and lay it on a litter made of two 
long poles with cross sticks. Then the same two men, or two 
friends out of courtesy, carry the Htter head foremost on their 
shoulders to the river and throw it into the water. The body re- 
mains dressed in its cushma, as in life. No weights are used to sink 
the body, and the rapid current carries it away to be eaten by 
fish, or to be buried in the sands and debris along the shallow 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 13 

banks. There is no ceremony whatsoever in connection with the 
dead, either at the house or at the river. When friends happen to 
be present, they usually carry away the body as an act of courtesy. 
If no one else is there, two members of the family do it. No one 
accompanies the two men to the river, and no ceremony is per- 
formed while they are gone. There is no reverence for the body. 
It is thrown into the river just as a dead dog or kitchen refuse is 
thrown in, at the same place, and apparently for the same reason 
It is the most convenient, and at the same time the most hygienic 
method of disposing of the dead. 

When one member of the family dies the others desert the home, 
and build another some distance away. They never return to the 
house, but if they have no other chacara, or clearing, they may 
return for food until the new chacara is ready to use, a period of 
eight or ten months. After that time another family may take 
possession of the old clearing, and Uve in the house. When a small 
child dies they throw the corpse into the river, but do not leave 
the house. In order to end the sufferings of helpless old persons 
and those about to die of some incurable disease, they throw them 
into the river while they are still alive. However, they take very 
good care of their sick and infirm so long as there is any hope of 
recovery. 

They leave the house because they are afraid of the disease that 
took away the other member of the family, and for no other reason. 
The case of a child would seem to be an exception, but the adults 
have no fear of children's diseases. No ceremonies are performed 
when leaving the old home or when building a new one. As they 
have no belief in ghosts or in the return of the soul, there is no 
reason to fear the soul of the departed. Aside from their positive 
statements, the fact that others may and do Hve in the same house 
after a short time, is evidence that they have no fear of the house 
or of spirits about it. 

Among some branches of the tribe, those killed in warfare are 
buried, while the common people are thrown into the river. A 
grave, four or five feet deep, is dug near the place where the man 
fell. The body, dressed in the cushma, is laid on its back at full 
length, and covered with leaves, poles, and earth. Nothing is 
placed in the grave with the body. No marker is used, and no 
mound is heaped over the grave. The grave of a man killed by a 



14 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

white slave hunter was pointed out to us. Before leaving the 
neighborhood we excavated the grave, but found no bones. The 
body had been removed, and the earth and poles replaced. This 
may be the custom. Again, among some branches, the small 
children are carried up into the hills and buried among the rocks, 
while all others are thrown into the river. They were unable to 
give any explanation for these exceptions to the general rule. 

They have a tradition that a long time ago the body of a Mache- 
yenga was buried, and a guard kept watch to see if there was a 
soul, and if so what became of it. In the morning of the eighth 
day, they saw a red deer jump from the grave, and run into the 
forest. Since then they have believed that the souls of the Mache- 
yenga always enter the red deer {Cervus humilis). They do not 
know what becomes of the souls of other men, but they do not 
enter the red deer. They never eat the flesh of the deer, but have 
no objection to others doing so. They even kill it themselves, and 
give it to others to eat. It is in no way treated as a sacred animal. 
When the cooked flesh is offered to a Macheyenga, he makes 
signs as though the thought of eating it made him sick. 

From the tradition it would seem that they believe the soul 
becomes a red deer, and that man lives again in the form of a deer. 
They did not see the soul enter the deer, but saw the deer rise 
from the grave. On this point they are quite clear. The man dies, 
and it makes no difference whether his body is buried or is thrown 
into the river, his soul enters the deer, and that is the end of all. 
Neither the soul nor the body ever lives again. It does not become 
the deer, neither is it the soul of the deer, for the deer has a soul of 
its own. Asked what becomes of the soul, an Indian answers, "It 
goes into maniro, the red deer." Asked what then becomes of it, he 
answers, '' Nothing, that is the end of it when it enters the deer." 

They have no conception of the origin of " seletci," the soul, or 
any very definite idea of what it is. It is something besides '' isede," 
or life, that animals have in common with men, and that rocks and 
rivers do not have. It is never seen, and has nothing to do with 
life, sleep, disease, or death. It is an intangible something that 
leaves the body at death and enters the deer. 

Religion. The Macheyenga believe in " Idioci," the big man, 
in " engita," the sky. He made man, the sun, the moon, etc., in 
some way, they know not how or when. At present he has very 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 15 

little to do with the world, except to thunder at the beginning and 
the end of the seasons, and to send the rain. He takes no more 
care of men than of the animals. He does not reward the good or 
punish the evil, consequently he is neither adored nor propitiated. 
Their attitude toward him is much the same as his toward them, — 
one of indifference. They make no offerings or prayers, and have 
no ceremonies, feasts, sacred dances, ceremonial objects, charms, 
or fetishes. There is no communion between themselves and any 
spirit. 

These Indians have very few superstitions, traditions, or stories. 
They pay some attention to the interpretation of dreams. Good 
dreams indicate good luck; a bad one is an omen that some friend 
will die soon. If a woman dreams her husband is hunting, she 
will be struck by a poisonous snake when she goes to gather wild 
cotton. If one sneezes, it is evidence that someone has inquired 
about him. Hair cuttings are thrown into the river; if they were 
thrown on the ground the people would become sick. Nail parings 
are thrown away anywhere. 

They exchange many gifts when visiting. If, by accident, a man 
breaks something they give him, he drinks chicha until he is 
thoroughly drunk, as a sign of his humiliation. 

Salutations. When friends meet on the trail, they salute by 
words only, " Aiinowi," how are you, and ask from whence you 
came and your destination. When returning after a long absence, 
the same salutation is given. When a stranger visits a house all 
rise to receive him, and then all sit down together. When parting 
they say, "Nowaitaiita," good-bye. They always address each 
other in terms of relationship, as uncle and nephew, father-in-law 
and son-in-law. 

Cosmogony. In the beginning, the earth was very much as it 
is now. Idioci, the big man in the sky, made man, the sun, moon, 
stars, day, night, etc. No one knows why it is night, or where 
the sun goes at night. The earth is a round flat plane, and turns 
around contrary-clockwise. Round, hke the earth, is " kabogi- 
tate"; round, like an orange, is " kanaronkate " ; and round, 
like a log is " kanarongipoate." Thus, there is no question that 
the earth is flat. Eclipses and the phases of the moon are not 
understood. All these things are just as Idioci made them, and 
nobody knows why they are so. 



16 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

Long periods of time are counted by seasons, the wet and the 
dry, and by the return of the fruits and flowers. When a visit is 
planned or an engagement made, the time is fixed by the bloom- 
ing of a certain flower. Shorter periods are counted by moons. 
There are twelve moons in a year, and the period is called " mam- 
perokesire:" " mampero," twelve, and " kesiri," moon. The 
word for a seasonal year is " sethehagarene." The quarters of 
the moon are used for counting time also. The new moon is 
" tcisipekikeni " ; the half moon, " tcisimokeneki " ; the full 
moon, " tcihta "; and the dark of the moon, " pege." The posi- 
tion of the sun is used to determine the time of day, and in keep- 
ing appointments. The stars are not used for direction when 
traveling at night, because the traveler follows the rivers. 

Measures. In measuring cotton cloth they use the large span, 
thumb to little finger tip, called " serantapaca "; for half a span 
they guess at it or use the width of the four fingers. They also 
use the small span, thumb and index finger tip, called "patero- 
seragodie." In building a house they cut a pole the proper length 
to measure the posts and another for the distance apart, or use 
a string for a measure. They keep nothing as a standard measure. 
To measure a longer distance they pace it. The distance between 
two villages or places far apart, is indicated by pointing to the 
position of the sun for each place or the time required to go there, 
— a very satisfactory method. 

Marriage. The Macheyenga marry within the tribe, but out- 
side their own group. Monogamy is the rule, but any man may 
have as many wives as he can support. The head man usually 
has three or four wives who all live in the same house; but each 
wife has her own fireplace, cooking utensils, floor space, and 
sleeping mat. The husband eats alone, each wife furnishing her 
part of the food, and after he has concluded, each wife with her 
children retires to her own quarters. There is good feeling and 
perfect harmony, which reveals itself at every meal in the exchange 
of choice bits of food. 

Wives are always treated with great consideration and affec- 
tion. It is so seldom that either husband or wife is unfaithful, that 
there is no established regulation for such an offense, and no 
divorce. Wives may be exchanged, but always with their consent. 
A few weeks before our visit Pegima and Kobana exchanged wives. 



ARAWAK\N STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 17 

Kobana and his wife, who was very homely and eight months 
enceinte, Hved on the Maturiata River where they had a good 
house, and a large chaeara of growing corn, cassava, and plantains. 
Pegima, with his good-looking young wife, came from their home 
on the Javero River to visit Kobana, who was an intimate friend. 
A mutual admiration sprang up between Kobana and Pegima's 
wife, and an exchange of wives was arranged. Pegima took posses- 
sion of the Maturiata home while Kobana went with his new wife 
to her people. The friendship of the two families continued, and 
frequent visits were exchanged. In due course of time a son was 
born to the wife of Pegima, and he appeared as proud as any 
father. 

To the observer there seems to be very little in the way of a mar- 
riage ceremony. Marriage is not obligatory, yet public opinion is 
so strong in its favor that few remain single. A young man of 
eighteen selects the girl he wishes to marry and makes a proposal 
to her. If she accepts his offer, he goes away and makes a clearing 
in the forest, plants his field with corn, cassava, and plantains, 
and builds himself a house near his own people. After eight or 
ten months, when his field is ready to furnish food, the young man 
returns for his bride, but he must now ask for her in accordance 
with the ancient custom. He seeks the curaca, and tells him that 
he wishes to marry a certain girl. The curaca agrees to see the 
girl's father, and arrange matters if possible. The father asks the 
girl, and she rephes that she does not wish to marry the young 
man. The curaca then returns to the boy and tells him that the 
girl seems unfavorable, but at the same time urges him to try 
other methods. The boy is sad, and pleads with the curaca to 
know what can be done. The curaca tells him to gather wood, 
build a fire, and to throw some sticks of firewood in front of her 
father's house. " If she changes her mind and decides to accept 
you," he says, " she will take a stick of wood and throw it into 
your fire." The boy does as directed, and then sits down in 
front of his fire, sad but hopeful. Men are sitting about talking, 
but no one speaks to him. The girl sits talking with some old 
women, occasionally glancing over her shoulder at the boy. In a 
short time she suddenly jumps up, grasps a stick of wood, throws 
it into his fire, and runs away. The boy, attempting to catch the 
girl, follows her into the forest, where the marriage is consummated. 



18 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

The boy returns with his bride, holding her left wrist in his right 
hand. As soon as they appear, the whole throng begins making 
an awful noise with drums, singing and dancing. The men catch 
hands and dance in a circle with the boy. The women bring 
chicha to drink; the feasting, drinking, and dancing continue for 
three days, after which the new couple take up their abode in their 
own home. 

It is the custom also for the bride and groom to exchange pres- 
ents. Immediately after the return from the forest, the bride gives 
the groom a new cotton cushma which she has made by spinning 
and weaving wild cotton. The groom presents the bride with neck- 
laces and bracelets. No present or payment is given to the bride's 
father or mother. 

Widows soon remarry and indeed if they are left with children, 
it is necessary, in order to take care of the family. We observed 
an interesting case in point. Shameti, who had a wife and five 
children, went on a journey where he was obliged to cross some 
dangerous rivers. It was reported that he had been lost, but he 
returned in a week, to find his wife married to another man and 
two of his children given away. He took possession of his home 
and wife, but not of the two children. 

Childbirth. Women appear to suffer httle in parturition. On 
the morning of March 15, 1908, the wife of Pegima gave birth to 
her first child, a boy. Two families were living together in a long 
house on the Maturiata River near our camp. Early in the morn- 
ing the men went to the hills across the river, hunting. At about 
ten o'clock, the woman about to be confined went into the clearing 
a short distance from the house, threw some banana leaves on the 
ground, and there, alone, gave birth to the child. She called to 
the woman at the house, who brought warm water to wash the 
baby; but before doing so they scraped it all over with a piece 
of split bamboo. The umbihcal cord was tied twice on the side 
of the mother and once on the side of the child, then it was cut with 
the spHt bamboo knife. The cord was not touched with the hands, 
but held between pieces of bamboo. The placenta was buried near 
by. In about an hour after leaving the house the mother returned, 
wrapped the baby in a cloth, deposited it in a comfortable posi- 
tion on a mat on the earth floor, went into the river for a bath, 
then built a fire, and prepared the noonday meal as usual. 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 19 

As this was the woman for whom Pegima had traded a month 
before, we were anxious to know how he would appreciate the boy, 
and were pleased when he acted just as any father would who was 
taken by surprise; his face spread in a bland smile as he inspected 
the youngster, but he said nothing. They apparently had been 
awaiting this event before moving away. Three days afterwards, 
the mother carrying a heavy pack walked five or six miles over 
the mountain to their new home. The child, being too light a 
load for its mother, was carried by a httle girl of ten or twelve 
years. 

The Family. Families average four or five children, and some- 
times six or eight are found in one family. Some do not desire 
children, and do not have them. It is said they produce abortion 
in some way, but we were unable to learn the process. Children 
are nursed for two or three years on account of the lack of other 
suitable food for them. 

The labor of the household is well and equably divided. The 
men clear the field, not in common, but each in turn assists his 
neighbor. A visitor who happens along at such a time lends a hand 
at the clearing. The women with chonta palm digging sticks make 
up the hills, plant the crop, and tend it. When the corn is ripe, they 
pluck the ears, and store them. The men do the hunting and fishing, 
make their bows and arrows, dig out their canoes, and build their 
houses. The women take complete care of the small children; 
carry the vegetables from the field, and cook the food; collect the 
wild cotton, spin, weave, and make it into garments; and chew 
the cassava to make chicha. On the trail the women carry the 
heavy loads, and allow the men to hunt as they go. In the canoe, 
the man paddles, and the woman steers. They are good travehng 
companions. 

The Macheyenga appear to live to an old age; we saw several 
with some white hairs. There were more old men than old women, 
which would indicate that for some unknown reason the men live 
longer than the women. The aged are well cared for, and respected 
by their children. 

Physical Development. The Macheyenga are physically well 
developed, are of medium size, and have good health. Their con- 
stant food supply insures good nourishment and contentment. 
They are happy, good natured, and affectionate. They are about 



20 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



the usual stature of the Arawakan people of the Amazon, and have 
shorter arms and broader shoulders than their neighbors. Their 
faces are slightly longer and less prognathous as determined by the 
auricular-nasion-prosthyon index. 

Their eyes are always black and straight, but distinctly wider 
apart than their neighbors. Their noses are usually quite flat and 
straight, never aquiline. Their lips are thin and straight, and their 
chins round and short. Their hair is black, coarse, and straight, 
and is worn down over their ears and neck for protection against 
flies. The women sometimes wear the hair over the shoulders. 
The men wear a band with short feathers attached to keep the 
hair away from the face. All go bareheaded. The men pull out 





Figure 2 
Outlines of hand and foot of Macheyenga Indian 



what few hairs grow on the face. Their feet are broad and toes 
short, with the great toe set off a httle from the second. The toes 
are used for grasping objects, especially for holding the arrowshaft 
while attaching the foreshaft and feathers (figure 2). 

Deformation. Deformities of any sort are very rare. The only 
one observed was a boy near Azupizu, who had no toes on one 
foot, lacked two fingers on the right hand, and three on the left. 
Artificial deformation is practiced on all children. The heads of 
both sexes are deforaied in youth by binding a board behind the 
head and a roll of cotton over the forehead, thus making a groove 
into which the tump-line fits. It is not meant to be a matter of 
beauty, but one of utihty. The deformation, while not very great, 
could be felt distinctly, and served its purpose well. 

The men are good canoemen, and can pole along all day without 
resting. On a long journey both men and women carry fifty to 
seventy pounds, fifteen miles a day. They carry with the aid of 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 21 

a tump-line, which they pull down on with both hands between 
the head and the shoulders. All are good swimmers, and keep 
their bodies in good condition by bathing twice a day. For statis- 
tical measurements and comparisons see tables elsewhere. 

Language. The following linguistic material is submitted to 
students who are to follow the study of the Macheyenga language, 
in the hope that it may prove of service for comparative purposes. 
My authority, Simasiri, and I were handicapped in our work by 
being compelled to use, as an intermediary, a language foreign to 
both of us. It was impossible to get valuable text because there 
is no set rituahstic or ceremonial forms, or extended songs with 
words. Making up stories for the occasion was not very success- 
ful. This lack of text for comparison makes it dangerous to per- 
fect the conjugations and to build up a grammar; therefore, the 
conjugations are given just as written at the time. Any attempt 
to make the endings conform to a type would lead to future con- 
fusion. The material is of more value in this imperfect form. The 
following observations may prove suggestive. 

True incorporation does not occur in the Macheyenga language. 
The nominal subject is placed before the verb and the object after 
it. The verbal stem, however, may be prefixed by the subjective 
pronoun, and postfixed by other elements and the objective pro- 
noun, as for example: n-amana-tapla-nipi, I pray for you. There 
is thus an agglutination between the personal pronoun and the 
verb, and the same takes place between the possessives and their 
nouns. These elements do not stand alone and may require the 
presence of another pronoun to strengthen them, as: naro n-am- 
bata-ke-ri, I cured him. It is often necessary to designate the 
gender by an affix of the sign to the verbal stem, as: pi-m-pe-ri- 
sabari, he gives you the machete. 

The possessive prefixes are: n-nu, my; p-pi, your; i, his; and 
o, hers. The first two, n and p, are common in all Arawakan lan- 
guages. In some cases the Macheyenga suffix the possessives. The 
plural possessives are formed by means of a special affix. The 
pronominal prefixes are: n-nu, I; p-pi, you; i-is, he; o, she; a, 
we; pi, you; i, they, m.;^ and o, they, j? Many of these are the 
same as the possessives. Before vowels, n is used, and before con- 
sonants, nu. I and o are more than pronouns, they indicate gender 
> Masculine. - Feminine. 



22 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

as well. The i appears to be derived from iri, male. Ri, ro, or ru, 
used as prefixes or suffixes, indicate the gender of the person speak- 
ing. Ni is a pluralizing nominal suffix, as: primare, some person; 
primareni, some persons. 

Interrogatives either begin or end with ta, as: Tatakanika, 
what did he say? Tsaniyonta, what man is this? Itapipatcita, 
what is your name? The i here indicates the mascuHne gender. 

The particles tsa and be, found with many interrogative ex- 
pressions, are used for emphasis only; tsa with the mascuUne, 
and be with the feminine gender. 

Ka and tci are of very common occurrence and of varied mean- 
ings. Tci seems to be used as a suffix to general statements, while 
ka, ke, or ki, is used as a verbal suffix with the past participal: 
ninta, to love; ni-ka-ninta, I am loved; ka-nioto-yeri, to have 
known. Ka is used also in the sense of having or being, as: ni-ka- 
tavi, I am sick; ni-ka-pitonea, I have a son. Ki is used also with 
the ablative of instrument, i-waka-ri-intcata-ki, he struck it with 
a club. 

Ma is a negative prefix, as: ma-pihmaro, a widow or without a 
husband; ma-yampi, deaf; ni-ma-rotci, I do not drink. Kari is 
sometimes used as an affix for negation. Mba, or mpa, is a suffix 
denoting future time: katanawakina-mba-ka, he will come soon. 

The Macheyenga language is smooth and musical, lacking en- 
tirely the strong gutterals of the Andes languages. Men and 
women speak the same language, differing only in the endings due 
to difference in gender. 

Key to Phonetic System 



a as 


in father 


a 


' hat 


e 


' fete 


6 


' met 


i 


' pique 


I 


' pin 


o 


' note 


6 


' not 


u 


' rwle 


il 


' hut 



ai as In 


aisle 


au " 


how 


oi " 


oil 


c " 


ship 


tc " 


chain 


hw " 


when 


kw " 


quake 


n " 


canon 


a'a, i'i, 


as broken vowels 


a i, au 


, oi, as individual sounds 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



23 



Grammar. Conjugation of the following sixteen verbs: be, 
speak, give, know, live, die, see, hear, eat, sing, go, bring, make, 
paint, fall, and have. 



Singular 

1 naro 

2 viro 

3 yoga 



1 noati 

2 piatheti 

3 iataki 



TO BE, MIRITCI 

Plural Singular Plural 

PRESENT IMPEHFECT TENSE 

haroegi 1 iriati aiigaki 

virotoegi 



PAST 



ithiro 

aitaiigakeri 

piaiiganai 

aiiganai 



FUTURE 

1 kanotakana kanoigakerira 

2 virokanolitha kanotaiigairi 

3 inkanoti inkanoigaki 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

kanotaki 



2 ati 

3 iriatakera 



iriaigen 
iriataigakera 



CONDITIONAL 

1 kanonarida kanoigakithitha 

2 kanoigaira ikanoigathitha 

3 ithithorakari ithiroegi 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 

1 nokanota kanotaigakeri 

2 pikanotari kanotaiganaiitha 

3 inkanotaki inkanotaiigakeri 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

kanoti 



TO SPEAK, INIFITHA 





Singular Plural 




Singular Plural 




PRESENT 




CONDITIONAL 


1 

2 

3 


noniaki niagaki 
piniaki tsaminiaki 
piropinini iniaki 


1 
2 
3 


narononiera niihaiigaki 
pinianoniera pinihaiigakeni 
ithithoiriniaki iribihaiiganakenira 




IMPERFECT 




PRESENT PERFECT 


1 
2 
3 


ibiabaiyeti niabaiyai 
piniabaiyetaii piniabaiyetaii 
iniabaiyeti inihaiigi 


1 

2 
3 


noniaki iniaiitaki 
piniaki aigomepiniaki 
iniaki iniaganaki 




PAST 




PLUPERFECT 


1 
2 
3 


nonitai niiagira 
pinihaki piniaigira 
iniaki iniantaro 


1 
2 
3 


ikanotakainiakera irotioiniatakera 
ariopiniakeratio irotiopiniakera 
irotioiniakera irotioiniaiigakera 



FUTURE 

1 noniakita niniagakera 

2 piniira niiaigeri 

3 ithiniakera iginiaganara 



PAST PERFECT 

1 aliomepiniaki aliomagotaiigaken 

2 aliomepiniaganakeri aliomapingantaki 

3 botaganteroti aliomairiotaiigaki 



24 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Singular Plural 

FUTURE PERFECT 

1 irinianakemi niiaiiganakemera 1 

2 pinianakemi niiaiigaki 2 

3 inianakeratio iniiaiiganakyeng 3 

CONDITIONAL PERFECT 

1 iniainakerakati niiaiiganakerikatha 

2 pinianakerikara pinaiiganakerithikatha 

3 iniakerika iniantanaki 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

noagantci 



Singular Plural 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 

nonihi nihayaietaiigi 

pinihi nihayaietaiigi 

piniakini inihira 

IMPERATIVE 

nihye 



PAST PARTICIPLE 

niake 



Singular Plural 

PRESENT 

1 nomperi paiyeri 

2 pipakeri pimpaigakeri 

3 ipaki ipiri 

3/ iripakimpe opaiyithi 



TO GIVE, EPAKA 

Singular 



IMPERFECT 



PAST 



1 aipa 

2 pipakeri 

3 ipakeri 

1 kanti 

2 pikantaki 

3 pinevitakeri 
3/ pimpi 

FUTURE 

1 nompatceri 

2 perinitcio 

3 impatcerithirakathi 
3/ ompaithiroro 



paiigithithi 

paiigithi 

pavaigithi 

paiyiti 
ipagani 
ipimanteri 
pairopiinonti 

paigaithitha 
pasanoniyeri 
aipaiethi 
onipatcimpira 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

ipwankani 



Plural 

CONDITIONAL 

1 ipithithika paiigaiithi 

2 pipakrthirika pikavinsaiithi 

3 ipaiithi tepinsani 

PRESENT PERFECT 

1 ipakeri napaiigakeri 

2 pipakeri pipakethikia 

3 ipaki ipingkani 

PLUPERFECT 

1 timaki ipakena 

2 tipaiigaiithi ipaiigyi 

3 ipana ipingkana 

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 

1 pe paiigakeri 

2 pedi pediegi 

3 paka pedi 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

ipagani 



TO KNOW, IGOTI 



Singular 



Plural 





PRESENT 


1 nogoti 


wotaiigi 


2 pigoti 


igoigi 


3 igoti 


igoting 



1 

2 
3 



Singular 

igoyeti 
pigotai 
igotaii 



Plural 



IMPERFECT 



gobegaka 

goigithi 

igotabaki 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 
Hingular Plural 



25 



Singular 



Plural 



PAST 

1 nogotaii tcemakoigakeri 

2 pigotabaki pitcemakoigakeri 

3 itceinakotaki itcemakoigakeri 

FUTURE 

1 nogotakera nogotaiigeri 

2 pigoterakari pigotaiigeri 

3 irigoteri irigotaiigi 

CONDITIONAL 

1 igoteriki goigaiilika 

2 pigoteroki pigotaiigaii 

3 igotakilika igotaiiging 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

gotaki 



PRESENT PERFECT 

1 nogataki nogotaiigaki 

2 pigotaki pigoigaki 

3 igotaki igoigaki 



PLUPERFECT 



1 ikelmagotaki 

2 pikelmakeratio 

3 ikelraakotaki 



kelmakoigaki 

kelmakoigaivaii 

ikelmakoigaki 



PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 

1 piotaki gotaiigaki 

2 piateriki pigoigi 

3 igotaki gotaki 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

goti 



TO LIVE, ITIMIRA 



Singular 



Plural 



PRESENT 

1 notimira alyotimaiiyera 

2 pitimira pitimaiyera 

3 athio otimi otimaiyera 



PAST 

1 notimira 

2 pitimi 

3 alyothimatci 

3/ 



itimaiiti 
pitimavetara 
itimatcera 
otimabetara 



Singular 



Plural 



FUTURE 

1 alyinontimatci timaigatcera 

2 pintimatcera itimaiyera 

3 intimatcera intimaiyera 
3/ ontimatcera ontimaitayera 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

itimaitake 



Singular 



TO DIE, KAMAKI 



Plural 



PRESENT 

1 nokamaki kamaiigaki 

2 pintamaki pintamaiigakera 

3 ikamaki ikamaiigi 



PAST 



1 nokamanaki 

2 pikamakiti 

3 kamaki 



kamaiigakera 

pitamaiigaki 

pogeriaka 



Singular 



Plural 



FUTURE 

1 nokamaki kamaiiganakera 

2 pintamakerakari pintamaiigakera 

3 inkamanaki inkamirakari 



PAST PARTICIPLE 

ataki 



26 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



TO SEE, INIAKA 



Singular 

1 noniakeri 

2 viroripenaiithe 

3 ithithoenaiithe 
3/ yoniagantaka 

1 noniakethi 

2 viroripinakeri 

3 itheiroriineaki 
3/ oniavitakari 



Plural 



PRESENT 

inaenganithitha 
piniaigakethitha 
iniaigakethitha 
oniakiti 

PAST 

inaenkani 
viroeipinaigakeri 
ithiroriiniaigavakeri 
irororioniaigavakeri 



Singular 

1 nomiakeroa 

2 nehero 

3 iniakeroa 



Plural 

FUTURE 

niaigakerora 

pampagaigero 

tsigakataembapegiakero 



3/ iniavakerorokari tsigakataoniaigakero 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

na'akero 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

ogotaka 



Singular 



TO HEAR, PINTCEMISANTE 

Plural Singular 



PRESENT 

1 nontcemisantaki tcemisantaiigi 



2 pintcemisantaki 

3 pintcemaki 



pitcemidi 
itcemisangakaii 



PAST 



Plural 



1 notcemisangakeri tcemisantaiigera 

2 pitcemakeri pitcemaiigakeri 

3 itcemisangakeri itcemaiigakeri 



FUTURE 

1 narotcemisangaiikitcini tcemisantaiigakerira 

2 pintcemarakari tcemisantaiigeri 

3 intcimakerakari intcemisantaiigerakari 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

itcemisanteinkani 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

itcemegantaka 



Singular 

1 yemba 

2 isitakaiita 

3 isitakataka 
3/ yowakasa 
3tt*gaiyogaso 



TO EAT, SIKATEMBA 

Plural Singular 



PRESENT 

isikataigatha 

yogakero 

isikataiyemba 

osikataiyemba 

isikataigaka 



PAST 



1 nosikatemba 

2 pisikataka 

3 isigataka 

3/ nakitisakatangtci 
3n yogakathi 



1 nosigataiemba 

2 pisigatakembara 

3 isikatakembara 
3/ isikatapaiemba 
3n isikatakarakari 



Plural 



FUTURE 



sikataiigakembara 
pogaiigakembari 
irogaiembari 
ogaigakembari 



isikataiitatha 
virolipisakatahigakaniroro 
ithilohegaisikataiigakaniro 
osigataiigapaka 

* Neuter 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

osikatakaingara 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

yogarantaka 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



27 



Singular 



Plural 



TO SING, MATIKI 

Singular 



PRESENT 

1 nomatigaki matekaiigakakeri 

2 pimatiki pimatikaiigera 

3 inarenti imatikaiigi 



Plural 

FUTURE 

marentaiigakera 



1 nomatikai 

2 piinatikaiera pirantaiigi 

3 embirantageageti imarentarigera 





PAST 






PRESENT PARTICIPLE 


1 nomatiki 


imatikaiithira 






marilagqntci 


2 pimatiki 

3 imatikerora 


pimatikaiigakera 
ipirantaiigi 






PAST PARTICIPLE 

omarintinkani 






TO GO, 


ATAKE 




Singular 


Plvral 






Singula} 


Plural 


PRESENT 








FUTURE 


1 ninati 


tsami 




1 


ninati 


aiigakera 


2 piataki 

3 iriataki 


piagaki 
iriayu 




2 
3/ 


pietaki p'aigaki 
' aliooaigaki ariooaigaki 


3/ kiawata 


owaigaki 

PAST 








PRESENT PARTICIPLE 


1 atai 


aiigerti 








ataiunaike 


2 piateti 

3 iateti 


aiigaibi 
aiigai 








PAST PARTICIPIJE 


3/ oateti 


oaiigai 








niuateti 



Singular 



Plural 



TO BRING, IRAMAKERA 

Singvlar 



PRESENT 

1 mamakero maiiganakero 

2 pamakero maiiganirori 

3 yamakero amakenkani 

PAST 

1 naromakero aminkanerira 

2 pamakeri paniaiigakerira 

3 yamakeri yamaiigakeri 



Plural 



FUTURE 

1 namakeri maiiganakerira 

2 pamanakirorakari nompaiigakemperi 

3 iramakerakari iramaiigakero 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

amanaka 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

matcero 



28 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Singular 



TO MAKE, PANTAKI 

Plural Singular 



PRESENT 

1 tatapantaki kaiyakera 

2 pantakera betcikaiice 

3 betcike yantaiyaceri 
3/ antake antaiyatceri 



PAST 



1 yanti 

2 yotiyantia 

3 yobetsigatere 
3/' 



obetsikanganiera 
pobetsikaigakera 
yobetsikaigatcaritha 
antaigatcaritha 



Plural 



FUTURE 

1 nobetsike aatsaraitayero 

2 tiro pantakeri 

3 virobetsikangitcini kanteriiyantake 
3/ virotakeroni antaigakero 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

taiiyi 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

betsikangitcaritha 



SiTigvlar 



TO PAINT, PITSOTEMBA 

Plural Singular 



Plural 



PRESENT 



FUTURE 



1 nopotsotaka 

2 pipotsotaka 

3 ipotsotaka 
3/ opotsotaka 



potsoyemba 
sangenari 
tciringemba 
alyoikanta 



PAST 



1 tiweyithi harohayipotsoegha 

2 vitcapotsotatangitca konogarli 

3 tiarikaipotsotatcita ikanoyero 

3/ tiaagatcero kirasamatatci 



1 yoyetsapa, otsapa nosangyenatembi 

2 viropimpotsotatcemba sangyenataka 

3 paiiroipotsota potsoyemba 
3/ kopotsotembabiro opotsoigaka 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

sangyinataka 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

kantatgaka 



To paint a cushma, nopotsokatcarnoyitsagari 



Singular 



TO FALL, CIRIANAKA 

Plural Singular 



Plural 



PRESENT 

1 nacirianaka siriaiiganaki 

2 paciriaki ponkaraki 

3 yacirianaki iraciriaiigi 



PAST 



1 naronacirianaka 

2 paronacirianaka 

3 yaciriaiigaka 



ciriakoiganakero 

congokoiganakero 

iricongakoianaki 



FUTURE 



1 naronocongoinakeri ciriaigaka 

2 picongoiganakerakari paciriaiganakeri 

3 iricongakonakeri iraciriaiganakeri 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

cirianaki 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

ciriaka 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



29 



TO HAVE, TIMAKI 



Singular Plural 

PRESENT 

1 aiitioniaci timakitaricigi 

2 aiitiopaci pacintaiiga 



3 aiitioiraci 



PAST 



1 nacintaveta 

2 pacintaveta 

3 otimavetaka 



yacintang 



tcintahigarira 

pinaiigavitahati 

pinaiigavitahatita 



Singular 



Plural 



FUTURE 

1 oteniakera timaiigaiiro 

2 pintemarakari pacintaiigaembari 

3 intimai iracintaiigaembari 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

cintatcariga 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

yacintavetakari 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 



Something 


iroro 


Every, /. 


magatirotcia 


Some, m. 


ithirotio 


All, m. 


maganirotcia 


Some, /. 


irorotio 


All,/. 


magainiro 


Some, m. pi. 


ithiroeyi 


Both 


piteonatcia 


Some, /. pi. 


iroroeitio 


Each 


panero 


Nobody 


ataii 


Each one 


paiiiinatci 


Nothing 


mameri 


Other 


pacini 


Much 


paitimi 


Another 


irapiteni 


Little 


traintimi 


Such 


iroro, tiara 


Every, m. 


maganiro 


Thing 


oga 



USE OF ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 



Did you find something? 

Some day 

Are there any grapes? Yes, there are some 

I do not see anything 

No house 

I have no time 

Many years 

I have little corn 

All the men 

The same day 

Both hands 

Each time 

The other day 

Such a boy 

Anything 

Something else 

The same thing 



pametaka? 

ontowaiiganaki 

aiitio sinquabotcaditcite? hahha, aiitio 

teranone 

tatakunanonaki 

nantowaiitaki 

towaiiti sithiagathini 

tesanoontiminosintcine 

maganiro siredi 

iroro queitayiteri 

pitatiroirako 

ikantani 

oketorira 

tia ikantaka isanampira 

pantemaka 

iropacini 

kanovitha 



30 



A large house 
A good man 
Another man 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

USE OF ADJECTIVES 

patiropankotci omarani Bad coffee terakamati 

panirosiradipaiiroikametiti Good coffee kamatmi 

imaranisiradi 



This, m. 
This,/. 
That, m. 
That, /. 



DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES 



ithitho 
iroro 
yora 
oka 



That (remote) m. 
That (remote) /. 
These, m. 
These, /. 



yonta 
onta 
ithiroyi 
ithiroka 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 



My 


naci 


My house 


nacinopankotci 


Your 


iraci 


His house 


pacipipankotci 


His 


pacipi 


Our houses 


siyegipankotci 


Om- 


siyegi 


Our wine 


siyegitomiyegi 


Your 


siyegi 


Our dogs 


siyegiotciti 


Their 


siyegi 


Our hands 
COMPARISON 


siyegikoegi 


Good 




kametini 




Better 




kametitaki 




Best 




ithirokametini 




Bad 




terakaraeti 




Worse 




terakameti 




Worst 




terakameti 




Rich 




payesintaranti 




Richer 




payesintaranti 




Richest 




payesintaranti 




Sweet 




potcati 




Sweeter 




piropotcati 




Sweetest 




piropotcati 




Sour 




okatcuti 




Sourer 




pirokatcuti 




Much 




towaini 




More 




pacini 




Most 




pacini 




Little 




maniti 




Less 




otcariati 




Least 




otcariati 




As many as 




paitimi kanutaka 




That tree is 


taller than this one 


omarapayi itcasimpo 





ARAWAK\X STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



31 



That house is higher than this one 

The most beautiful flower 

The tallest and oldest tree 

Manuel is taller than Domingo 

Manuel is older than Domingo 

He is taller than you 

A horse is stronger than five men 

As white as snow 

As much gold as silver 

As many turkeys as dogs 

I have three beautiful dogs 

The good and the evil 



ontaplinkotci purotioka 

otegapari okametiti 

intcato oga tcantcani 

Manuel pairo omarani Domingo 

Manuel pairo ikametiti Domingo 

ithiro tetcimotani paiironlviro 

iriropaiiro icicintciti paniro pintangciki ihiale 

oquitate tankanutaka cadaka 

paitimi koli kanutaka koliki 

paitimi kanati kanutaka otciti 

naro ainonotsititi maguani notcititi 

kamatini iriro terakameti 



USE OF ARTICLE 



A man 

A woman 

A house 

A tree 

A dog 

A turkey 

The man 

The woman 

The tree 

The orange is round 

The plate Is round 

The world is roimd 

The pole is round 

The man is tall 

The man is sick 

The tree is tall 

The small tree is green 

The house is high 

The house is old 

Round, like a globe or ball 

Round, like a plate 

Round, like a cvlinder 



paniro siredi 

patiro cinani 

patiro pankotci 

patiro entcato 

paniro otciti 

paniro panaii 

ithiro siredi 

onti cinani 

ithiro entcato 

larangha iroro kanaronkati 

mitaro iroro kabogitati 

kipatci iroro kabogitati 

entcapoa iroro kanarongipoati 

iroro siredi iniarana 

iroro siredi imansigataki 

oga intcato oga tsantsani 

oga intcato cavikani 

iroro pankotci karaki 

oga pankotci pankotci karaki 

kanaronketi 

kabogitati 

kanerongipoati 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



1 


naro 


You 


viro 


He 


ithitho 


She 


iroro 


We, m. 


harinelyi 



We,/. 


viroyi 


You 


viroyi 


They, m. 


ithiroiyi 


They,/. 


iroroyi 



32 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



USE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



They love us 

They do not love us 

She is afraid of me 

She is not afraid of me 

He gave you a turkey 

He loves me 

He loved me 

I love her and fear her also 

I saw you this morning 

I saw your sister also 

Is he homely? 

Yes, he is 

I wish to speak with him 

He gives it to me 

He is willing to work with you and with 

me but not with him 
Give it to me 
Give them to us 
He gives them to you 
He gives it to you 
He gives them to us 



onintana 

teraonintana 

irovotionimpana 

iroroteraimpana 

tiabapagatcievi 

nintana 

nintero 

nathononintero pintimatcira 

noniyatciimpiinkara 

ithiraiyenonakeri 

ithirotereirikametiti? 

ithirotathi 

noniakethitha 

ipahanaro 

ininti ivitsamai itakero tcini intentaka 

viro intentaka 

painaro 

yimoretci 

tsJingite 

kantero yimotetci 

tsahangatetci 



Who 
AVhich 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS 



nebinte 
tcini 



All that 
What 



akaikanta 
lata 



USE OP INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



What is that? 
Who is calling? 
Whose is that beauti- 
ful house? 



tatawitaoga? 
tcinikaiimagitci? 
tcini sintaro ipanko tci 
paiiro kametiti? 



How many are there? akaokanta? 
What man is this? tsaniyonta? 
What did he say? tatakanika? 



ADVERBS 



Here 

There 
Much 



aka 

anta 

paitimi 



Easily 

There (distant) 



tera ongomitempa 
sitikani 



USE OF ADVERBS 



I am very comfortable here 

Sit here 

Sit there 

Two steps from here 



namitaka aka 
pirinite aka 
pirinite anta 
tenara oka 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



33 



We shall all go there 

He works much (a great deal) 

I am very tired 

He is much esteemed 

It is now (already) late 

I understand now 



tsarae maganiro aiigaki 
paiiro itsaniaiti 
paiiro nociropitaki 
paiiro ikyiaki 
ataka icunganaka 
notcemaki 



USE OF CONJUNCTIONS 



and 
or 

but 
Father and mother are sick 
Father and son are well 
You and I are white 
Five or six are good 

He says so but I do not believe it 

I am not going to Lima but to Cuzco 

Where are you going? 

Where does he come from? 

I shall tell him when he comes 

I have no friend but you 

One day when I was in Cuzco 

The man is sick 

Are you sick? 

He always tells the truth 



= 1 



impa 
non 

apa imantsigataka ina omancigatatci 

apa i tomi yoga ipothitabaiyeta 

vironaro thera tsamampa 

piniropintangitci impa patirogangetce 
paiiro ikomeiteti 

ikanti tera non gematsateri 

garanoatai non timatciriaka 

tiarapia taiviro? 

tiaiponiaka? 

pinkanteri akalika ithipokaka 

thirainiimi nonthentemparitha 

patiro notimatciti koskoki 

siradi imantcigatatce 

ariro pimmantcigatatce? 

tcanantana pintsavatatcara 



USE OF PREPOSITIONS 



This fish is for you 

I am leaving for Bongo 

He caught me by the hand 

A spoon for the soup 

A cushma of cotton 

I cut my finger 



yokesima ithitho paci 

yokapantli onogakeri 

nagakeri nakoki 

patiro biciria iroro acikotari 

patiro kitsagarintcintci ampe 

nogarakanako 



Ah 



ah 



INTERJECTIONS 
Oh 



ehe 



How are you? 

Very well, thank you; 

and how are you? 
Good day 



SALUTATIONS 



aunowir 
aiinona 
viroriaiinowi? 
ketayitetanai 



Good night sayitetanai 

Good bye nowaitaiita 

What is your name? tata pipeita? 



34 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



MISCELLANEOUS SENTENCES 



A good man is happy 

An old man is feeble 

A good house is dry 

An old house is wet 

A good bow is strong 

A good arrow is straight 

A good wife is faithful 

Good and bad 

Neither good nor bad 

A good husband loves his wife 

I am cold 

I am thirsty 

It is true 

It is not true 

He is in my uncle's house 

He bought the bow from my cousin 

He found the child 

He has black hair 

It is hot 

It is windy 

It is early 

Is it late? 

I wish to speak with you 

I am tired of walking 

There is nothing 

Where is it? 

Very tired 



yoga siredi kamatini idiataki 

siredi ibisalitaga tenigaicingeste 

kametini pankotci tera ungatsoyi 

ogali pankotci katsoga sitake 

okapi anuntci otangsigati 

patero tcakopi okatingati 

pihima kametini teilhitsa kotemba 

kametiniempa terakameti 

unkametitemati kametini 

yoga oimi ikenkiro ihina 

nokatcingataki 

nomirataki 

alitsanotio 

pikankani 

aiino pankotcita pikonkidi 

nonebitaki iyunti ibiani 

aitio itomi 

ocibokaki igici potcetari 

katciringakiteri 

atampiati 

tcitikamini 

atanai ianta? 

noninti noniania takempira 

paiero nocigopitaki na naiitakera 

menedi yitataki 

aterekara? 

nocigopitaka 



HUNTING STORY 

Noaiigera nomagabi yetitera. Nowataki noniaka komaikenaro. 

We went to hunt slept. Being encountered monkeys. 

Nopatimakinakeri ariono kentivakeri peniro alionpa. Noaiganaka 

/ had persevered here and fished one we secured. To commence 

aiikeri ario noniaki pacini ocito nokentaki nogontiataki 
farther off there ive found other mo7ikeys and fish thousands of 

otemakeraneri, nobetcikaki nobanko. Okitaiitetanaki naiiro 
where is water, there we made a shelter. Another day {in the morning) and 

aiikiro nani nomata ariononianaki maiini nogaivitakeri, 
another time to go beginning we have found a hear and killed it, 

nokianakeri noungetaka oti makeraniateni ario nomaigaiigaki 

carried it and left it where we have to sleep where we had slept 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 35 

nanaivaigeviti noniagaiigaki cintori mava. Nokientaki. Nopokai 
yesterday we have found pigs three. I fished. We returned 

ipokaiigapi notentaritha igaiithinokiaki cintori icingotenkani 
companions me and my we have brought pigs we have roasted 

cintori. Okitaiitikanai osairiri nopigaiiga nokatataiki cinkoti 
pigs. Tomorrow good day we return a third day roast pigs 

nokiaki nokantimaika aiigi, nopakaii nokiaki cintori itoniati. 
loaded let us now return, return loaded pigs very heavy. 

Arionamaganii nomaganakera nakera atangatci. Ariookaniutaka 

There to sleep again where we slept first night voyage first day. Beautiful day 

teraonpaliyaenkani. Noponia nopitinitanai oticka noyiaigakeri 

there was no rain. I went out my companions in great hope 

ipokopaii napicigopithiaiigaka. Nokavititanaha nogongetaka 
they arrived refreshed. We must go again short distance to 

oniogantatha pankotci arioonopethinitanaki. Nokiani kigonkero 

where was seen the house there rested. Theti we have this 

nogaiithopankotciti arionoatheti. Oyaciati kontiriciati paitimaka 

the shelter there had been. Where plenty game plenty 

pankeri paiiroitimi icingitaciegi paneronomanavitheti. Paiiro 

turkeys plenty bears and some fish It 

osamanitinoatheti kametigitivayitaki. 
is not far away beautiful place to live. 

TRANSLATION 

We went hunting and slept in the woods. We found some small 
monkeys. I went on here and caught one fish. We went on again 
a long distance where we found some large red monkeys, and 
thousands of fish in the river. Here we built a shelter. In the 
morning we started again and found a bear and killed it, and car- 
ried it back to the place where we slept the night before. We then 
encountered a drove of wild pigs and killed three. I caught some 
fish. We returned, 1 and my companions, brought the pigs and 
roasted them. In the morning, it being a good day, we started 
home with one-third of the roasted pigs. Our loads were very 
heavy. We spent the night where we slept the first day out. It 
was a beautiful day with no rain. My companions and I started 
out in good spirits and arrived with little fatigue. We had gone 
only a short distance when we rested at the house we had seen 



36 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

before. Then we came to the shelter we had built. There was 
good hunting, plenty of turkeys, plenty of bears, and some fish. 
It is not far away and a beautiful place to live. 

FISHING STORY 

Ogaripacini noatiri Paiirotoliti, nocimatira notentaikya 
Once I lived in place Parontore, I caught fish with my brother 

nokientaki nobbiogakeri yoyagakeri egyalseokeky ciateka 
and fish plenty a pile carried on balsa ivell filled 

nopokaiigai pankotciki yongotengkani nosikataiigapaha. 
we ourselves well house (shelter) after to cook to eat. 

Irorookoitaiikanaiike noatheti itimira apa noniatero ina 
In the morning I icas where my father my mother 

nopaiiterora cima. Nopigaha nomangapa ithi acaningka 

plenty caught fish. Next day we found arrived Macheyenga 

yagatsonkiaiigakera, ikantana "Tsamakiringakera." 

those who never came, and to me said "Let us go below down river." 

Ikogakotagantana ikantiakapikanta. Nokantitera nontovaiigye. 
And me asked how many friends how many families. To him said I have no family. 

Yogasipapa terainaheri apa nantiathatatcikeringaki pitipaiyeno 
/ have father do not knoiv where father I remained there four 

ciriagakotheta gakotheta. Nokantiri nomatsinga tsami 
years below. He said companions I am going 

niaiigatethiraxapa ikantani impatciaiinopidi 

already my country and my father going to be he no has family here, because he is 

tiarapikantaka terapinkamantena nopoki. Cinmacitiki 

going, and because no more advised has your father accompany. We have come 

nagatsongiataii nokogavitapa riapamaneri. Arionotimapaii 
in August there where my father not was there. This house where arrived 

noetheti itemera ani noniapaieri nokanteri. 

I was to me where brother-in-law I found lived there in his house. 

Tirapigotai ina ani niananito ''Ikantana 

Not me knew frightened mother brother-in-laxv spoke to me, "Where have you come 

arioviria ani tatapipokacti." Nokantipokahano. 

you are my brother-in-law here something has brought." M e said," I havereturned." 

Nokogokataganteri apa ani? Yogatitio apa, " taiu-aitimaii 
And asked, "Where is father?" He said above Parontore, and I said, "Where 

kanti?" " Arioitimaiogaciaki Parototi." " Yogapikongkidi, 

is my uncle?" "My uncle and he is in Parontore." "And my aunt. 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 37 

tiaroitsetaki? " Ikantana, "Arioitsataki Cimaki." 

where is my aunt? " And to me he said, "She is in Cimaki." 

Narononcrokilinga nokonoitariacaingo. Aliokantakikeringaki 

/ had been below (down river) and know my country ruin. Thus I know below 

noatikeringa naronaiirokaniatike. 
thus well know below I am able to inform you. 

TRANSLATION 

One time where I lived in Parontore I went fishing with my 
brother. We caught a great many, and put them on a balsa in a 
gi-eat heap. We built a shelter for ourselves and then cooked some 
fish to eat. The next morning I went to where my father and 
mother used to catch many fish. The next day some unfriendly 
Macheyenga arrived and said to me, "Let us go down the river." 
They asked me how many friends I had there, and how many in 
family, I told them, I had no family there, that I had a father, 
but did not know where he was. I remained below for four years. 
My companions said to me that they were now going to the country 
where my father was living alone temporarily. Therefore they 
advised me to accompany them to my father. In August we came 
to the place where my father had been but he was not there. We 
went to a house and I found that my brother-in-law lived there. 
He did not know me. He was frightened and said to me, "Why 
have you come? You are my brother-in-law, something has 
brought you here." I said, "I have returned. Where is my 
father?" He said, "Above Parontore." I said, "Where is my 
uncle?" "He is in Parontore." "And my aunt, where is she?" 
And he said to me, "She is in Cimaki." 

I have been down the river, and I know how my country has 
been ruined. In this way I know the lower country, and know it 
well and am able to guide you. 

EXPLANATION OF THE FISHING STORY 

Simasiri, the author of the above, was brought up as a boy on 
the upper branches of the Urubamba River where there were 
thirty or forty scattered families living in freedom. Lower down 
the Urubamba, the rubber gatherers needed laborers and hired 
neighboring Macheyenga to go with them to the upper country 



38 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



to capture Indians for slaves. Everyone of Simasiri's family- 
was either killed or captured and sold down river. Simasiri was 
first taken down river about one hundred miles, and kept there 
three or four years. His owner then took him to Cuzco, and after 
five years, when he had learned Spanish, took him back to his old 
country to act as an interpreter among his own people. The fish- 
ing trip, he here gives an account of, was undertaken to learn what 
he could of the fate of his relatives. His father and mother were 
dead, his uncle and aunt were separated, his sister lost sight of 
entirely, and his cousins scattered in many directions or killed. 
One was cut open by a white man and his kidney-fat used to make 
candles. Small wonder that Simasiri soon deserted the Whites, 
and took up his abode among the wild Indians of the forest. 



Vocabulary. 










THE 


FAMILY 




Family 


towaidi 


Son 


pitomi 


Man 


siradi 


Daughter 


pisinto 


Woman 


cinani 


Child, m. 


ikaberanantci 


Husband 


pihina 


Child./. 


ikantaroti 


Wife 


nuefia 


Boy 


tcilipiki 


Grandfather 


pikonkiri 


Girl 


itumieni 


Grandmother 


payiro 


Infant 


sieni 


Father 


apa 


Grandson 


tcaunka 


Mother 


ina (pinero) 


Granddaughter 


tcainka 


Uncle 


notirili 


Nephew 


naniro 


Aunt 


nutcaringi 


Niece 


itcaria 


Brother 


ina 


Cousin 


numatcienga 


Sister 


intco 








PARTS OF 


THE BODY 




Body 


nosinaganti 


Eyelash 


weceptaha 


Flesh 


ibati 


Ear 


nayempita 


Skin 


misina 


Nose 


nogirimasi 


Skeleton 


itongki 


Mouth 


nowiganti 


Skull 


neyitota 


Lips 


notcera 


Head 


noyito 


Teeth 


nai 


Hair 


neyisi 


Tongue 


nonini 


Face 


nogoro 


Neck 


notcano 


Beard 


nosipatona 


Shoulder 


nosiondi 


Eye 


noki 


Back 


notisla 


Eyebrow 


nosimpiesoki 


Side 


nomersta 



ARAWAIvAX STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



39 



Chest 


noneya 


Leg 


nobodi 


Abdomen 


niiniporetca 


Knee 


noyerto 


Arm 


nonaro 


Ankle 


nowinkiki 


Elbow 


nokioki 


Foot 


nuyiti 


Wrist 


nuyerstoki 


Sole of foot 


nogunta 


Hand 


nako 


Toe 


notcUpiyeti 


Right hand 


quatingati 


Toe nail 


notonayiti 


Left hand 


iliimpati 


Heart 


naniaki 


Pahu 


nusiriiutapako Pulse 


isita 


Finger 


nutciipako 


Stomach 


nomotia 


Nail 


nuciata 


Lungs 


itista 


Thumb 


tciripektea 


Breath 


naniengataki 


Index finger 


nonkutaki 


Soul 
ANIMALS 


camatcirniga 


Animal 


posanteri 


Fly (black) 


sikidi 


Monkey (small) 


komaikinaro 


Mosquito 


siyito 


Monkey (large black) 


maikasapa 


Butterfly (large) 


patcantero 


Jaguar 


mainiti 


ButterHy 


pempero 


Puma 


maitsonsore 


Grub 


kenitci 


Dog 


otciti 


Ant 


katitori 


Cat 


mitci 


Ant (large black) 


mani 


Tapir 


kemari 


Snake (poisonous) 


yatcikanti 


Wangana 


pageri 


Anaconda 


malanki 


Hog (wild) 


cintori 


Fish 


sima 


Deer 


maniro 


Snail 


tcai 


Bear 


maiini, icingitaciegi Toad 


masero 


Ronsoco 


ipati 


BIRDS 




Bird 


tcimadi 


Partridge 


kinsoli 


Parrot 


kintaro 


Poweel 


tsamidi 


Duck 


pantio 


Woodpecker 


kukaskondi 


Turkey 


kanari 


Macaw 


megantoni 


Dove 


imoti 


PLANTS 




Corn 


sink! 


Papaya 


tinti 


Potato 


maguni 


Palta 


tcivi 


Yucca 


sekatci 


Massasamba 


yairipeni 


Cane 


impogo 


Coca 


koka 


Tobacco 


sedi 


Cacao 


sariyamenaki 


Orange 


naraha 


Vanilla 


simasidiawanti 


Lemon 


ilimoki 


Achote 


apigiri 


Plantain 


palyanti 


Forest 


kovasidi 



40 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Tree 


entcato 


Flower 


otega 


Tree trunk 


entcapoa 


Fruit 


okitoki 


Balsa wood 


tsaiyi 


Root 


ositsa 


Branch 


oci 


Seed 


okitsoki 


Leaf 


otsago 


Grass 


tcipanasi 


Frond 


tcipani 


Cotton 


okitoki empeye 




SPINNING AND WEAVING 




Loom 


tatero 


Thread 


ibiritsa 


To weave 


amarintci 


Spindle whorl 


kirikanentonsi 


Woven cloth 


tagompirontci 


Cotton 


empeye 


Warp 


otsapa 


To sew 


bobitero 


Woof 


kononkari 


Cord 


obidio 


To spin 


mampetsa 








BOW AND 


ARROW 




Bow 


piamintci 


Arrow 


tcakopi 


Back 


onegya 


Shaft (cane) 


tcakopi 


Belly 


otista 


Foreshaft (chonta) 


entcati 


Middle 


onampinaki 


Point (bamboo) 


kapiro 


Arm 


otcitika 


Feathers 


otega 


Arm (surplus string] 


) oyaski 


Knock 


omaretaga 


Notch 


okitcatikara 


Knob 


toyempiti 


String 


otsa 


Arrow for fisli 


kerithi 


String (surplus) 


oyecta 


Arrow for pigs 


pentaki 


Knot 


omaritcotari 


Arrow for monkeys 


yipatakari 


"Knot (surplus end) 


omarita 


Arrow for birds 


tconkarintci 




MEALS 




Breakfast 


isikatatcikamani 


Lunch in woods 


ariskataka 


Dinner 


isikataka okalenga 


To eat 


nosikatasanbara 


Supper 


inigankiti eskata 


To cook 


pongotakye 




PHASES OF 


THE MOON 




Moon 


kaseri 


Full moon 


tclilita 


New moon 


tciripekikani 


Dark of moon 


pega 


Half moon 


tcirimokanaki 








DIVISION 


OF TIME 




Day 


ketiyiteri 


Year 


siriagarni 


Night 


sayiteri 


Month 


sinki 


Today 


mika 


Last night 


enkarasayiteretika 


Tomorrow 


kamani 


Day before yesterday tcapiotcitoria 


Yesterday 


tcapi 







ARAWAK\N STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



41 



CARDINAL POINTS 



North 


okoti 


Southeast 


otiunthatha 


Northwest 


katingatankitciri 


East 


pacini 


West 


irapoyitithida 


Northeast 


watapalikoti 


Southwest 


tsaguanaki 


Zenith 


inoki 


South 


apiteni 


Nadir 


sabi 



NAMES OF COLORS 



White 


kaitakyi 


Yellow 


kiteri 


Medium white 


kaitakataiitakyi 


Orange 


sankyenari 


Black 


potsitari 


Red 


kamatcungari 


Green 


kaniari 


Coffee color 


yanigankiriaka 


Blue 


noronki 


Obscure 


potsitasiraari 



NAMES OF PERSONS 

As far as can be determined from the names themselves and 
from the direct statement of the informant, it appears that the 
names of persons have no significance. They have no relation to 
any peculiarity or habit of the individuals, the place where they 
live, or relationship to one another. There are no family names 
and no nicknames. 

The following individual names of four famiUes will give some 
idea of the character of the names in use. 





First Family 




Father 


cameti Third son 


umpikidi 


Mother 


pananairi First daughter 


petiari 


First son 


icantoidi Second daughter 


ingitaieri 


Second son 


kacankoigi 

Second Family 




Father 


tcampitari Son 


tontori 


Mother 


holienti 

Third Family 




Father 


tsibitiori Son 


simasiri 



Father 



FoLTiTH Family 
poniro Daughter 



manariega 



42 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



NAMES OF RIVERS 

The rivers are named on account of some condition, such as the 
presence of an abundance of plants in the water or along the banks 
of the river, or an occurrence which has taken place in the region 
of the river. 



Pongo, megantoni 

Urubamba 

Yanatili 

Matoriata, matore 

Tirotitciari 

Tigompinia 



large parrot 
enters the sea 
cold water 
butterfly 
spiny palm 

where they are always 
fighting 



Mantado 
Mantantciata 
Tambo, mamore 
Kanaitciata 

Tcirombia 



many Campa 
anaconda 
plenty of fish 
sacred palm 

(tciata, river) 
fern 



NUMERALS 



1 patiro 


20 pititsongawaquangita 


2 pitati 


30 mawatsongatiingititciroirato 


3 mawati 


40 mawataiinti 


4 pitipaiiti 


50 paineropiutangetctsongagwantciroira 


5 patipintangkiti 


60 pitientini 


6 ganganapipakotini 


70 yasitienti 


7 tekaotcokawawhempa 


80 paiiroitairogita 


8 okarida 


90 terairikariika 


9 panibati 


100 tsongagwaitaka 


10 tcombkawagwaka 


200 pitaticntini 


11 pitiganapipakotini 


300 mawatientini 


12 mampiro 


400 pitipaiitientini 



COLLECTIVE AND FRACTIONAL NUMERALS 



Single 

Double 

Once 

Twice 

Thrice 

Four times 

Ten times 

How many times 



ikantani 

inaaki 

petiroiniatci 

piteiniakena 

mavainana 

pitipayiinana 

tsunkavaquakainana 

akainiakempi 



A pair 

A dozen 

One-half 

One-third 

One-fourth 

Two-thirds 

Three-fourths 

A half day 



pitali 

patisungatangetci 

katcititi 

papatatero 

pitipaiyeti 

pipateleti 

pitipaiyetiitako 

okateingaka 



First 

Second 

Third 



okietovio 

nigangltiri 

oyiatiridi 



ORDINALS 



Fourth 

Fifth 
Last 



oyiaro 

iyaski 
tsongatinaki 



ARAWAIvAN STOCK, THE IVIACHEYENGA 



43 



VERBS 



Admit 


puagieri 


Divide 


pipegakoti 


Advise 


puenkageri 


Dress 


pubekatari 


Appear 


konetcate 


Drink 


bihikiamba 


Approach 


rapukali , 


Eat 


nosikatasunbara 


Ann 


kotayeri 


Enclose 


itcula 


Arrive 


pinikapiwa 


Enter 


kiyanaki 


Ask 


kantilli 


Escape 


rasigeri 


Awaken 


kankite 


Examine 


pakumeri 


Bark 


tsarote 


Fall 


sirianaka 


Beg 


namanari 


Fasten 


puesiatere 


Blow 


tasonka 


Fear 


pika 


Beat 


pusilageri 


Fight 


gomperi, tacingake 


Bleach 


klatalapitceri 


Fill 


ciatekahali 


Born 


watcugini 


Find 


anta 


Break 


tingarayo 


Flatten 


yananakageri 


Breathe 


ana gate 


Float 


mahatbi 


Bring 


matcero 


Flower 


kaweri 


Build 


potero 


Fly 


aranaki 


Burn 


kagake 


Fold 


soprigieri 


Buy 


nebiteri 


Follow 


iateri 


CaU 


kaimeri 


Free 


tcakatkali 


Carry 


panigieri 


Give 


pedi 


Cast 


pueranugieri 


Go 


kimotaki 


Chew 


hahale 


Go out 


kimotakero 


Chop 


piusaki 


Grasp 


kasitcand 


Clear 


raskabkana 


Grow 


kemoti 


Clip 


tcingiteri 


Have 


aiitio 


Comb 


gacitaka 


Hide 


isiganaki 


Come 


pimpokaka 


Hinder 


kamtceri 


Comprehend 


kemeri 


Hurt 


itcyantaka 


Cook 


pongotaki 


Inform 


puenkageri 


Cooked 


kotayi 


Join 


iksantaki 


Convince 


pemakageri 


Jump 


matcake 


Count 


pigenakateri 


Kill 


wailateri 


Cover 


pikapanateri 


Know 


igiti 


Cry 


kaimi 


Lead 


puegeletcigari 


Cultivate 


yunkapena 


Leave 


wanepakutci 


Cure 


ambatake 


Lift up 


putakateri 


Cut 


watero 


Listen 


igenakuteri 


Deceive 


siyugerilatci 


Litter 


puetankuteri 


Desire 


puesenegeri 


Loosen 


kuseri 


Destroy 


patsanaki 


Lose 


agirakari 


Die 


kamaki 


Make 


pantake 


Dig 


ovigantari 


Marry 


inantaka 


Displease 


remtawana 


Meet 


papatgeteri 



44 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Move 


siringanaka 


Sleep 


potcokidri 


Offend 


panukatceli 


Smell 


kemangatero 


Pardon 


kametitaina 


Smoke 


oenga 


Pass 


bisanaki 


Spit 


pabugeri 


Pay 


poinatero 


Steal 


kociti 


Persuade 


ratcerukagieri 


Sting 


yogakeri 


Place 


yerokari 


Strike 


tsenakeri 


Play 


mayempita 


Suck 


tcomiyegi 


Poison 


tciogeri 


Suckle 


tcutcupenekeri 


Prick 


matcwiri 


Suffer 


kabintsanake 


Pursue 


piateri 


Support 


gimaktari 


Push 


putiagari 


Swallow 


pinigaki 


Quarrel 


nokitsandatci 


Swim 


mahatanaki 


Rain 


inkani 


Take 


bikempa 


Respond 


gaopinata 


Talk 


ni'iya 


Restore 


penegeri 


Tell 


tcina 


Ripen 


patkani 


Thin 


yampteri 


Rise 


kimotanaki 


Think 


pikiankiseriaka 


Roast 


tasiteri 


Throw 


kusateri 


Roasted 


kisidi 


Tie 


kisotiro 


Rob 


tcugeteri 


Tired 


sigopidi 


Run 


tsiganaki 


Toast 


kutakeri 


Run away 


egimateri 


Trade 


resatake 


Scratch 


tcirangatake 


Turn 


pimpigyatcki 


Secure 


kasitcagieri 


Unite 


piokagieri 


See 


iniaki 


Understand 


kimorikero 


Seek 


koyethi 


Vomit 


kamarankyi 


Select 


petgeri 


Walk 


naita 


Sell 


pimanteri 


Walk, on trail 


perkageri 


Send 


tigankeri 


Wash 


kivero 


Sew 


bobetero 


Watch 


pikawakeri 


Shake 


kowaki 


Weaken 


katcendi 


Shelter 


mkatseri 


Wind 


imasantikero 


Shoot 


tsemiari 


Wish 


hemateri 


Show 


pekategateri 


Wound 


lueliukatciti 


Siege 


psoimitcani 


Wriggle 


hemani 


Sing 


matiki 


Write 


sangibandi 


Sit 


piriniti 








ADDITIONAL 


, WORDS 




Above 


katonga 


Also 


alyikangotaki 


Absent 


kaiimeteri 


Always 


ikantani 


After 


empolini 


Ancient 


ibisalitaga 


Afterward 


impoyina 


And 


iriro 


Alone 


painiroeni 


Anger 


ikantaki 


Almost 


ithirokijikio 


As 


teaikanaiiti 



ARAWAK\X STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



45 



Ascending 


awakanoka 


Continually 


ritcakatci 


Bag 


tsibeta 


Cool 


okatcingali 


Balance 


pamanetwatci 


Corpse 


hiparatceri 


Ball 


g^va^a 


Cotton 


empeyi 


Balsa 


sinthipo, tsaiye 


Crazy 


ibigatara 


Basket 


tsibeta 


Crowd 


kagite 


Battle 


gantagantci 


Crude 


kaniari 


Beard 


isipaktoni 


Cruel 


wagi 


Beauty 


kamitina 


Cup 


koboyari 


Beautiful 


kametataki 


Cylindrical 


kanerongipoati 


Bed 


nomagamento 


Dance, n. 


isingataka 


Before 


paikomprapayeti 


Danger 


pai'iroiseraiti 


Besides 


fenu 


Dawn 


ingawipakani 


Big 


atioteni 


Day 


kreitai'ita 


Bird 


tsimedi 


Days 


kreitai'itayetiri 


Blind 


steniari 


Deaf 


maiyampi 


Books 


sangebandi 


Death 


kamaki 


Bottom 


tsompoyiari 


Delight 


nogavintsataka 


Bowl 


kobiti 


Descending 


malnoaka 


Box 


tciboro 


Design 


pturi 


Boyish 


nampiriantci 


Difficult 


okomita 


Brave 


paiiroisiraliti 


Direct 


katingari 


Breeze 


tempia 


Distance 


tsamani 


Bridge 


pabitci 


Down 


kamatikia 


Bright 


intapuriatca 


Drop, n. 


suprawata 


Brilliant 


osati 


Drum 


tambora 


Broad 


alusaranta 


Drunk 


pwamitapa 


Brook 


niatini 


Dry 


oroyero 


Broom 


satcirifi 


Dust 


oyiangka 


Burn 


potero 


Early 


tsitikamana 


Burrow 


imorinti 


Earth 


kipatci 


By 


apina 


Easy 


terakomaita 


Canoe 


pitotci 


Egg 


ihitso 


Careless 


opera taka 


Eggs 


ihutsoki 


Cancho 


kapi 


End 


nikatharo 


Caution 


puematapa 


Enemy 


noyisabintsari 


Chest 


kogeta 


Enough 


tcinikanta 


Chicha 


kuya 


Evil 


palitcagieri 


Circular 


kabogitati tsomonto 


False 


pitsoega 


Class 


irorokanoritha 


Far 


seniani 


Clay 


tcihispa 


Fat 


kavi 


Clearing 


sananka 


Feeder 


kamala 


Cloud 


menkoli 


Feminine 


cinani 


Coal of fire 


tcitcerna 


Fever 


mantcigarintci 


Cold 


katcingari 


Feverish 


mantcigalintcienda 


Collar 


wepieki 


Fill 


saputkale 


Color 


katciringaingari 


Fine 


putenane 



46 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Finish 


nikauna 


Lake 


unampini 


Fire 


tcitci 


Lame 


piapi 


Fishhook 


tcagaluntci 


Lard 


kipatsi 


Fishing 


tatkatcima 


Large 


omarana 


Fit 


pupateri 


Late 


cungana 


Flame 


tcerna 


Leaf 


otsego 


Fleshy 


keriigeti 


Leak 


sagigiawa 


Flower 


katceli 


Lean 


yaitcali 


Fog 


enapatkani 


Length 


ogatsansani 


Food 


niktci 


Level 


pata'aka 


For 


itapla 


Lie, 71. 


pitsuego 


Forest 


ciyakana 


Life 


isedi 


Foundation 


etske 


Light 


molikaii 


Friend 


nitenagalitha 


Like 


itemgieri 


Front 


intati 


Listen 


igenakuteri 


Full 


iumarani 


Lofty 


bemi 


Girlish 


nomperami 


Long 


ogatcan tcani 


Go 


piata 


Loose 


kureri 


God 


idioci 


Machette 


sabari 


Gold 


koli 


Masculine 


siredi 


Grass 


kutcanala 


Mat 


citatci 


Grief 


okatciti 


Mature 


irakakaii 


Group 


hitcolero 


Mild 


salaglate 


Grove 


tciyi 


Milk 


tcutcu 


Handsome 


kameteri 


Mist 


menkori 


Happy 


yataki 


Mister 


virakotci 


Hard 


okwasoti 


Moon 


kesiri 


Hat 


tcoko irontce 


Moreover 


tiara 


Headache 


okatcitonoyitoki 


Morning 


kamana 


Health 


mampapagempi 


Mountain 


enkenisi 


Heat 


katcaringastaki 


Mud 


okisoti 


Hence 


pegineriki 


Music 


kowerintci 


Here 


evi 


My 


ibiani 


High 


umarani 


Naked 


nogatsansanira 


Hill 


etenahapu 


Name 


ibwairo 


Honesty 


eneriekani 


Nausea 


plapliri 


Hook 


kitcapi 


Near 


tcoeni 


Hot 


ikatcaringati 


Needle 


kitsapi 


House 


pankotci 


Neither 


vi 


How 


wanespo 


Nest 


imanko 


Hunger 


ptasigaki 


Nests 


imaiotkataka 


Hut 


maspoti 


Net 


kitcari 


Island 


kanikali 


Never 


garato 


Joyful 


sinetaki 


Never 


ikwiepa 


Justice 


piwakekali 


Nevermore 


teratio 


Kind 


satiku 


New 


itcalyida 


Knife 


kotcero 


Next 


puniti 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MACHEYENGA 



47 



Night 


sayitiri 


Remote 


osamainti 


Nights 


tayitayeti 


Respond 


gaopinata 


No 


tero 


Rest 


yapisigepideri 


Noise 


sriempogi 


Rifle 


airiapa 


None 


tera 


Ripen 


patkane 


Noon 


katingataki 


River 


eni 


Not 


tera 


Roast meat 


kisidi 


Nothing 


niaineri 


Robber 


kocidi 


Oar 


homaruntci 


Roof 


otena 


Obligation 


dibiwatci 


Root 


ositsa 


Obscure 


pawatsari 


Round 


kamaronkiti 


Observer 


wakalikano 


Rubber 


konore 


Ocean 


omarani 


Sad 


kisa ingantaka 


Of 


na 


Sadness 


katcina 


01(1 


ibisaditaga 


Salt 


tibi 


Open 


tsitheaka 


Same 


kanyoretha 


Opinion 


retcikagendi 


Sand 


empanaki 


Opposite 


intaii 


Scalp 


wimpta 


Orphan 


merati 


Sea 


inkari 


Oven 


bitsahari 


Seat 


tsenkwarontstci 


Over 


enokatiro 


Seat 


pteplali 


Paddle 


kiumaluntci 


Secure 


ikanotakatio 


Pain 


okatciti 


Seed 


okitsoke 


Paint, n. 


ptsotemba 


Sense 


riwataratkali 


Panpipe 


siungalintci 


Sensible 


tseyiotsa 


Part 


pesinieti 


Servant 


nomperatalida 


Passion 


apakapalu 


Shining 


engite 


Pebble 


empaniki 


Short 


otcariati 


Pepper 


kumuli 


Shotgun 


eriapa 


Perfect 


ageneriko 


Sick 


nomantcikata 


Pine 


soyipiki 


Silver 


koliki 


Pipe 


penarintci 


Since 


itakaro 


Plenty 


intagati 


Skin 


gespugeri 


Poison 


kepigari 


Sky 


inkiti 


Pool 


ipua 


Slave 


nomperani 


Poor 


terairasintempa 


Sleep 


potcokidre 


Pouch 


sapa 


Slowly 


atanake 


Promptly 


yiyakithi 


Small 


tcirepekini 


Pure 


onterotankitca 


Smoke 


oenga 


Quick 


sintci 


Smoke (pipe) 


pontcitciawa 


Quickly 


mika 


Snow 


tcaraga 


Quiet 


makana 


Some 


pimare 


Rain 


ingana 


Some, pi. 


pimareni 


Raincoat 


wurutegwa 


Somehow 


ihuneipineni 


Raw 


sotsuta 


Sore 


restaki 


Ready 


sintci 


Soul 


seletci 


Relative 


puemuli 


Spear 


otse 



48 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Spider 


eto 


Turn 


ocungataka 


Spoon 


bisiria 


Twins 


apinatetcpa 


Stand 


ranta 


Ugly 


terakameti 


Star 


impokero 


Underneath 


sabitithitha 


Stone 


mapui, emparaiya 


Unknown 


mabsahata 


Stool 


sinkwarontci 


Unripe 


onatcerigapataga 


Straight 


tegongari 


Until 


noata 


String 


otsa 


Unwell 


yai'itca 


Strong 


katankero 


Up 


katonga 


Stop 


cenaka 


Vacant 


terontima 


Sufficient 


intagati 


Various 


itibuiteri 


Suitable 


tciki 


Voice 


piniaki 


Sunset 


simpopokiriremkapai 


Voices 


iriniani 


Sugar 


potcari 


Voyage 


idiataki 


Sun 


poriatcira 


War 


gantagantci 


Support 


gimactare 


Water 


nia 


Sweet 


aputcati 


Water runnin 


g kamatika 


Swiftly 


paitanakislntci 


Wave 


oboli 


Table 


igapongkari 


Weary 


cigopiri 


Thief 


ikociti 


Well 


potabayetaka 


Then 


neitanaki 


Well done 


wanogetcilei 


There 


feka 


Wet 


toastaki 


Therefore 


empoyini 


What 


tata 


Thick 


kupunegi 


Whence 


inuaki 


Thirst 


meratci 


Where 


teraka 


Thorn 


kwiri 


Whither 


ivipenutci 


Thread 


mampetci 


Wide 


aliopoki 


Through 


songpoyiteri 


Wind 


tampia 


Thunder 


karlyethi 


Wing 


ibanki 


Tobacco 


sedi 


Wings 


piteli'itsokieta 


Together 


itentagi 


With 


ta 


Too 


pairiyabitsanaki 


Within 


kiaki 


Top 


watceptagi 


Woods 


kovasidi 


Town 


itimani 


Word 


idiniane 


Trail 


abotci 


Work 


ilantani 


Trap 


tsigarintci 


Yes 


hea 


Tree 


entcato 


Yesterday 


tcaki 


Tribe 


iracirikoini 


Yet 


totata 


TriOe 


yitataki 


Yonder 


sitikana 


Truth 


alitsiinokyo 


Young 


metciukarjra 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE CAMPA 



49 



CAMPA 

Vocabulary. The following vocabulary was obtained from 
rubber men on the Apuriah River, a branch of the Etenes in Peru. 







FAMILY 






People 


atiri 




Sister 


tcio, utcu 


Family 


nustcaninga 




Child 


wanampi 


Woman 


sinani 




Boy 


sihiramba, lihan 


Brother 


tetco 




Infant 


nohehna 


Brethren 


piariri 










PARTS OF THE 


BODY 




Skeleton 


tumliki 




Throat 


hatsano 


Bone 


hitonki 




Shoulder 


atapiki 


Head 


piti 




Arm 


hembiki 


Hair 


naistci 




Hand 


tako, nako 


Eye 


oke, nokis 




Nail 


asketa 


Nose 


ahiri 




liCg 


habitsa 


Mouth 


hananta 




Penis 


habsabi 


Teeth 


himititsa, nahi, 


naite 


Buttock 


sabitci 


Tongue 


nonene 


ANIMALS 


Blood 


irahani 


Monkey 


pustciniti 




Bat 


pigiri 


Jaguar 


maniti 




Snake 


maranki 


Dog 


utkete 




Turkey 


kanali 


Peccary 


samani 




Partridge 


macangwa 


Hog 


onitairiki 




Poweel 


samiri 


Boar 


tcindoli 




Pucucunga 


sangati 


Armadillo 


mairi 


PLANTS 






Forest 


tumiriki 




Balsa tree 


cindipa 


Camote 


kuliti 




Vanilla 


arupi 


Plantain 


pahantsi 




Leaf 


pano 


Papaya 


emitcusi 




Raspberry 


takiru 


Wood 


traka 


VERBS 






Afraid 


pingatsave 




Boil 


pukiteri 


Arrive 


nunapapare 




Burn 


pinaheri 


Ask 


psambiteri 




Dance 


potsenangempa 


Attack 


putctero 




Deceive 


tamatabitana 


Begin 


ustciatini 




Die 


pingamatini 



50 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Discover 


kovite 


Like 


pinguerero 


Do 


pantserika 


Load 


pinkikero 


Drink 


piranakiero 


Loan 


ambateri 


Dry 


pinotsokeri 


Look 


nagiro 


Call 


papinitaka 


Love 


tsimpe 


Carry 


noktaikati 


Make 


pantero 


Cheer 


katcirigaitari 


Marry 


pinkianti 


Chew 


sihimpoki 


Nod 


pinguiki 


Choose 


atsiriki 


Pack 


hamestcitaiti 


Couple 


nonintagiro 


Paint 


psankinatseri 


Cover 


untsingari 


Pair 


kametsalini 


Cry 


pingagemua 


Pass 


pistcianake 


Cure 


pabkeri 


Present 


pempena 


Eat 


puya 


Produce 


pantero 


Embarrass 


klimkitaka 


Push 


pitastingero 


Encounter 


pitoukiteari 


Receive 


paheri 


Enter 


pinke 


Refresh 


pecta 


Entertain 


numbatctembiro 


Rest 


pimacuta 


Erect 


pubitckero 


Rejoice 


titcirantea 


Escape 


pistciapisateri 


Retake 


pingobite 


Fear 


pitsario 


Roast 


pankeitse 


Find 


pistclbokerkasa 


Rob 


hameanguste 


Fish 


pangahati 


See 


pameniri 


Freighten 


pomistceri 


Seek 


pamini 


Give 


pirab?ro 


Set 


piatanaki 


Go 


natageta 


Shoot 


pinsiero 


Govern 


pimberanateri 


Shuffle 


putironki 


Grind 


notare 


Singe 


pintiri 


Have 


timatsi 


Sip 


piri 


Hear 


pingueme 


Sleep 


pimei 


Hesitate 


amimungarati 


Smell 


pasankweso 


Hide 


pimanevi 


Speak 


pimiabate 


Hit 


timbosateri 


Strike 


piiheri 


Hope 


kuagika 


Swallow 


pantana 


Hunt 


pangatcati 


Swim 


nahamate 


Hurry 


pagirani 


Teach 


tuameteri 


Inform 


numakaembi 


Travel 


pitcanake 


Inhabit 


pinampi 


Understand 


tepinguema 


Join 


pwabitero 


Undress 


puinkerota 


Jump 


ciananga 


Unite 


tcovianti 


Kill 


puyeri 


Urinate 


psindaitea 


Kiss 


patemineri 


Wait 


kitata 


Labor 


pipankempa 


Walk 


pinkibante 


Lengthen 


pinotckeri 


Wish 


kitenintero 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE CAMPA 



51 



ADDITIONAL WORDS 



Able 


ariotaki 


Few 


teacikils 


Alone 


aparoni 


Figure 


maroni 


Arrow 


tcakopi 


Fire 


paniari 


Ashes 


sanuinipa 


First 


ucanteni 


Axe 


sihatca 


Fish 


cima 


Bad 


tukametsati 


Flame 


pamari 


Balsa 


lamengolentci 


Food 


aiti, aitsci 


Banana 


pariants 


Four 


apaporenro 


Bank 


jutatikwero 


Friend 


tciringa 


Barbarity 


maminto 


Front 


ananka 


Basin 


mitaro 


Good day 


keti comprats 


Basket 


kandiri 


Gold 


pistcianati 


Beautiful 


kametsari 


Gum 


katci 


Behind 


somani 


Happiness 


tubeatero 


Below 


kivinga 


Hard 


kisalino 


Bench 


tsanie 


Heavy 


hina 


Black 


kisahali 


Hill 


tsembi 


Brave 


kisatca 


Hot 


sabataki 


Bridge 


pabirontci 


House 


pankotci 


Call 


hibagiro 


Hunger 


nutasetsi 


Candle 


pamiri 


Hungry 


nutase 


Canoe 


pitatsi 


Hunt 


paciniri 


Catarrh 


kamantci 


Important 


kandero 


Chacara (field) 


nuani 


Indeed 


atcaniku 


Cedar 


intcato 


Inca 


kuniri 


Club 


sibitci 


Instinct 


tiotiki 


Cold 


katcingaiteri 


Knife 


kutciro 


Comb 


kiciri 


Language 


tcakra, atsamaeteri 


Companion 


yentsi 


Land 


impatse 


Com 


tcinki 


Lard 


trenka 


Cough 


kamantci 


Late 


tsanitake 


Coward 


tenungaisi 


Lean 


matsatanaki 


Cushma 


zalenti 


Lie 


pitsaha, nutsaha 


Danger 


inawaka 


Little 


kopitsokigi 


Downward 


aniringagi 


Long 


onimotsansal 


Drink 


piarintci 


Lower 


antakAvirunta 


Drop 


katsuali 


Lumber 


pitotsi 


Dry 


paronagero 


Many 


putcaiki 


Dung 


hatsumi 


Meat 


hibatsa 


Enclosure 


buantci 


More 


hotseba, aimiro 


End 


nutshangakero 


Mound 


tongali 


Enemy 


nusamakaso 


Much 


nuntsemp 


Excrement 


atia 


Mud 


kipatsi 


False 


pakeandenake 


Naked 


pithali 


Feather 


cinaki 


Near 


haknakigi 



52 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Neither 


oseki 


Star 


impokira 


Never 


rekatsinume 


Stone 


mapi 


Next 


taitikeri 


Straight 


thatcitanaka 


New 


hanali 


Strong 


sintciri 


Night 


itsteniri 


Sufficient 


ariotaki 


No 


kite, tiva, ti 


Summer 


sitastcintci 


Noise 


ayambita 


Sun 


urialstciri 


None 


tekatsi 


Sweet 


putcahali 


Nothing 


itekatsi 


Thin 


ernararu 


Nourishment 


sinkiri 


Thirsty 


numiri 


Offensive 


istebale 


This 


kohikanti 


Oh 


nimaika 


Thou 


abiro 


One 


apatiro, apito 


Thread 


mampetsa 


Only 


apaniro 


Three 


mawa 


Other 


pihate 


Thus 


ariove 


Paddle, n. 


komarontci 


Today 


unigatamani 


Pain 


katcirini 


Tomorrow 


sertikero 


Playa (sand bar) 


hatsepa 


Top 


haito 


Poor 


tekatse 


Town 


emetjulini 


Pot 


kubiti, koitsi 


Two 


apite 


Quickly 


usipaite 


Ugly 


tengametsati 


Red 


ivaka 


Unique 


aparo 


Remain 


hetepindi 


Until 


oni 


Rind 


riniki 


Urine 


hotsini 


River 


na 


Warm 


masabirintci 


Road 


habatsi 


Well 


kametsari 


Roast corn 


tcinki 


What 


kikongogita 


Rubber 


tutcato 


Whence 


piateka 


Ruddy 


tcungari 


Where 


tsotsinika 


Sad 


kinkitsari 


Wherefore 


hateka 


Salt 


tibi 


Which 


hupagita 


Salutation 


sutsatsmi 


White 


tamaruri 


Sea 


sindoritea 


Whether 


hateka 


Shirt 


notsinka 


Whose 


hateka 


Sick 


kamantci 


Why 


puetaka 


Side 


knakero 


Wool 


tcuastcaki 


Silence 


piesekanake 


Yes 


ehe, ihi, wa 


Sleep 


ariopimae 


You 


pi 


Small 


hinkiri 


Your 


tsavi 


Soul 


inkwi 







ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 



53 



PIRO 

Distribution. One of the most important Arawakan tribes in 
the Amazon region is the Piro, sometimes called Chontoquiro or 
Semirentci. They occupy the highlands around the headwaters 
of the Purus, Mishagua, Camisea, and Manu Rivers. In former 
times there were large groups living along the Urubamba, where 
they came in contact with the Inca, and assisted them in building 
the fort of Tonquini. Samuel Fi-itz's map (1707) shows them in 
the section between the Ucayali and Pachitea Rivers. Today 




Figure 3 
Piro man 



their numbers are reduced, through contact with white man's 
civilization, to five or six hundred. 

My information concerning the Piro was obtained at Sutlija 
and Portilla from a chief of the tribe, through Sr. Torres, a Span- 
iard, who had lived among them for a number of years, and from 
my own observations at the two Indian villages. 

Organization. The Piro have a very good tribal organization 
under the leadership of a hereditary chief who has absolute au- 
thority. The chief is called Klineriwakipiya. It is not his individ- 
ual name, but the name of the office of chieftainship, which he 
inherits from his father. If a chief has no son, his brother in- 
herits, and the descent is in his line. If the son is too young to 
exercise his authority when his father dies, the oldest man in the 
tribe performs the duties of chief until the boy is about eighteen or 
twenty, when he assumes his office. Some time ago, the chief at 



54 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

Portillo died without sons. His })rother, who inherited, was old 
and did not speak Spanish, and so he passed the office on to his 
oldest son, a young man of twenty-five years, who spoke some 
Spanish, a great advantage when dealing with the rubber men. He 
had two small sons, who have their own individual names, but 
the oldest son is called Klineriwakipiya, in addition. 

The chief takes control of all the affairs of the tribe, and always 
remains at home except on very special occasions. He never does 
any work in the fields, goes hunting, or on a journey, but sends 
men to perform all of these duties. He determines upon an under- 
taking, and assigns each man to his own particular task. The chief 
settles all disputes that arise within his tribe, or between tribes. 
There is very little evidence of crime of any kind, and when the 
chief was asked about it, he said that there were no quarrels, that 
no one ever took anything that did not belong to him, and that 
there was no excuse for committing murder. When asked what 
the punishment would be if a wife should prove unfaithful, he 
replied that he did not know that such a thing had ever happened. 

Houses. At both villages, the Indians were living in a miserable 
condition in a few houses grouped together on the bank of the 
river. At Suthja we found a deserted Piro village which gave us 
a good idea of what their former homes had been. They left this 
village on account of sickness. Many had died, apparently from 
fever and dysentery. On this account they moved down the river, 
and built new houses. At the deserted place, several houses were 
built around a very large field. The houses varied in size accord- 
ing to the families occupying them. One small house was twenty 
feet long, twelve feet wide, and eighteen feet high to the ridge 
pole. The houses are oriented north and south, and sometimes 
have the north end closed, but for the most part the gables are 
open to the ridge pole. The roof comes down to within five or 
six feet of the ground. A platform, four or five feet high, is built 
along one side or across one end, occupying two-thirds or more 
of the whole space. This platform is covered with spht chonta 
palm, and is used for a living and sleeping place. A notched pole 
leads from the ground to the platform. The fireplaces are along 
the sides or at the end, their location depending upon the position 
of the platform. Firewood, cooking pots, and utensils of all 
kinds are kept under the platform. There is sometimes a small 



i> 




c 

C3 

c 




ARAWAKAX STOCK, THE PIRO 



55 



platform over the fire for keeping food, and another outside of the 
house, either covered or open, which is used for storage and for 
drying clothing. 

They have no large hanging baskets or placques over the fire 
for smoking food, which are so common among the Campa. Some- 
times the cooking place is in a very small enclosure outside the 
main house. Baskets, bags, bows, arrows, and other implements, 
hang from the roof. The largest house we saw was forty feet 
long, twenty feet wide, and eighteen feet high, with a steep roof. 
The ridgepole was resting on the ends of three chonta palm posts. 
The rafters were thorny palm poles about two inches thick, 
reaching from the plate to the ridgepole, without other support, 
and placed one and a half feet apart. The roof was made of chonta 





FiGUKE 4 

Outlines of hand and foot of Piro Indian 



palm leaves; three or four fronds were tied together in a group, 
and each group fastened eight or ten inches apart on the rafters. 
Under the platform there were several burials. It is the common 
method among the Piro to bury the dead under these platforms. 

The Piro are the greatest lovers of dogs of all the tribes; they 
breed them for trade, and give them great care. They are kept 
in enclosures underneath the platforms. 

Food Supply. The Piro have larger fields and grow more agri- 
cultural products than any of the neighboring tribes. Their 
staples are cassava, corn, plantains, and sweet potatoes, which are 
common among their neighbors. The corn is ground in a mortar 
made of a log, the end of which is burned out to sufficient depth 
to serve for the purpose. The pestle is made of hard wood. Corn 
is eaten on the cob, parched in a shallow pot, or its meal is made 
into bread. The Piro used no salt until the coming of the Whites. 
They eat all kinds of wild game, with a few exceptions. They will 



56 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

not eat the common red deer, because the soul of man at death 
goes into the red deer. Their beUef in this respect is similar to 
that of the Macheyenga, except that among the Piro it is only the 
man's soul, not the woman's, that goes into the deer. They will 
not eat domesticated chickens and ducks, because these birds eat 
refuse, yet they eat their eggs with great relish. 

In hunting they use the bow and arrow for shooting game and 
fish. In using the bow they hold it in the right hand, with the 
end having the loose string uppermost, the thumb gripping the bow 
and the forefinger over the arrow, which is placed on the same 
side of the bow as the hand. The bow is drawn with the third, 
fourth, and fifth fingers on the string, and the end of the arrow 
is held on the string with the thumb and index finger. It is a 
noteworthy fact that nearly all of the men and boys seen using 
the bow held it in the right hand and drew the string with the 
left. Men who were right-handed in other ways took the bow in 
the right hand, and drew it with the left. 

The Piro make rough coarse pottery (plate 6) for ordinary use, 
and depend on the Conebo for finer vessels. Their pottery is made 
and burned by the same method used by the Conebo. What ap- 
pears to be a glaze is only a coating of resin from the yutahy-sica 
{Hymenoe sp.). They make carrying and working baskets for 
holding their cotton, spindlewhorls, and working implements; also 
the small telescope basket common among the Campa, which is 
used for carrying their toilet articles and trinkets (plate 7) . When 
on the trail, they carry game in a rough basket made of two palm 
leaves. 

Sieves for straining chicha are made of small palm fronds woven 
like mats, fifteen inches square, and bound with a framework 
(plate 7), They grow tobacco, which they smoke in large wooden 
pipes with short bird-bone stems, like those of the Conebo (figure 
7) . Tobacco is also used for making snuff, which is taken through 
the nostrils. When the tobacco is dry, they hold it over the fire 
in a leaf until it is very crisp; it is then pulverized in the palm 
of the hand, and taken by means of the colipa, a V-shaped 
instrument made of two leg bones of a heron (figure 5, a). The 
end of one bone is decorated so that it may be distinguished from 
the other. The snuff is placed in the decorated end, while the other 



b 



-c 




ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 57 

end is placed in the nose, and an assistant blows the snuff with a 
sharp puff into the nostril. Sometimes the arms of the V are made 
so short, that while one end is placed to the mouth, the other 
reaches the nostril and allows the operator to do his own blowing 
(figure 5, b) . This same instrument is used by the hunter for tak- 
ing the pulverized, roasted seeds of Acacia niopo as a stimulant 
and narcotic. The hunter administers the same powder to his 
dogs, believing that both he and the dogs will be more alert and 
have clearer vision. 

They make fire by the common method of twirling a stick 
between the palms of the hands upon another stick used as a base. 
They are experts at keeping the fire, and it seldom has to be made 
by this method. When building a fire along the trail where the 
wood is wet, they gather logs together and lay them lengthwise, 
large ones on the bottom and smaller fragments on top, make 
shavings, gather twigs, and build a fire on top of the pile. As the 
fire burns, coals fall down through the logs, and soon they have 
a hot fire, just where it is needed for the cooking pot. I should 
like to recommend this method to campers when they are com- 
pelled to use green or wet logs and have little kindling. 

Dress and Ornamentation. The Piro dress in cotton garments, 
as do the Campa tribes about them. The men wear the long 
cushma (plate 4), while the women usually wear a skirt that 
reaches below the knees, and a cloak over the shoulders. The 
skirt is woven in one piece, and sewed up on the side (plate 8). 
They put it on by stepping into it, pulling it up, and folding over 
in front. It is held in place by turning down in front where the 
fold comes. 

They gather the wild cotton, and spin it with a spindle of chonta 
palm, and a whorl of pottery (plate 9). They twirl the spindle 
between the thumb and index finger, with the other end of the 
spindle resting in a small gourd which contains some fine white 
ashes, used to keep the fingers dry. They spin the thread very 
fine, and wind it double on the ball. They afterward use it as 
needed, by twisting the two threads together with the hand on the 
thigh. As the wild cotton is gathered it is stored without clean- 
ing in small leaf baskets, which resemble hornet nests. When it 
is needed for spinning, the seeds are removed, and the loose cotton 



58 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



beaten with a small rod. The weaving is done on a loom (plate 
9), which has one end attached to a house post, and the other to 
the woman's body. 

Besides the cushmas, skirts, and cloaks, they weave bands for 
their legs and arms, sashes, and small bags (plates 8 and 9). 
One end of the loom for narrow bands is held between the toes, 
while the other is tied around the body. The Piro do not wear 
nose, ear, or lip ornaments. They paint the faces, hands, and feet 




Figure 5 

Piro Indians: a, fe, Snuff tubes; c, Pan's pipes; rf, Box containing paint; e, Calabash scraper 
used in pottery making. (About 1/5.) 



for protection against insects and the sun. The whole face may 
be painted or there may be lines or dots on the forehead, nose, 
and chin, with triangular patches on the cheeks. The men some- 
times have angular designs tattooed upon their lower arms. The 
head of the infant is not deformed. The hair is worn long, and 
cut across over the forehead. The men remove the few hairs on 
the face by holding the edge of a knife or shell against the thumb. 
The men have no hair on the body with the exception of the pubes, 
and it is not abundant there. 



^ 



Peabody Museum Papers 



V ■ 




hX.v 





Vol. X, Plate 6 






Piro pottery vessels, and terra-cotta supports for cook 



ing pots. (l/S.; 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 59 

Marriage. The Piro marry within the tribe, but outside their 
own village. A young man may select his wife for himself, or 
parents who have children near the same age may agree among 
themselves that the children shall be married when they reach the 
proper age. The children are then known as man and wife or as 
belonging to each other, and they may even live together, but 
are not married until after the puberty ceremonies have been 
performed. A man may take a child for his wife, and keep her 
in his family until she is old enough to be married. The father of 
the chief at Portillo had a wife not more than ten years of age 
living with his family, while his first wife, who was old enough to 
be her grandmother, was still living. 

When a young man thinks of taking a wife, he speaks first to 
the chief, and if the chief thinks the marriage agreeable, he speaks 
for the young man to the girl's father. If all agree, the chief takes 
the young man and woman by the hands, leads them first to the 
girl's parents, then to the boy's parents, and if no objection is 
raised, he, without other ceremony, pronounces them man and 
wife. At the same time, a dance takes place with the drinking 
of chicha, and after it is all over the young man takes his bride to 
his own home. 

The marriage cannot take place until after the puberty ceremony 
of defloration, " pisca," has taken place. It is said that a woman 
is unclean until after pisca has been performed. The operation is 
performed by the old women in private, while a dance is going 
on outside. The girl is made drunk with chicha, and the hymen is 
cut with a bamboo knife. It has been said that the Piro were 
very loose in their marriage relations. The ground for this report 
is the custom which is common among the Piro of the loaning of 
wives. When a Piro, without his wife, visits a friend at a distance, 
a wife is loaned him for the time of his stay . 

The families are not large, according to reports from the Indians 
and from owners. There are rarely more than three or four 
children in a family. They give as reasons the fact that women 
have children early, that the children nurse until they are three 
years old because of the lack of other proper food, and that women 
work as men. There does not appear to be any control over birth, 
or any great infant mortality. The largest family we saw had four 
sons and two daughters with one mother. The daughters were 



60 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

married, and one of them was living away from home. When 
asked the names of the children, the father had no difficulty in 
giving the names of the boys and the one daughter present, but 
he had to think a long time before he was able to recall the name 
of the absent daughter. 

When a woman is about to be confined she retires alone to the 
forest across the river. After the birth of the child she brings it to 
the river, washes it, bathes herself, and returns to the village. 
Women carry their children in a cotton bandoleer, in which the 
baby sits astride the mother's hip, or with arms and legs in front 
grasping the mother's garments. The burden baskets are carried 
with a tump-line. 

Medicine Men. The Piro have no medicine men. The chief 
takes care of the health of his people. He uses certain herbs and 
manipulations. The people are all taught to take care of them- 
selves, and one is constantly surprised at the things they know. 
On one occasion, a boy of eight was stung by a large black ant on 
the end of his great toe ; the sting of this ant is more painful than 
that of bees or wasps. He made no outcry, but pulled down a 
thin vine, and wrapped it around his toe; then looking about, he 
found a thorn with which he pierced the end of his toe in a dozen 
places or more, producing profuse bleeding. In a few minutes he 
removed the vine, and the pain and poison were gone — the most 
efficient remedy possible in such an emergency. 

The Dead. When a man dies, he is buried in the floor of a house, 
at full length, and the family moves away and builds another 
house in some other part of the field. A man's bows, arrows, 
pipes, and everything he possesses, are buried with him, except 
his dogs, which are killed and buried in a grave near bj^ The men 
of the immediate family take charge of the body and bury it; in 
the meantime the women moan and weep outside. A widow cuts 
her hair close to her head, and is not allowed to marry again until 
her hair has grown out. All the children, also, have their hair 
cut. The chief takes care of the widow and the children until she 
is remarried. The Piro do not like to handle a corpse, and will 
not do so except to take care of their own dead. When there is an 
epidemic in the village they believe that it is due to the presence 
of a " buija," or witch, and the chief may designate the witch 
and order him killed. 



Peabody Museum Papers 



i^ 



Vol. X, Plate 7 




P;ro Indians: Net with stone sinkers, woman's work basket, square basket sieve for straining 
chicha, drum, and telescope trinket basket. (1/9.) 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 61 

Personal Habits. The Piro are the cleanest, in person and about 
their houses, of all of the tribes in the upper Amazon. They bathe, 
and wash their clothing frequently. On the trail or when traveling 
in canoes, they always carry an extra cushma in a waterproof 
bag to sleep in. In the evening when camp is made and the work 
all done, they bathe, wash their clothes, hang them over the fire 
to dry, and then put on their dry clothing. They work in the rain, 
but always put on dry clothes when camp is made. 

They are thoughtful for the comfort of others, offering food 
and drink. They are good natured and lively, often joking and 
playing tricks upon each other. They are very apt in compre- 
hending what is needed or desired of them, and respond freely 
and quickly. They are curious to see, and to understand new 
things. When they saw me using a magnet they were very much 
interested, and within a few minutes had tried it on everything, 
and were most astonished to find that nails, end to end, would hold 
together. The women are modest and reserved, yet not as timid 
as among some other tribes. They show their modesty by droop- 
ing the head, and allowing the loose hair to fall over the face. 
When we were trading with them we allowed them to look over 
everything we had, without any restraint, to select what they 
desired, and to bring to us an equivalent. Our confidence was 
never betrayed, even when we allowed them to go to another 
village and return the next day. Upon the whole we agreed that 
the Piro were the most manly savages we had encountered, and 
most worth}'- of being treated as our equals. 

The Piro, like many of the other tribes of the rubber regions, 
have been captured in the past and treated as slaves. On De- 
cember 21, 1908, a Spaniard in the employ of Sr. Rodriguez ar- 
rived at Serjali with five families of Piro: five men, five women, 
six children, one peccary, five dogs, and nine chickens. Two of 
the children were so small, they were unable to walk. They 
camped on a sand bar near our own camp. Each family built 
its own fire, and when the food was ready each woman contributed 
her share of the food. All the men and boys ate together in one 
group, while the women and girls gathered about the pots and 
ate what was left when the men had finished. When I asked if 
there was danger of the Indians escaping during the night, the 
man in charge said, " No, all I have to do to prevent their escap- 



62 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



ing is to chain the two women with the babies to a tree; the men 
will never leave the women and children in possession of a white 
man." I am glad to report that the Government of Peru later 
secured the freedom of these Indians and punished their captors. 

Cats Cradles. Hopotske, a pole with spines used to grate cassava. 
String over thumb and left finger end hanging down from palm; 
pull palm string with index of right hand and let end fall; pull 
palm string again and end drops; with index of right hand take 
up from through loose loop the outside left finger string and out- 
side thumb string and pull out through loose loop, thus having 
four strings which pass over to back, one between each finger 
and let fall behind; pull palm string which gives a basket-like 
form with the loop around each finger and thumb, apex five inches 
from palm. 

Wapuoitsa, threads. String over the index of left hand and 
thumb of right; take up string between thumb and index on other 
index from above with downward turn to right ; take up on back of 
five inside the string, under and over index strings; let go the 
string and take up on thumb the inside fifth string over the other 
strings; put index inside strings over thumb — take off lower thumb 
strings and take them up with ends of index turned down, or place 
end of index through these loops; let go other strings and holding 
with the index, turn palms outward and the figure remains. 



Vocabulary. 










THE 


FAMILY 




Family 


numuli 


Boy 


mteri 


Man 


ineri, xaxi 


Girl 


setcumteri 


Woman 


setcu 


Infant 


mptero 


Husband 


paneri, napoklero 


Nephew 


noparakleri 


Wife 


panandu, haninda 


Niece 


noparakleru 


Grandfather 


tote, toti 


Cousin 


molima 


Grandmother 


nahiro, hero 


Father-in-law 


nigimatieri 


Father 


papa, ri 


Mother-in-law 


nigimagini 


Mother 


mama, endo 


Old person 


keri 


Uncle 


zapa 


Young man 


magle 


Aunt 


kiukiu 


Young woman 


magluge 


Brother 


wewe, niewakli 


People 


eneri 


Sister 


tcigero, wawa 


Brother-in-law 


pani 


Son 


eiugeni, noteri 


Sister-in-law 


numegwenagero 


Daughter 


hitciciu, sitco 


Male 


gitgi 


Child, m. 


mteri 


Female 


sitcu 


Child,/. 


senahi 







Peabody Museum Papkks 



Vol. X, Plate 8 



\o' 




Piro woman's skirt, and men's bags for carrying various articles. (About 1;8.) 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 



63 



PARTS OF THE BODY 



Body 


imane 


Back 


kaspa, tcihispa 


Flesh 


egete 


Side 


sereta 


Skin 


fiuemta 


Breast 


witene 


Head 


wiciwita 


Chest 


westa 


Hair 


wiciuitc 


Abdomen 


weskota 


Grey hair 


klatgi eneri 


Buttock 


pukpala 


Face 


wehuci 


Arm 


wiganoh 


Forehead 


wehirota 


Elbow 


witzugiere 


Beard 


wesapto 


Hand 


wimioh 


Chin 


wakota 


Palm 


tcirete 


Eye 


wihada 


Finger 


seregiere 


Eyebrow 


wesavereha 


Thumb 


serehuimeyungie 


Eyelash 


wiceptatci 


Index finger 


satibtce 


Ear 


wihepe 


Leg 


wetapate 


Nose 


wihiri 


Knee 


wisoh 


Mouth 


wiihi 


Foot 


wihitce 


Lips 


wespe 


Sole of foot 


igitci 


Teeth 


weigi 


Heart 


wagi 


Eye tooth 


higesta 


Blood 


girari 


Tongue 


wena 


Stomach 


wesata 


Neck 


weprahe 


Intestines 


retckape 


Throat 


wenugi 


Brain 


ratcitca 


Shoulder 


witanae 


NUMERALS 




1 


setepgie 


11 


sati 


2 


epi 


12 


miumaka 


3 


ma pa 


20 


epimolie 


4 


epikutcaamukugie 


30 


mapamolie 


5 


serigieri 


40 


epikutcaa mukugiemolie 


6 


paseritamiyo 


50 


serigierimolie 


7 


yokepi 


60 


paseritamigomolie 


8 


anikaigiagieri 


70 


yokepimolie 


9 


unterigie 


80 


anikargiagier imol ie 


10 


pamolie 


90 


unterigiemolie 




COLLECTIVE AND FRACTIONAL NUMERALS 


First 


muetcinani 


A pair 


putali 


Single 


satopgiati 


One half 


sukaqueli 


Double 


soprigieri 


A half day 


temanani 


Another time pizalkapewa 







64 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



I 


ita 




We,/. 


wana 


You 


pitci 




You 


pimbina 


He 


pi tea 




They, m. 


wana 


She 


Mali 




They,/. 


wana 


We, m. 


hitca 


RELATIVE 


PRONOUNS 




Who 


klineri 




All that 


ipigineri 


Which 


katte 









"What is that? 
What did you say.^ 



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 



klinedna.^ 
itcena.'' 



Who is that man? 
Whose dog is that? 



klewakina ? 
kateni kevi? 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 



Some 


pimerina 


All, m. 


tuhiurineko 


Nobody 


ikiami 


Same 


walekla 


Nothing 


ikieni 


Both 


apina 


Mucli 


hitcolero 


Other 


sato 


Little 


sotsotagi 


Thing 


klini 


Ever J', m. 


pegeneriko 







USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 



My father 


neri, ita 


papa 


My cousin 


nemolina 


My mother 


nendola 




My hand 


nomio 


Y'our father 


peri 




My dog 


nopre 


Your mother 


perido 




My house 


pantci nofi 


His father 


reri 




Your house 


pantci pefi 


His mother 


rendo 









My 
Your 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 



no or ne 
pe 



His 

Our 



re 

witea 



DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES 



This, m. 


tcie 


These, /. 


hualeni 


This, /. 


fue 


Which side 


fegera sereti 


That, m. 


fegera 


This side 


tcie sereta 


That,/. 


huari, huali 


This man 


hebre 


These, m. 


huanua 


This woman 


Iiebro 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 9 6 



^ 




Piro loom and accessories, woven bands, netted bags, and leg bands with nut pendants. (1/8.) 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 



65 



Good 

Better 

Best 

Bad 

Worse 

Worst 

Sour 

Much 



Here 

There 

Much 



COMPARISON 




hinghileri More 


mahata 


hinghileri Most 


mahata 


hinghileri Little 


ukepineko 


unhinghileri Less 


hepeko 


unhinghileri Least 


hepeko 


unhinghileri Tall 


tano 


kapsali, katcueri Tallest 


tanpoti 


koleri 




ADVERBS 




evi There (distant) 


teka, bakka 


koniti I am here 


eviuna 


hitcolero 





SPINNING AND WEAVING 



Loom 


sakspalitsa 


Batten (black) 


kirthri 


To weave 


wasiri 


Warp string 


yamonotsali 


Woven cloth 


himta, rakatseri 


To spin 


tcibetewa 


Warp 


hitsa 


Thread 


wapgetsa 


Woof 


impta 


Spindlewhorl 


wahye 


Heddle 


katsuli 


Spindle 


hihye, tcibegio 


End stick (largest) 


sakalya 


Whorl 


hiparo 


End stick 


hiihik 


Spindlewhorl with 




Reeds at end 


yotalaila 


thread on 


hipowa 


Shuttle 


hihitcepihi 


Cotton beater 


hipanopihye 


Spreader reed 


katali 


Cotton 


wapge 


Batten (white) 


sakspalawapi 


To sew 


pintcamkatiwa 




BOW AND 


ARROW 




Bow 


kaciritoa 


Point (bamboo) 


keri 


Back 


kiri 


Feathers 


himexi 


Belly 


sisateri 


Knock 


wafinsa 


Arm 


iseno 


Arrow for fish 


palahagi 


String 


yokaritsa 


Arrow for pigs 


kiri 


Arrow 


kaciri 


Arrow for monkeys 


katsali 


Shaft (cane) 


ahahi 








MEALS 




Breakfast 


yetsikawa 


Nourishment 


niktci 


Dinner 


temakana 


To nourish 


niktciplnahieri 


Supper 


winikana 


To take nourishment pimia 


To eat 


pinigiehiua 


To drink 


puerani 


Food 


niktci 







66 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



PHASES OF THE MOON 



Moon 


siri, sere 


Full moon 


sereputekalelka 


New moon 


aruteksere 








DIVISIONS 


OF TIME 




Spring 


hinapu 


Tomorrow 


yatcikawa 


Summer 


walapu, emerikteli 


Yesterday 


kapethugeni 


Winter 


hanati 


Year 


walape 


Day 


hugeni 


Last night 


kapethugeni kainu 


Night 


uyatsunukai 


Day after 




Today 


tcawahugeni 


tomorrow 


yatcikawa penethu 



CARDINAL POINTS 



North pasereta 

Northwest pasereta paptox 
West hihorokiwakikatci 

gigetuhatca katci 
Southwest sohi tcarati 
South tcarati 



Southeast sohikatci 

East katcihespakioga 

retcpagatca katci 
Northeast paptoxi katci 
Zenith danox 
Nadir tcihi 



SALUTATIONS 

How are you? luigiteipitckaipitca? What is your name? kliwaque pitca? 







ANIMALS 




Monkey (small) 


nikali 


Ant (large black) 


kanagi 


Monkey (large black) mtciri 


Bee 


urmomana 


Monkey (red) 


kina 


Anaconda 


mabahera 


Jaguar 


mwakenutc 


Fish 


tcima, taperipa 


Dog 


kebi 


Wasp 


sani 


Cat 


cema 


Worm 


imenetskaha 


Tapir 


tciama 


Spider 


puitsanna 


Peccary 


miditci 


Tarantula 


sinankankara 


Wangana 


hinarii 


Snail 


iunualagi 


Hog (domestic) 


kutci 


Snail (large) 


gitciri 


Hog (wild) 


iyali 


Woodlouse 


luini 


Deer 


tcuteri 


Turtle 


serapi 


Bear 


icingitaciegi 


Turtle (shell) 


serapi nagi 


Squirrel 


iupitciri 


Terrapin 


inkunapalu 


Manatee 


pizkli 


Carapata 


waseynata 


Ronsoco 


ipeti 


Maggot 


sumi 


Fly (black) 


giero 


Lizard 


tciogi 


Fly (white) 


atcikata 


Locust 


ketsi 


Butterfly 


kakato 


Bat 


tcio 


Ant 


pukagi 


Toad 


yotero 


Ant (red) 


samkagi 







ARAWAIC\N STOCK, THE PIRO 



67 



BIRDS 



Bird 


kucici 


Cock 


tcanripa giegi 


Parrot 


zabeli 


Heron 


sagimageri 


Duck 


uptce 


Macaw 


pinteru 


Turkey 


kanati 


Vulture 


keripakha 


Hen 


tcanripa 


Eagle 
PLANTS 


patca 


Corn 


tcigi 


Balsa wood 


mapala 


Carrots 


gipali 


Palo Santo 


hukli 


Yucca 


tcimeka 


Log (balsa) 


ahamuana 


Bean 


poroto 


Leaf 


seri 


Cane 


putewak keri 


Frond 


katcikulu pastakapana 


Cane (wild) 


katkeleksi 


Flower 


katkali 


Tobacco 


iri 


Fruit 


eginegi 


Plantain 


paranta 


Root 


etske 


Cacao 


kanga 


Bark 


thamta 


Cinnamon 


kaneta 


Thorn 


kuna 


Areta 


higeperidi 


Wax 


iururu 


Cedar 


kanawa 


Copal 


zempa 


Palm (chonta) 


iniri 


Rush 


kamalegi 


Heart of palm 


tcitciritci 


Cotton 


wapge 


Forest 


tciya 


Pepper 


humuli 


Tree 


thamiuena 


Pumpkin 


sulia 



NAMES OF COLORS 



White 


klatali 


Yellow 


apina 


Black 


sageri 


Orange 


pualulu 


Green 


sotsuta 


Red 


kerutu 


Blue 


angatci 


Obscure 


mabsahati 



VERBS 



Able 


nemkateli 


Agree 


pulekatere 


Absent 


iranayatka 


Aim 


wamereteri 


Abuse 


kacerigieri 


Appear 


puegewa 


Accept 


nemerabandi 


Appreciate 


pugAviveniteri 


Accord 


puismikanto 


Apprehend 


puemakageri 


Accuse 


pineneageri 


Approach 


puatspanutawa 


Accustom 


nipenanakka 


Arrive 


ayatcewa 


Admire 


muirayapikandi 


Ashamed 


patenatena 


Advise 


puikutandi 


Ask 


wepumgeri 


AflSrm 


atcipenekanto 


Attack 


mankateri 


Agonize 


ripapani 


Attenuate 


puihurutiu-de 



68 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Balance 


gitwatgireri 


Cook 


puenkateri 


Be 


pitckalege 


Cool 


katcikleritewa 


Beat 


piugitcwa 


Count 


piantateri 


Beg 


panigeteri 


Counsel 


neneteri 


Begin 


inewakagieri 


Cover 


sapririgieri 


Behave 


panigei 


Crawl 


pukuseteri 


Bend 


sagirikli 


Crowd 


saliakagiewa 


Bite 


paskateri 


Cry 


pisaplugiatwa 


Blame 


walmutegewa 


Cure 


kacupalateri 


Bleach 


wemtakanatkali 


Cut 


mtapewa 


Bleed 


uhuluteri 


Dance 


nemtiwanipa 


Blow 


puepunutewa 


Decorate 


puserenatkali 


Boil 


piwalateri 


Deface 


ektetekamaretanti 


Bore 


piomugieri 


Deliberate 


pukiganetano 


Bring 


penegienu 


Deliver 


watcpakawageneta 


Brush 


puwiateri 


Depart 


wetcpatgiewa 


Build 


ipanuatewa 


Die 


wapananatgiewa 


Burn 


palahanerikanopatandi 


Dig 


pigitugvvewa 


Bury 


pikapanateri 


Diminish 


psotsotagipidwasli 


Buy 


panigiteri 


Disappear 


pamhanatha 


Calk 


piusitceru 


Disappoint 


kapunatanti 


Call 


tunsateri 


Disturb 


pakutgitceri 


Calm 


puemitcinuateri 


Divide 


psogiptcandi 


Came 


renani 


Dream 


wepunawata 


Capture 


saliageri 


Dress 


psaprerigiri 


Carry 


panikandi 


Drink 


puerani 


Carry (with 




Dry 


puepserikageri 


tump-line) 


panikasateri 


Eat 


pinigiewa 


Castrate 


restakatgeri 


Enclose 


pirigiriteri 


Catch 


puatgieri 


Enter 


gigalugeawha 


Cease 


wanekutka 


Embrace 


kakanehwetando 


Change 


satkapageri 


Escape 


pasigiewa 


Chase 


puenkaptcua 


Explain 


piimageri 


Chew 


pinigierenixi 


Extinguish 


putcuageri 


Choke 


ribeatnutka 


Extract 


kutcpageri 


Clear 


yunkapenwa 


Fail 


mahataka 


Coagulate 


pigithahali 


Fall 


yuananagieri 


Comb 


intkakagieri 


Fall asleep 


pukukalemei 


Come 


wenanigiewa 


Fan 


puapunutena 


Commence 


iniwakagiere 


Fasten 


pikpateri 


Conclude 


palitcageri 


Fasting 


hitcahugeni 


Confront 


pioputeri 


Favor 


pitcageri 


Conserve 


enemsakagiewa 


Fear 


pigiewa 


Consume 


ritcpahanatkali 


Feed 


niklcipenehieri 


Construct 


ipanuatewa 


Ferment 


piawulkagewa 


Contain 


puyahuta 


Fill 


katsapateri 


Contradict 


papaniteri 


Find 


wetcakageri 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 



69 



Finish 


nikanantca 


Intercede 


panikamteri 


Fire 


namanato 


Jest 


kalirigieri 


Fish 


kotcuhatawa 


Join 


pioptutere 


Flatten 


puigitcewa 


Jump 


ptalesutewa 


Fling 


wekunugieri 


Kill 


inkanateri 


Fly 


pamamta 


Kiss 


pamaleteri 


Float 


sagiririkle 


Kneel 


piyubsuyitewa 


Fold 


yunanageri 


Knot 


postageri 


Forget 


rasikatka 


Know 


wemateri 


Free 


maitcaweli 


Labor 


kiapareri 


Frighten 


pika 


Laugh 


wetsologiwatewa 


Gather 


pianimatawa 


Lead 


pindukwewa 


Give 


penegeri 


Leak 


psagigwa 


Glow 


tcitciupgeri 


Leave 


wanankai 


Go 


ayeri 


Lengthen 


walapitcanti 


Gone 


nianitci 


Level 


kutcageri 


Grasp 


puestaganti 


Liberate 


rasigiewa 


Grease 


kirenathalaga 


Lick 


pameruteri 


Grind 


pinigitcewa 


Lie 


payaluklawata 


Groan 


tciahatewa 


Lifeless 


repantke 


Grow 


kretkalanu 


Lift 


peopkateri 


Hang 


puitceripatena 


Load 


puetgiteri 


Harvest 


pukasitcandi 


Lock 


puisiateri 


Hatch 


saprerigieri 


I>ook 


peteri 


Hate 


pigegakanteri 


Loosen 


pikuserigieri 


Haul 


kosata 


Lose 


ipenkakandi 


Have 


waneri 


Love 


palikli 


Heal 


wetskatagewa 


Lower 


mala 


Heap 


muleteri 


Make 


pikamerateri 


Hear 


igenakukawa 


Make fire 


pitsuama 


Heat 


remelena 


Mark 


kwerika 


Heed 


pigerenteri 


Marry 


ianiriwatawa 


Help 


pipshageri 


Mask 


kayewa 


Hide 


piogimateri 


Match 


puegelpuka 


Hinder 


wemalateri 


Measure 


piahuteri 


Howl 


kumekuleri 


Meet 


pitcihalaemtani 


Humble 


gigekanoata 


Mistake 


igepenagueri 


Hunting 


riolikayatka 


Mix 


piopgetore 


Hurl 


puekunugeri 


Moisten 


aati 


Hurt 


mhulutawa 


Mortify 


sopirigieri 


Hurry 


mutciawa 


Move 


ayewa 


Imagine 


kantcirunatkali 


Mourn 


tciahatewa 


Increase 


pitcutenakante 


Nourish 


pimia 


Intoxicate 


puemetakagieri 


Obscure 


puwemtagieri 


Imitate 


wemtapatgeri 


Offend 


pigekakli 


Inform 


kiatcaparere 


Offer 


pinegeri 


Inquire 


pupumahaperi 


Open 


kucirigandewiciatandi 



70 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Owe 


pidibiwatci 


Shame 


pateteri 


Paddle 


kosete 


Shelter 


lapirigiahwa 


Pain 


katcindi 


Shoot 


puemkahateri 


Paint 


pionateri 


Show 


pakatgeteri 


Pass 


saluatewa 


Sift 


saihugiteri 


Passing 


repanatka 


Sing 


tcikaluretewa 


Pierce 


pionmgueri 


Skin 


pigispugieri 


Pity 


nuamuneriata 


Sleep 


puemegwa 


Plant 


wetaheri 


Slap 


puerlageri 


Play 


piamwatewa 


Slide 


rasegieri 


Polish 


tcitciatandi 


Smell 


winipa 


Pour 


supreatkali 


Spit 


puatskawa 


Present 


pikigelelukageri 


Soften 


pubtciriteri 


Prop 


piwustateri 


Speak 


wanberi 


Protect 


piwemerateri 


Stand 


famatewa 


Punish 


kastigateri 


Steal 


katcungeri 


Pursue 


puyahida 


Stop 


pakutci 


Put 


witageri 


Stoop 


pepuyuguawa 


Reach 


saplangatawa 


Strain 


saihugiteri 


Receive 


watgieri 


Strike 


piahutcakiewa 


Recover 


itcutkali 


Suck 


tcipuleneli 


Reduce 


totsotando 


Suckle 


tcutcupanageri 


Relax 


kucirigandi 


Sunburn 


panugeri 


Remove 


kateni 


Supply 


pwyankageritci 


Repair 


palitcageri 


Sweep 


satceritcewa 


Repent 


puamunenata 


Swim 


nanuhawa 


Resist 


wetcwamtewa 


Take 


wadgieri 


Respect 


pameteteri 


Taste 


petemgeri 


Rest 


papananitawa 


Terrify 


puwemiogeri 


Rejoice 


metcuata 


Thin 


kerinatcai 


Reward 


puyenateri 


Think 


wisenigoeri 


Rise 


kerinathala 


Throw 


puekunugiri 


Rising 


maharliwato 


Tie 


postateri 


Roast 


pigamateri 


Torment 


paentcingaigen 


Rob 


pitcukateri 


Touch 


tcasitceri 


Rot 


ritcpawatkali 


Trade 


panigiteri 


Rub 


satceritcawa 


Turn 


kerenathalai 


Run 


pianetka 


Twist 


saperitsatewa 


Said 


puikustewa 


Understand 


puemateri 


Say 


waneptcina 


Unite 


wakutsiregieri 


Scream 


saklanketawa 


Untie 


wesuteri 


See 


pateri 


Vomit 


tapleritawa 


Seek 


puekegieri 


Wait 


etcwakaka 


Send 


tuetleli 


Walk 


pasekamtena 


Separate 


wacerayani 


Walk (on trail) 


pukusehamena 


Set fire 


witcigeri 


Want 


ikwatkani 


Sew 


biutsa 


Wash 


kanaapewa 



AR AWAKEN STOCK, THE PIRO 



71 



Watch 


atcwakageri 


Wish 


nalekli 


Waylay 


peteri 


Wither 


yatcawa 


Weaken 


puemiwatka 


Worship 


pameletanti 


Weep 


satciritcawa 


Wrap up 


sapcritceri 


Whet 


pugewanatanti 


Yawn 


ramptionabkali 


Whip 


pukutcipgiateri 








ADDITIONAL 


WORDS 




Abdomen 


wesati 


Bark (dog) 


thamta 


Abominable 


ekatete 


Bark (tree) 


pitcitca 


About 


kwageli 


Basket 


kogita 


Above 


awaka 


Battle 


puekumukandi 


Abroad 


malekapiani 


Beach 


zati 


Absolutely 


peginarekotoriko 


Bead 


tehweti 


Achote (plant 




Beads (string) 


wapitci 


for paint) 


apigeri 


Beard 


wesopto 


Admiration 


sihi 


Beautiful 


kwigeleri 


Advance 


putenani 


Beast 


nikali 


Adze 


eptce 


Bed 


tcieteigeriko 


Affectionate 


vendi 


Before 


muenikana 


Afterward 


penithugeni 


Below 


mala 


Agreeable 


kinhalero 


Belt 


tcumbi 


All 


siyuka 


Besides 


ruyu 


Alone 


walepgiali 


Bitter 


samentcekpsali 


Always 


wanekia 


Blind 


mitcawa 


Ancient 


toro 


Blood 


gerari 


Anger 


remtewana 


Blunt 


hatendi 


Animal 


nikali 


Body 


imani 


Antique 


muetcikauniputi 


Bog 


kaspa 


Aperture 


repukanata 


Boldness 


mterihuni 


Areta (plant) 


hegeperidi 


Bone 


hipapua 


Ashes 


tcitcipagi 


Bottom 


aintcegi 


Assassin 


pualagiri 


Bowl 


kapurali 


Assent 


pieutageri 


Box 


pologi 


Attention 


igenakutena 


Boyish 


kobiti 


Avaricious 


katciperi 


Brains 


ratcitca 


Axe 


katate 


Branch 


wekano 


Backward 


katco 


Brave 


renlawana 


Bad 


ikwigelero 


Breath 


papananitewa 


Bag 


keri 


Breeches 


hitcaragia 


Bait 


ritheg 


Bridge 


kunkakigea 


Bald 


paginetena 


Bright 


itenti 


Balsa 


mapala 


Brilliant 


kalagiri 


Band 


tcumpi 


Broth 


iha 


Bandage 


biliawakawa 


Brush 


pupulubandi 


Barbed 


rendikayatka 


Bundle 


posteteli 



72 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Button 


fostegi 


Creature 


mteri 


Cabin 


yotero 


Crude 


erupti 


Cage 


teawa 


Cruel 


eetete 


Camp 


Sana 


Cup 


sulia 


Cane 


kanugeriri 


Cushma 


ikanopi 


Cane (wild) 


kogihaci 


Custom 


piwapukineri 


Canoe 


kanawa 


Dance 


pausatiwa 


Care 


tcako 


Danger 


ilakakli 


Cause 


tcenani 


Dawn 


ratcpa hugini 


Cave 


siephepli 


Daytime 


ingeni 


Cavity 


wenama 


Dead 


ripananatka 


Certainly 


klikakli 


Dear 


hitcolero 


Chain 


iuematsa 


Debt 


palikli 


Chance 


heritca 


Decoration 


apihaieri 


Charcoal 


tcitcisiri 


Deep 


fenhali 


Cheerful 


nikatharo 


Descent 


twesitnatka 


Chicha 


kuya 


Ditch 


mitayo 


Chief 


wigiwi 


Discouraged 


iwagiwati 


Chief's name 


klineriwakipiya 


Dish 


sorotci 


Chonta (palm) 


iniri 


Distant 


wasera 


Chop 


pakastagieri 


Ditch 


tubskata 


Clay 


mapo 


Door 


ibapto 


Clearing 


Sana 


Doubtless 


triakle 


Clever 


kwigelero 


Down 


aklapulini 


Cloak 


hitcarata 


Dress 


katseri 


Close 


aviku 


Drunk 


rimeta 


Cluck 


kaputa 


Dust 


pagi 


Coal of fire 


tcitci 


Each 


kada 


Coarse 


yugepi 


Each one 


kadahisiwi 


Coat 


kutcpakandi 


Early 


uyatsunukawa 


Comb 


tceri 


Earth 


huge 


Cook 


ralitcandi nixi 


Edge 


spueta 


Comfort 


meiwala 


Egg 


fonaki 


Common 


paginirinekopla 


Enclosure 


tcieputeku 


Companion 


nimotsolai 


End 


mkatataro 


Conceal 


pateri 


Enemy 


kaminitcieri 


Consent 


ralekli 


Enough 


palitcagieri 


Consumed 


retcpahanatka 


Entire 


pegineriko 


Content 


meiwatena 


Equal 


kwigali 


Convey 


piokanateri 


Estuary 


iswitha 


Cord 


yuketsa 


Even 


ginando 


Corn 


tcigi 


Evil 


kantci 


Corpse 


ripanaatea 


Everywhere 


puenemeneriakla 


Cotton 


wapge 


Exaggerate 


vendiputenani 


Coward 


mareti 


Excuse 


palmata 


Crab 


yotero 


Fan 


tigenetpui 


Crazy 


tcinikaneli 


Far 


wastcira 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE PIRO 



73 



Farm 


Sana 


Handle 


igiepi 


Fast 


hetceri 


Happiness 


puekuatewa 


Fat 


putenani 


Hard 


ciklu 


Fat, n. 


retuigi 


Harpoon 


tcukurigeri 


Fault 


mekutsuri 


Hat 


sagietpua 


Favor 


pipehageanu 


He 


wali 


Fear 


pikagiawa 


Health 


itcutkali 


Feather 


imegi 


Hearing, n. 


wegepi 


Fetters 


wima 


Heat 


evi 


Few 


sotsotagi 


Hers 


fo 


Fierce 


kuali 


Hide 


fuemta 


Finally 


nikatatcali 


High 


feuu 


Fine 


kwakeleri 


Hill 


mango 


Fireside 


tcitcisi 


Hill-top 


wesanariha 


Firewood 


tcitci 


His 


ha 


Fishhook 


yumueigi 


Hole 


sapwa 


Flame 


kari 


Honey 


ururapa 


Flat 


entagati 


Hot 


emeta, emeri 


Flexible 


merete 


Horn 


wekapa 


Floor 


naratika 


House 


pantci 


Fog 


ciarka 


How 


ipitcatiti 


Following 


iroyiani 


Humor 


pasigiewa 


Forest 


inkwainisi 


Hunger 


natcinatkali 


Fresh 


okiadiida 


Hungry 


natcenatkani 


Friend 


namegwini 


Hut 


mteripantci 


From 


ageri 


I 


ita 


Full 


kenandi 


Ice 


katcikleri 


Fuzz 


wisakegia 


Immediately 


ayawatci 


Gain 


hitcka 


Impossible 


epkamerethuli 


Gay 


yuku 


In 


egi 


Gaudy 


eraba 


Inferior 


patenosa 


Gently 


ahikelaklu 


Information 


puenkagenu 


Ghost 


nzamena 


Island 


kaneprekli 


Glance 


reyepi 


Joy 


kwigeletweno 


Go 


piata 


Judge 


rektcikali 


Gold 


thrusti 


Jug 


irapi 


Good 


kwigelero 


Justice 


kanugereri 


Gone 


napukani 


Kind 


satikla 


Grand 


kerini 


Kindness 


powakate 


Group 


putanani 


Ladder 


unkalegea 


Grove 


tciyi 


Lame 


hitcuri 


Gum 


pukigiti 


Large 


keri 


Habit 


nekameriwaklatatano 


Late 


kai 


Hairy 


wigeuktsa 


Lean 


puemnu 


Hall 


kerehata 


Lie, n. 


kayalukeri 


Hammer 


hitcelaipi 


Lifeless 


repanantka 


Hammock 


tcietci 


Litter 


puentankuteri 



74 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Little 


iwikle 


Opposite 


wakani 


Load 


pukanaptcua 


Other 


pasereta 


Long 


wekla 


Ourselves 


witca 


Loss 


kwevi 


Over 


ruyu 


Low 


patenosa 


Overhead 


tuakanonaka 


Maker 


kameretua 


Paddle 


saluhapi 


Male 


aneri 


Paint, n. 


wiyona 


Mankind 


eneri 


Painted 


kayunali 


Mat 


satcemta 


Pan 


yomugeri 


Meat 


igeti 


Paper 


kirika 


Medicine 


katsupali 


Passion 


panakawa 


Menstruation 


temteha 


Past 


pukao 


Merry 


keneri 


Pepper 


kumuli 


Middle 


sukakeli 


Perhaps 


kasitciri 


Milk 


tcukba 


Piece 


wastageri 


Mine 


wita 


Pitcher 


akbagi 


Mirror 


aniafi 


Place 


inigelawaka 


More 


sato 


Plantain 


paranta 


Moreover 


patetci 


Plate 


paranta 


Mouthful 


yubika 


Platter 


sirotce 


Mud 


ka'ali 


Play 


sepate 


Much 


itcolena 


Plead 


paniugenteri 


My 


no 


Pocket 


zapa 


Naked 


mamkati 


Poison 


katcinahaspa 


Nail 


itcegi, fostagi 


Pole 


ahamuana 


Name 


genaka 


Pound 


penigetciwa 


Narrow 


etserero 


Poor 


meganenkatati 


Nausea 


piusa 


Pot 


kulpeta imati 


Near 


hitcaneg^vini 


Power 


wemkatali 


Nearby 


tciapulaku 


Preparation 


pasigitcwa 


Nearly 


itcaweweri 


Proprietor 


kaihari 


Needle 


sapui 


Quick 


iamputi 


Nest 


kusitci 


Quickly 


yamputi 


Never 


ikiepahugeni 


Rafters 


ikwansata 


New 


eruti 


Rag 


puserimkali 


New Year 


waleruti 


Rain 


hina 


Nickname 


yukegiwaea 


Rainbow 


tci 


No 


ikia 


Rather 


wetcinani 


Nothing 


malasa 


Ready 


tcenahute 


Nourishment 


niktci 


Relative 


numuli 


Now 


tcawawiwi 


Resin 


itcali 


Never 


pahugeni 


Restless 


ipugahuta 


Occasion 


pakatgi 


Right 


putekli 


Occiput 


haknugi 


Rind 


thamta 


Odor 


rasekata 


Ring 


pirigieri 


Old 


bere 


River 


seriha 


Opening 


fenhali 


Roast meat 


pulutere 



ARAWAIvAN STOCK, THE PIRO 



75 



Rough 


ipubtceri 


Some 


pimerina 


Rubber 


pegi 


Somehow 


imaguini 


Rule 


fuetana 


Song 


tcikali 


Sad 


puesinika 


Soul 


usamena 


Salt 


tewi 


Sour 


kapsalikatcueri 


Same 


waliku 


Spirit 


kakwali 


Sand 


fsatte 


Stake 


pitcpap 


Sap 


ihiha 


Star 


kakgere 


Satisfactory 


rapoohanta 


Stem 


maserati 


Scalp 


wimta 


Stick 


hukli 


Scarcely 


yumatci 


Still water 


ipaha 


Seal 


keria 


Stink 


pusi 


Seat 


pteplali 


Stone 


sutii 


Secret 


puetcirukandi 


Stool 


tepleli 


Secure 


wali 


Stop 


atcenakaka 


Sensible 


iukletsa 


Straight 


ethero 


Settlement 


keripubtci 


Strong 


itculi 


Shade 


katciklawaka 


Struggle, n. 


kwya 


Shame 


patwata 


Stubborn 


kamenitciri 


Shelter 


emagiitceri 


Suck 


hirini 


Shell 


soluta 


Suitable 


makli 


Shirt 


kanopi 


Summit 


fenu 


Short 


tcinehuti 


Sun 


katci 


Shotgun 


tcitciesi 


Support 


tcineri 


Shoulder 


puethana 


Surround 


pirigeri 


Shut 


empaleti 


Swiftly 


tcineyuti 


Sickly 


pawatanto 


Syrup 


putcuakerespa 


Sickness 


kapuhali 


Tail 


funtci 


Side 


wakani 


Tall 


bamiputi 


Sidewise 


sereta 


Teacher 


imakandi 


Sieve 


sihoyi 


Tears 


wegwileha 


Silent 


puetcerugiema 


Then 


wanegAveni 


Since 


agieri 


There 


bekka 


Skeleton 


inskaguli 


Therefore 


iguigeli 


Skirt 


emkatceri 


They 


hoapa 


Skirt (black) 


katcirinama 


Thirsty 


nerenano 


Skull 


ratcitca 


This 


fegera 


Sky 


tawaka 


Thither 


beka 


Slander 


heyalahilyeka 


Thong 


kutcikiateri 


Slap 


wata 


Thorn 


sutci 


Sleep 


Avepunawata 


Through 


ituku 


Sleeping 


remka 


Time 


satkapewa 


Slowly 


ahigelaklu 


To 


tcapla 


Smoke 


nontcitcani 


Tobacco 


iri, idi 


Snuff-taker 


kolipa 


Together 


pawakalinaki 


So 


triakli 


Too much 


ikwiglari 


Soap 


mukatcutara 


Town 


pubtci 



76 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



TraU 


aterihapu 


When 


hikli 


Trick 


wagerota 


Whence 


hetispukuta 


Trunk 


pologi 


Where 


wakwapcani 


Tube 


huaka 


Wherever 


inuawini 


Tump-line 


appta 


Which 


kleneri 


Twilight 


yatzukawa 


Why 


iritcilenegi 


Twins 


tetcpakakugeni 


Wide 


kerira 


Twist 


psatkapewa 


Wind 


hanati 


Ugly 


ekata 


Wing 


imegi 


Unborn 


katcikleri 


Wisely 


ritcinikwili 


Underneath 


mala 


Witch 


kahuntci 


Unequal 


iputekli 


With 


ima 


Upward 


tuaka 


Within 


itoko 


Useful 


kwanaseri 


Without 


pwotcpageri 


Useless 


mohareli 


Wood 


ahamuana 


Valuable 


ikatciperi 


Wool 


imegi 


Very 


putenani 


Worn-out 


keri 


Vicious 


putenane 


Worse 


aktataputenani 


Vine 


sapi 


Worth 


hikiepwi 


Waist 


wiptcigi 


Worthless 


ibeila 


Warm 


puenkuka 


Wound 


katcinuru 


Waterfall 


kafuhali 


Year 


inewakatka 


Wax 


iiu-uru 


Yes 


ehe, ewa 


Weapon 


hahali 


Yet 


ikwiegwa 


Wedge 


remaleteli 


You 


puapa 


Well 


huigelero 


Your 


ne 


Wet 


hanatkali 


Yoiu-s 


pua 



ARAWAKAN STOCK, THE MASHCO 77 

MASHCO 

Distribution and General Culture. The Mashco, Moeno, or 
Sirineiri, as they are called by their surrounding neighbors, be- 
lieve themselves to be related to the Piro. It is a small tribe, and 
occupies the territory on the south of the Manu River, between 
the Sutlija and upper Madre de Dios Rivers, The Mashco live 
along the rivers, two or three families together in one house, with 
other houses a short distance away. They often have their fields 
in a common clearing. Their houses are of the common type built 
of poles, and covered with leaves. While they have their fields 
together, each family has its own section. The men hunt together, 
and divide their catch equally among the families. The men wear 
cotton cushmas, and the women wear short cotton skirts. They 
paint their faces, hands, and feet for protection from insects, as 
is common among all the tribes in the region. They wear anklets, 
and arm and leg bands, but do not mutilate the body in any form. 
They make very good pottery. They are the only Indians left in 
the region who continue to make and use stone axes. 

Marriage. In their marriage relations, they are not as strict as 
some of the other tribes, for they often marry Campa or Piro. 
The present chief is a Piro who married a Mashco woman. 

The Dead. They wrap the body together with all its belong- 
ings in a cushma, and bury it in a sand bar along the banks of the 
river; even a man's dogs are killed and buried with him. All 
members of the family paint their faces black, and spend one day 
and night in weeping. The body is carried to the grave by two 
men, the whole tribe going along. No marker is used, and the 
next high water obliterates all traces of the burial. 

Personal Appearance. The Mashco were known first through 
the Campa, who had been in the habit of capturing the Mashco 
for servants. The Mashco are larger than the Campa, and darker 
in color than the other tribes about them. They are also taller 
and longer headed. The head measurements of the only one I 
was able to measure were: length, 187 mm., and breadth, 142 mm., 
giving a cephalic index of 75.94. 

My information about the Mashco was obtained from Sr. 
Baldomero Rodriguez, who lived in their inunediate neighbor- 
hood, and had many of them in his employ. I made a long journey 



78 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



to visit the tribe, but upon arriving at their river, learned they 
had gone away, no one knew where. After waiting for three weeks 
and despairing of their return, I was compelled to leave without 
seeing them. 



Vocabulary. 




All 


ondupa 


Bad 


yakulucni 


Body 


nono 


Brother 


yeyi 


Cause 


kesepi 


Come 


ena 


Corn 


hiuje 


Cup 


tciromopa 


Drink 


kuthkotai 


Driver 


ekuli 


Eat 


yembapeta 


Good 


bivi 


House 


kitcapo 


Little 


bapana 


Lizard 


due 


Many 


wandupa 


Moon 


thin 


Monkey 


tcure 


Monkey (black) 


sue 


Move 


mbui 


Much 


wandupa 


Night 


ne 


One 


runa 



Pay 


amambisbis 


Peccary 


ote 


Pineapple 


ihina 


Plantain 


apati 


Poweel (bird) 


kwelye 


Pot 


tcerokutho 


RiBe 


amatcipoto 


Saber 


itcapalo 


Sleep 


titi 


Snake 


embi 


Stream 


umai 


Sun 


ne 


Surge 


tcaraba 


Tapir 


siema 


Two 


gundupa 


Three 


gundupa 


Turkey 


pano 


Turtle 


petha 


Uncle 


kokoa 


Until 


kanopoki 


Wangana (animal) 


ndieri 


Woman 


buavi 


Yucca 


tai 



PAXOAN STOCK 

History. The first missionaries from Lima who crossed the 
Andes to the upper Amazon River found a number of related 
tribes speaking dialects of the same language ; they gave the name 
of the most prominent tribe to the whole stock. That tribe has 
succumbed long ago to the by-products of European civilization, 
but its name, Pano, survives. According to their early tradition, 
the Pano came from some place in the North, near the equator. 




Figure 6 
Cashibo fishing village 



and settled about the mouth of the Huallaga River. Here they 
came into contact with the Yevera, who forced them to move 
southward into the plains of Sacramento, the region between the 
Huallaga, Ucayali, and Pachitea Rivers. In time, a half dozen or 
more tribes were differentiated and established in definite territory 
of their own: most important of these were the Conebo, Setibo, 
Sipibo, Cashibo, Remo, and Amahuaca. The missions, first es- 
tabhshed by Father Juan de Sucero in 1686, later brought Indians 
from various tribes together in villages. The Indians became dis- 
satisfied, however, largely because diseases introduced by traders 
were scattered among all the tribes. The people died by thou- 
sands, and many tribes disappeared entirely. Marcoy (page 576) 
says that in the Eighteenth Century, a hundred and twenty-seven 



79 



80 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

tribes were recorded along the upper Amazon and its tributaries; 
now only twenty-nine remain. There was a general uprising 
among the Indians in 1768, the mission stations were destroyed, 
and many of the missionaries were killed. Of the missions in Peru, 
which in the middle of the Eighteenth Century numbered nearly 
one hundred and fifty, only nine remained in 1875. On account 
of the activity of these early missionaries, the beliefs and customs 
of all the tribes in that region were so modified that it is impossible 
today to rebuild their ancient culture. Traditions survive that 
the Pano had bark paper upon which they kept hieroglyphic rec- 
ords of divisions of the year, dates, and important facts; that they 
carved idols of their deities; worshipped the sun and fire; and 
practised the rite of circumcision. These accounts are not well 
authenticated, and we shall never know what the facts were. The 
attempts at hieroglyphic writing made for me were not at all suc- 
cessful. No one except the man making the marks could tell what 
they were, hence I do not reproduce them here. 

CONEBO 

Distribution. The largest of the Panoan tribes at the present 
time is the Conebo, which occupies the territory along both sides 
of the Ucayali River about Cumarea, in latitude 10° south. For- 
merly the tribe numbered several thousand, but today there are 
not more than five hundred remaining. They are the Indians most 
commonly found in the employ of the rubber men all along the 
river. They say they are brothers of the Inca, and that there is a 
branch of their tribe called Inca. My best information was ob- 
tained from a Conebo man through an educated Macheyenga, 
Samisiri, as an interpreter, and from Dr. Baldimero Rodriguez, a 
Spaniard, who had lived many years among the Conebo, and spoke 
their language well. 

At Cahuide we found a Conebo man married to a Macheyenga 
woman who spoke both Macheyenga and Conebo. By using 
Samisiri as interpreter, we were able to get a vocabulary and an 
account of certain Conebo customs and beliefs. The man did not 
remember his Conebo name. He came from down the Ucayali 
River where he had been used for several years by rubber 
gatherers. When his first wife died, he brought his only son to 



I'ANOAN STOCK, TH1<: CONKBO 



81 



the Javero River, and married the Macheyenga woman. His 
wife's Conebo name is Kaiyanovi, and his son's is Waringoci. 

The original home of the Conebo tribe, according to the ancient 
tradition, was around twenty-three small lakes along the Urubamba 
River, two or three days in canoe below Sepahua, or six days above 
the mouth of the Tambo. Eleven lakes were on the left of the 
river and twelve on the right, and all were entered by canoes from 
the Ucayali through small communicating rivers. Some tribes are 
still living in this region. The names of the lakes from south to 





FiGUBE 7 

Conebo tobacco pipes of wood with stems of bird bone. 



(2/7.) 



north are: Siboya, Ankia, Vinoya, Comairiya, Toboj^a, Nosotobia, 
Sawaiya, Aroya, Pasaya, Hanapansia, and Sanpiya on the left; and 
Sunapavora, Panaosa, Masio, Kako, Amakadia, Sipidia, Sararaya, 
Ipaiyira, Natoiki, Komangiya, Taoqua, and Pakatca on the right. 
We passed along this river, but were unable to learn of any such 
lakes. They were, no doubt, mere bayous, the names of which have 
been forgotten, and not lakes. There are many of them along the 
Urubamba and Ucayali Rivers, frequented by the Indian fisher- 
men. Villages are often built on the high banks of these pro- 
tected bayous. 

Houses. The Conebo build quadrangular houses, and orient 
them north and south. The southern end is left open to the ridge, 
while the northern end has a circular projection, and is roofed to 
within four feet of the ground. The roof on the sides of the house 
extends to within three feet of the ground. 

A typical house measures forty-four feet long and twelve feet 
wide, with six posts five feet high and five inches in diameter on 
each side. The northern semicircular end, which extended four 



82 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

feet beyond the square, is supported by two posts. The ridge 
pole is supported by four forked posts, six inches in diameter and 
ten feet high. There are no cross ties of any kind, not even at the 
end of the house. The roof is supported by thirty-four rafters, 
seventeen on each side, and fourteen laths, seven on each side. 
The roof is made of long palm leaves, put on with the butt of the 
frond at the ridge. The leaves of the left side of the frond are bent 
to the right at an angle of forty-five degrees, and three or four are 
tied together to the laths in three places. The west roof is put on 
first, beginning at the northern corner. The east roof is allowed 
to project eight or ten inches above the west roof. The method of 
building and roofing the house reveals the fact that the storms 
come from the north and east. These roofs last for five or six years, 
when they must be renewed. The poles and roof are all tied on 
with strips of the bark of the balsa tree (Cecropia). This house 
had three fires, and three large mats, which would indicate that it 
was occupied by three families. The fires are always just under 
the roof on the west side, which allows most of the smoke to escape, 
and also allows the larger logs used for the fire to extend outside. 
The fire is made of three large logs with ends so placed together 
that they serve as a tripod for the large cooking pot; if an extra 
pot is needed another log is placed between two of these. By this 
means, fire is easily kept, and quickly kindled by the use of small 
sticks between the large logs. It is an effective and economical 
method. The Conebo use no hammocks, but sleep, wrapped in 
their cushmas, on mats on the floor without mattress or head-rest. 

Dress and Ornamentation. Conebo men wear plain white, dyed, 
or painted cotton cloth cushmas and embroidered trousers. They 
often go without their trousers, which are considered more ap- 
propriate for dress occasions. The women wear cotton skirts and 
shoulder cloaks (plate 11, b). These they usually dye black, and 
often embroider the skirts. Sometimes, instead of the cloak, they 
wear a waist with short sleeves. The women gather wild cotton, 
spin, and weave it. The men's cushmas are often painted by 
stretching them on the ground, and applying black paint in beauti- 
ful geometrical designs with a brush or a strip of bamboo. 

Men and women wear long necklaces of seeds or animal teeth; 
close-fitting necklaces of beads ; and bracelets and anklets of woven 
cotton fringed with hair or teeth. The anklets are sometimes 



Peabody Museum Papers 






Vol. X, Plate 10 




Conebo Indian pottery vessels. (1/11.) 



PANOAN STOCK, THE CONEBO 83 

woven in place. The men also wear around their necks, hanging 
down their backs, a finely woven band of cotton to which is at- 
tached the " utcate," the use of which is described on another 
page. The men carry with them at all times their trinket bags, 
which contain their toilet articles and small implements: their 
tweezers for extracting the beard, a bit of mirror, a comb made of 
spines split from the chonta palm, fruit of the genipa or a kernel 
of arnotto for paint, a lump of wax, and a ball of thread for repair- 
ing their arrows. 

Food Supply. The Conebo have good fields, and grow all the 
vegetables and fruits common to the tribes of the region, but they 
are the great fish and turtle eaters of the upper Amazon. It is said 
that the Conebo are never found where there are not plenty of 
fish. They prefer fish to game while most of the other tribes prefer 
game. They use the bow made of chonta palm (Oreodoxa), and 
arrows of wild cane (Gynerium saccharoides) . The blowgun they 
obtain by barter from the Jivaro. The harpoon, with toggle head 
and float of a short piece of balsa wood, would seem to be a native 
invention. Acuna (page 80) says the Indians of the lower Amazon 
use harpoons. The harpoon is used to catch the paiche {Vastus 
gigas), which feeds in the quiet water along the bayous. It is a 
large crimson scaled fish, growing to a length of eight feet. The 
Indians remove the skin, cut the flesh into large flat slabs, salt it, 
and hang it out to dry. When properly cared for it will keep for 
several months. They also catch the sea-cow (Manatus australis), 
and preserve its flesh in the same way. Large turtles are captured 
when they go out to lay their eggs on the sand bars in the dry 
season. The men build a blind, or hide in the shadow of some tree 
on a moon-lit night, until the turtles come out some time after 
midnight, then rushing from their hiding place they turn them 
over on their backs, rendering them helpless. The men carry the 
turtles home, and keep them in pens or artificial ponds until needed 
for food. The eggs are collected in large numbers, crushed and 
preserved with salt in earthenware jars for two or three months. 
Formerly the turtles were fattened and sold to the missions. The 
egg is half the size of a hen's egg, and very good eating. 

Canoes. The Conebo are the best canoe builders in the whole 
region, but are not better canoemen than the Piro. All their 
canoes are the regular dugout type, made from the red cedar or 



84 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

of capironi {Cedrela odorata), known as the canoe tree, which grows 
from three to six feet in diameter, very tall, straight, and free from 
knots. The largest canoes are forty feet long, four and a half feet 
wide, and two and a half feet deep. The bow is bluntly pointed, 
while the stern has a broad flat extension used as a seat for the 
steersman. Canoes are made without keel, because of the easier 
handling in rapid waters. The sides are worked down very thin. 
Although the tree works easily when green, it is hard to split 
when dry. They formerly burned out the canoe, controlling the 
fire with wet leaves, but now they use an adze. The canoes are 
usually plain, but they are sometimes painted in geometrical de- 
signs. The paddle is made with great care from capironi, or from 
the broad fiat root of the ohe tree. It is five and three quarters 
feet long and seven and a half inches wide, painted in elaborate 
geometrical designs in black. 

The Dead. When a man dies he is wrapped in his cushma, and 
his face, hands, and feet are painted black for burial. His bows 
and arrows are placed at his side and buried with him, while his 
canoe is broken to pieces. As the body lies on the floor, the women 
relatives dance around the corpse, holding up their hands, and 
singing the song of the dead. The men sit outside the house drink- 
ing chicha. At sunset the body is buried in the earth floor of the 
house, on its back, at full length. Formerly the body was placed 
in a large jar, sealed, and buried in the floor. When a woman dies, 
her necklaces and other ornaments are buried with her, and all 
her cooking utensils are broken. The family continues to live in 
the house. A widow cuts her hair and weeps at intervals for a time, 
but there is no other sign of mourning. 

Religion. The Conebo believe in a creator, who was once on 
earth when he made men, animals, plants, mountains, and valleys, 
but is now in the sky, from whence he watches the actions of men. 
He is called Otcipapa, or grandfather. They offer him neither 
homage nor devotion of any kind. They believe in an evil spirit, 
called Urima, who lives in the earth. All evils are attributed to 
his influence. They fear him, and refrain from mentioning his 
name, but address no petitions to him. 

Music. The Conebo are not particularly musical, yet they have 
flutes and Pan's pipes of bamboo joints, wliich are used by individ- 
uals for their own amusement. The music here recorded was heard 



PANOAN STOCK, THE CONEBO 



85 



sung and whistled by many different persons upon many occasions. 
No words were used, but the music was hummed in a low voice. 



i 



s^ 



:?=at 



^^ 



w 



? 



f f f r 



i 



D.C. 



r-r 



^1 



S 



^ 



ir & ^ 



Marriage. The Conebo permit plural marriages, but few men 
other than the chief have more than one wife. There is no formal 
marriage ceremony, but the approval of the head-man must first 
be secured, and then the girl's father must be consulted. After 
the marriage the man may live with his wife's father, until he 
clears a field and builds a house. When the marriage has been 
agreed upon, a fiesta is arranged for a moonlit night. Abun- 
dance of intoxicating drink is manufactured for the occasion and 
all dance and drink freely late into the night. The girl to be mar- 
ried is taken in charge by some older women, and after she has 
been given drink until she is overcome, they build a platform of 
split balsa logs, lay the girl upon it, tie her legs apart to two up- 
right poles, and then perform the operation of defloration with a 
bamboo knife. During this time the others have continued the 
dance. The girl, when the dance is finished, becomes the man's wife 
without other ceremony, and takes him to her father's house. 

This custom of defloration is common among all the Panoan 
tribes. Its origin and import are impossible now to determine. 
Among some tribes an old man performs the operation. The 
Panoan worship the moon: as the performance takes place at the 
full of the moon, it is easy to imagine, as some of them do, that the 
ceremony is in the nature of a sacrifice of virginity to the moon. 
It is a common saying that the moon makes women of the girls. 
When you ask a man why the operation is performed, he will 
either say that he does not know, or that it is a way of letting 
everybody know the girl is a virgin. Whatever the origin, this 
public performance would have a powerful influence in stimulating 
virtue. When asked if a man would take the girl in case the women 
reported she was not a virgin, they reply that all girls are virtuous. 



86 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

When there are two or more wives, each has her own sleeping 
mat, fireplace, and cooking utensils. Each wife gives the husband 
a part of the food, which he eats apart, and when he has finished, 
the wives eat what is left. Boys eat with their fathers, and girls 
with their mothers. 

Before a girl reaches puberty, or in other words is eligible for 
marriage, her mother makes a very large earthenware jar, capable 
of holding twenty or more gallons. This is intended to hold the 
intoxicating drink for the daughter's defloration ceremony. The 
drink is made by girls who chew the root of sweet cassava {Mani- 
hot ai-pi) in order to mix the saliva with the juices of the plant and 
start fermentation. Pulverized corn is sometimes added to the 
masticated cassava, the whole mixed with water, and allowed to 
sit in the sun until sufficiently ripe to satisfy the taste, when it is 
strained through a long basket, and stored away in the large jar. 

Personal Appearances. The Conebo admire a flat, broad head, 
and plump arms and legs. Soon after birth, the child's head is 
bound with a board on the forehead and a pad of cotton behind. 
This bandage is kept in place for five or six months, which insures 
the permanency of the deformation. This method is followed also 
by the Sipibo, and this accounts for the high cephalic index of 
these two tribes (plate 18 and figure 9). Men and women of all the 
Panoan tribes wear constrictions on the arms, wrists, and ankles. 
These are worn tightly enough to interfere slightly with the circu- 
lation, causing a deposition of fat in the tissues, and producing 
the desired plumpness of limbs. 

Pottery. The Conebo women are the best potters in the whole 
Amazon Valley (plate 10), but they are followed very closely by 
their Sipibo neighbors. The pottery made by these two tribes is 
supplied by exchange to many other tribes throughout the Ucayali 
River and its tributaries. The Conebo make more pottery, and 
hence their name is attached to all the pottery of the two tribes. 
The materials and decorations used by the two tribes are practi- 
cally identical, and the processes are the same, but the Conebo are 
better mechanics and the more skilful artists. While it is impos- 
sible to determine which tribe made a piece of common pottery, 
one may be quite certain that the finer examples were manu- 
factured by the Conebo. 

The materials are all obtained locally. The white clay is col- 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 11 



^ 




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Panoan garments: a, Sipibo man's cushma; b, Conebo woman's shoulder blanket. (1/15.) 



PANOAN STOCK, THE CONEBO 87 

lected from the river banks at low water, and the pottery, on this 
account, is made during the dry season. The ash or bark of the 
ohe tree {Licania utilis), or of some other tree giving a very fine 
white ash, is mixed with clay in an old pot where it can be kept 
clean. When the clay, mixed with water, has reached the desired 
consistency, a small lump is rolled, between the hands or on a 
board, into a long fillet, the size depending upon the thickness of 
the pot. This is then placed around the edge of the pot under 
construction, squeezed into place by the fingers, and smoothed by 
holding a stone on the inside, and rubbing with a shell on the out- 
side. Thus the worker goes around and around the pot, until it 
is completed. No wheel is known; the pot sits in the sand or on a 
board. The necks of the smaller pots are made separately, and 
luted on. 

The small drinking bowls are made exceedingly thin, and in per- 
fect form. The rim is trimmed with the teeth, moistened with the 
tongue, and finished with the thumb nail. When the pot is finished, 
it is allowed to stand in the shade until it has hardened, then it is 
smoothed and pohshed. If it is a cooking pot, it is fired at once; 
if it is to be painted, a thin shp of very fine white clay is first ap- 
plied, and when dry the decoration is laid on with a strip of bam- 
boo. Yellow clay is used for yellow slip, and red stone for red slip. 
The large rough pots are placed in a slow open fire, and thoroughly 
burned. The large puberty pots are burned by placing them up- 
side down on a tripod of three smaller pots, and covering them 
with a great heap of dry thorny bamboo, then a fire is built under- 
neath, and fed with the same material. By this method very little 
smoke is produced, and the intensity of the heat can be controlled. 
The fine drinking bowls are treated very differently: a large pot 
with a hole in the bottom is placed on three stones, or more often 
three piles of inverted pots and the bowls to be fired are inverted 
inside the large pot. The first one is placed over the hole and ashes 
poured around and over it, and others are inverted over this, until 
the pot is full, or all are used. A slow fire is kept burning under 
the large pot until all are well baked, then they are taken out one 
at a time, and while hot, melted copal is poured over them. This 
accounts for the glazed appearance characteristic of this pottery. 

The various designs used in the decoration of the pottery must 
have had some symbolic significance in the beginning, but at 



88 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



present no one seems to know the symbolism. They say they have 
always used these forms. Similar designs are used in making their 
bead necklaces, in painting their cushmas, and in decorating their 
paddles, tobacco pipes, etc. 

The rough pottery is used for ordinary cooking purposes; the 
small bowls, for dipping food and drink from the larger pots; the 
larger bowls, for passing drink to guests; the larger jars with 
short necks, for carrying and storing water; and the largest of all 
are made primarily to hold the intoxicating drink used at the 
puberty ceremony for girls, and later used for storage purposes. 
The largest of these chicha jars so far reported is one in the Uni- 
versity Museum, Philadelphia, collected by the author in 1914, 
which is four feet two inches across, and three feet high. 

Grammar. The plural is formed by adding ' bu ' to the singular : 
dog, otciti; dogs, otcitibu; parrot, wawa; parrots, wawabu. The 
mascuHne adds 'embu' to the singular or plural, and the feminine 
adds 'aibu'; dog, otciti; dog, w., otcitembu; dog, /., otcitaibu. 

The conjugation of four verbs, be, speak, live, and bring, follows: 



TO BE, UNANKU 





PRESENT 


IMPERFECT 


Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


1 iadiki 


nowariki 


1 buenduraku 


kaurakatiriki 


2 suaikimi'iki 


matoi'iki 


2 miaraibirei 


matokimimoabukanai'i 


3 hariki 


haboriki 


3 haraki 

PAST 


rambakandosiwa 




Singular 


Plural 






1 katanki 


nuarakatinki 






2 minkikatana 


matokibotakatankenda 




3 karaka 


burakanki 






TO SPEAK, YOYOIKE 






PRESENT 


CONDITIONAL 


Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


1 uriyoyoikai 


nowarayoyoiku 


1 yoyoitiraibire 


norawutsatiayoyoitiki 


2 miasayoyoiwe 


malokeyoyoikai 


2 yoyoitibiraiki 


haskatarayoyoiberikati 


3 owariyoyoikai 


owabobiyoyoikai 


3 haberayoyoitibiriki 


haskalarayotoikati 



IMPERFECT 

1 warayoyoikatiai noaborayoyoikatiai 

2 warayoyoikatiai moarayoyoikatiai 

3 warayoyoikatiai moarayoyoikatiai 



PRESENT PERFECT 

1 uramananku nowararanku 

2 mironkininanku haskalaronkianku 

3 haskalaronkinanku haskaronkiyoyoikanku 



PANOAN STOCK, THE CONEBO 



89 



PAST 

1 liyarayoyoikai miyakemiyoyoika 

2 miyakiyoyoka miyarayoyoikenki 

3 miyarikiyoyoka miyarayoyoikenki 

FUTURE 

1 ygrgyoyoiki nowarayoyoitiiki 

2 yoyoiwui haborayoyoitibiriki 

3 yoyoirabiratiiki haborayoyoitibiriki 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

haroyoyoiku 



PAST PERFECT 

1 haskataraunyoyoi- haskatankemiyoyoiku 

antanku 

2 haskatarakeraan- haskatankemiyoyoiku 

anki 

3 eroyoyoikambaiki wabarahaskalanyoyo- 

ikai 



IMPERFECT 

yoyoiwu 



PRESENT P.UITICIPLE 

harayoyoikai 



PRESENT PERFECT 
IMPERATIVE 

haberayoyoiviraku 



PRESENT 




Singular 


Plural 




1 m-ahaku 


noahano 


1 


2 miakihariva 


matokihariva 


2 


3 haiirahaku 


harakanku 


3 




IMPERFECT 


1 
2 
3 


1 haiirahakatitai 


haiiranoahakati 


2 haiirahakatig 


miakihaii'ikatia 


<J 


3 harakati 


haiirahakatikanu 





PAST 



1 urahakatie 

2 miakihaiikatie 

3 habutaraipowTiika 



TO LI\^, HARAKA 

FUTURE 

Singular Plural 

urihabirati'iki ninononhanonku 

harivandosiwu handosiwu 

haraviraku haraverakanku 

CONDITIONAL 

harakianku norahativiriki 

haravimirahakanku mirahati'iki 
haravirakanku harakanti'iki 

PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

haraka 

PAST PARTICIPLE 

haiirahakatitai 

IMPERATIVE 

nendurahaku 



noarahaku 

noararamahaiipowniku 

haiirahapownikanku 



Singular 

1 rabuiteiki 

2 abuikima 

3 haraibuti'iki 



1 urabuku 

2 menkibua 

3 burkima 



TO BRING. URAVIKAI 

PRESENT FUTURE 

Singular Plural 



Plural 
nora'abuiti'iki 
nundosiwu 
wabunj^buti'iki 

PAST 

norabuku 
minkibua 
marabukanki 



1 erabuti'iki 

2 nunkibuti'iki 

3 bukinka 



norabuti'iki 

bundusiwa 

haborabuti'iki 



CONDITIONAL 

1 burati'iki noraburbuirati'iki 

2 bucongdoconk bendosimi 

3 haraburburati'iki harabuti'iki 



PRESENT PARTICIPLE 

burconghaienawa 



PAST PARTICIPLE 

marabwaku 



IMPERATIVE 

iraki 



90 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 



Anything 


hawidi'ibidai 


All, /. aiinvobitcoditi 


Some 


yamerdiki 


All, m. itceritsanaii 


A few 


tsowarihovida 


Same harliki 


Nobody- 


howana 


Sufficient yamatanerake 


Nothing 


maraiyamasai 


Both drabui 


Much 


itcaliti 


Each one habitcorilai'i 


Few, m. 


yamataniraker 


Other oitsa 


Every, m. 


havitci 


Such a ha'adi 


Every, /. 


hatioavia 


Something hardiki 




Either 


owitsaraskaravitci 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 



I 


iya, ilya 


We 


witsanawa, noabu 


Thou 


yebitco, mia 


You 


natoti, matobu 


He 


drabui, eanato 


They 


yawitsarasibanawa. 


She 


hatinetoti, owa 




owabu 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 



Mine 


nokona 


Thine 


hawina 


His 


seitsa 



Ours 


habati 


Yours 


hawina 


Theirs 


kokui 



DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES 



This, m. 


nato 


That, distant, m. 


hadflci 


This, /. 


nokonarikinekto 


That, distant, /. 


hicimeyakata 


That, m. 


howirato 


These 


oyakaka 


That, /. 


OM-adi 








COMPARISON 




Good 


hai'inkinokawe 


Sour 


pagi 


Better 


hakontiki 


Sourer 


makac 


Best 


hakontiki 


Sourest 


makac 


Bad 


hakomolikisinai 


Much 


itcariki 


Worse 


vinokai'idake 


More 


itcebideska 


Worst 


haskirasabutsanake 


Most 


itcemiliki 


Sweet 


wata 


Little 


kimca 


Sweeter 


watacema 


Less 


itcamecigo 


Sweetest 


watacema 


Least 


itcamecigo 



PANOAN STOCK, THE CONEBO 



91 



Vocabulary. 










THE 


FAMILY 




Family 


itcarikanonkai'ibo 


Brother 


honiboci 


Man 


werbo 


Sister 


sgvi 


Woman 


ai'ibo 


Son 


yosi 


Husband 


mia 


Daughter 


yosa 


Wife 


nokoeni 


Child, 7n. 


otco'atonk 


Grandfather 


otcipapa 


Child,/. 


mici 


Grandmother 


tetacko 


Boy 


waka 


Father 


papa 


Girl 


yosa 


Mother 


teta 


Infant 


tciikitcora 


Uncle 


tciopapa 


Grandson 


kai'ibo 


Aunt 


natci 


Granddaughter 


tsano, tetaciko 




PARTS OF 


THE BODY 




Body 


yamarakanami 


Stomach 


poko 


Flesh 


nami 


Belly 


poro 


Skin 


bici 


Arm 


hatioya 


Bone 


saotc 


Forearm 


poya 


Skull 


manapu 


Upper arm 


kici 


Head 


mapo 


Lower arm 


vitais 


Hair 


woa 


Elbow 


poenki 


Hair, white 


wos 


Wrist 


multuki 


Face 


vimano 


Joint 


pontonko 


Beard 


koimi 


Hand 


maka 


Eye 


vero 


Palm 


mikenopas 


Eyebrow 


verokosini 


Thumb 


mikana 


Ear 


paveki 


NaU 


mansis 


Nose 


dretci 


Finger 


miatoti 


Mouth 


kusa 


Index Bnger 


icama'oha 


Tooth 


seta 


Patella 


drabosa 


Tongue 


hana 


Foot 


tai'ipoga 


Neck 


teton 


Sole of foot 


tai'inopas 


Shoulder 


vaska 


Toes 


tai'imontis 


Back 


karso 


Heel 


tai'itciponk 


Side 


espi 


Ankle 


tai'itongo 


Breast 


sfrotci 








CARDINAL POINTS 




North 


paro 


Southwest 


natokayavi 


South 


tcipunki 


Southeast 


natotcipunki 


East 


varipikoti 


Zenith 


nato'abutciki 


West 


varihikita 


Nadir 


maiwitcitco 


Northwest 


nendoriki 


Up river 


parorebuki 


Northeast 


nendoriparatcipunki 


Down river 


toipunki 



92 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



UNIVERSAL SYSTEM 

The Conebo have words for one and two only; four is sometimes two 
and two, while all the other words are taken from the Quichua instead of 
the old Panoan. The Quichua is like the northeastern Peruvian dialect. 
I do not now attempt to account for this borrowing. 





1 havitco 


14 tcunka tcusku 






2 rabui 


15 tcunka pitcika 






3 kwimica 


16 tcunka sokota 






4 tcusku 


17 tcunka kantcis 






5 pitcika 


18 tcunka pusak 






6 sokota 


19 tcunka iskun 






7 kantcis 


20 rabui tcunka 






8 pusak 


21 rabui tcunka havitco 




9 iskun 


22 rabui tcunka rabui 




10 tcunka 


30 kwimica tcunka 






11 tcunka havitco 


31 kwimica tcunka havitco 




12 tcunka rabui 


40 tcusku tcunka 






13 tcunka kwimica 


50 pitcika tcunka 
VERBS 




be 


oinke 


move 


lamarakaka 


buy 


howakope 


paddle 


hSwenake 


call 


kernake 


paint 


masa 


carry 


seyake 


painted 


masaawa 


chop 


pusake 


pass 


venokaene 


come 


netahooa 


pay 


sheroe 


cook 


yoake 


pick 


senaraki 


cry 


slyeke 


return 


kakase 


cut 


nakaki 


roast 


yonanke 


die 


mawata 


run 


hawakeentaka 


dig 


tceneke 


sell 


manege 


divide 


pakerske 


send 


katawa 


drink 


seyake 


sew 


kursegkS 


eat 


pete 


shoot 


towate 


enter 


heke 


sing 


aburwa 


fall 


rakate 


sit down 


yakate 


fly 


noya 


sleep 


osae 


give 


mSneke 


smell 


kenanke 


go 


nena 


sting 


natursaka 


grow 


yose 


stir 


coveanke 


have 


yetanke 


sweep 


masote 


hear 


nlnkiyeme 


swim 


nonoe 


hide 


pebldaka 


think 


cenane 


hunt 


havernake 


vomit 


kenane 


know 


megoniyema 


wash 


tcokapareba 



PANOAN STOCK, THE CONEBO 



93 



ADDITIONAL WORDS 



above 


wokltcideke 


canoe 


monte 


absent 


mimpapiyoetii 


cat 


meceato 


after 


nokooronampotaame 


chair 


yacate 


afterwards 


dramldeaki 


cloak 


kolltce 


all 


havltce 


close 


keneya 


all 


hativavia 


cloud 


nictc, nItakoS 


all, m., j)l. 


echereetsauie 


coca 


hawaro 


all,/..p;. 


ienvobetcodete 


copper 


p&nse 


alone 


habetco 


corn 


serke 


also 


habeseeke 


cotton 


wasmie 


always 


nenowldeeta 


cow 


vaca 


anger 


merakake 


crazy 


tcopotawake 


ankle 


tictongi 


dance 


weweuahoa 


arm 


halebya 


dangerous 


hakomilekekatema 


arrow 


peya 


dark 


tcararike 


as if 


nadavenakautekaua 


day 


etesavate 


at night 


yameamerie 


day after tomorrow aetsabakes 


axe 


yame 


deaf 


ninkiyamede, nlfnkiyemah 


back 


carso 


deep 


koceo 


ball 


varawalo 


difficult 


anantesnareke 


balsa 


tapa 


deer 


tcaso 


basket 


sinta 


dinner 


yantamparabano 


beard 


koerne 


direct 


anatcireke 


beautiful 


akolekhehooa 


distance 


otcolike 


bed 


watce 


dog 


otcetc 


before 


mooa 


double 


tsamarake 


belly 


poso 


dozen 


takevalakeola 


below 


yakatce 


drum 


tambora 


between 


hike 


duck 


nono 


bird 


esa 


each one 


habetcorelie 


black 


woa 


ear 


pavake 


blind 


yamerdike 


early 


netawe 


body 


yamarakaname 


easy 


onantemaleka 


bone 


sSotc 


earth 


mie 


both 


drabue 


elbow 


pognke, pontonko 


bow 


kanote 


enough 


yamatauerakg 


bracelet 


esorsta 


eye 


vgro 


breast 


srotce 


eyebrow 


v6rokosene 


branch 


hewepay5k 


face 


vemano 


brave 


buabo 


far 


otcosereke 


breakfast 


Impebano 


fear 


ngtepautcea 


bridge 


kawate 


finger 


meatote 


brilliant 


kencolike 


fire 


caro, tee 


cacas 


torampe 


first 


habetco 


cane 


sawl 


fish 


woa 



94 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



flesh 


name 


lower leg 


velass 


floor 


hamata 


machete 


matceto 


flowers 


hua 


massasamba (frui 


t) samameate 


fog 


matse 


massamba (fruit) 


nesaurimeS-re 


following 


habwetaokl 


mend 


koshKtlkg 


forearm 


poya 


midday 


guadeapu 


fork, wooden 


sasa 


milk 


torHmpe 


fork, silver 


sasica 


monkey 


esokoro 


foot 


tiepoga 


moon 


os6 


four times 


etcfrekatabate 


mouth 


kusa 


fruit 


sena 


mouth 


sgrke 


gold 


cole 


much 


etcalete 


hammock 


amaka 


nail 


nauses 


hand 


maka 


name 


hani 


handsome, m. 


hakonteke 


neck 


taton 


handsome, /. 


rakgrnaenow 


never 


k&rnami 


happy 


hoyamaka 


new 


hekerakQ 


hat 


yonarake 


night 


ocenHre 


head 


mapo 


nobody 


howana 


headache 


esendica 


noise 


t6tiramet6 


health 


meminenolmpade 


nose 


drgtce 


heel 


tietceponk 


nose-ornament 


kgrnitc 


hill 


mauesne 


not any 


yS-merska 


horse 


cabie 


nothing 


mariyamari 


house 


srobo 


not yet 


oKmpadeo 


how 


howlde 


now 


oKmpadeoe 


hunger 


terapecasgperandasuaso 


ocelot 


enowaka 


hunt 


guanorake 


old 


papacgo 


index finger 


eshania oba 


old man 


otcspapa 


injustice 


erackeam^k 


old woman 


tetacgo 


jaguar 


eno 


old tree 


hevetano 


just 


habetceralnkg 


one or the other 


owetsaraskaravetce 


lack 


manorakg 


once 


yabetcorStatauga 


lake 


eyah 


one-fourth 


driibuekaskgsabue 


large 


ane 


one-half 


kftskebSno 


last 


pQwfistea 


one-third 


neaw6 


late 


marakibadS 


orange 


naransa 


lazy man 


yomtitsti 


other 


oetsa 


leaf 


nepuS 


paddle 


veente 


left, to the 


mgrmeo 


pair 


kesydrabue 


lemon 


lemoh 


palm 


mekgnopas, tienopas 


lie, 71. 


hansuetaetl 


Pan's pipes 


pakanowekao 


life 


dromivg 


pantaloons 


tcgrastg 


little 


yamataneraker 


papaya 


potca 


light 


howl 


parrot 


wawa 


load 


karka 


part 


satu 


long 


m6nk6rden3,uk6 


past 


ewldeke 



PANOAN STOCK, THE CONEBO 



95 



pa telle 


drabosa 


then 


olmpadeo 


peccary 


hondo 


third 


kenieca 


pipe 


cenetapoo 


thing 


hardeke 


plantain 


paranta 


thirst 


tireseatcasgatsemotsoson 


play 


manorakg 


three-fourths 


; hahetcekSskgr 


pole 


heve 


thrice 


kemesherSbotaeva 


potato 


paa 


through 


hOwewoomanketcetcowemaukeva 


pure 


hesvey&ma 


thumb 


mekana 


quickly 


6stonawe 


tired 


lergosemSrezS 


quiet 


coplsege 


tired, very 


greokoceame 


rain 


oe 


tobacco 


dromba 


reason 


olmparda&hevJno 


today 


necanengata 


rest 


wgrekoseSme 


toes 


tiemontes 


rifle 


waratawate 


tomorrow 


wakes 


right, to the 


mekayow 


tongue 


hana 


river 


huo!ya 


too bad 


menoklenaka 


roof 


peshe 


tooth 


sata 


sad 


hoyenig 


trail 


vie 


sad 


hoyenig, peftmerae 


tree 


hewg 


salt 


tace 


tribe 


sowotsa 


same 


harleke 


trunk 


heweveda 


sea 


piroSne 


turkey 


coso 


second 


napong 


turn, n. 


wietetso 


secure 


hiKnpedeke 


twice 


habetgrekatanga 


shawl 


dakote 


two-thirds 


drabasaboa 


shirt 


kotong 


ugly 


hakemoleke 


shirt 


tcetondS 


until 


groki 


shot-gun 


towate 


upper leg 


kece 


shoulder 


vS,ska 


useful 


hiyonoteama 


side 


aspe 


various 


etchareke 


silver 


coleke 


verba, fruit 


nerswa 


sing 


micinahoa 


village 


pgskauko 


single 


yakapalebano 


voyage 


dramaunkaki 


skin 


bece 


waist 


kotonk 


supper 


pepalebano 


war 


senate 


skull 


manapoo 


warm 


tsanaseke 


sky 


nie 


water 


umpas 


sleep 


osakas 


way 


vie 


small 


mackotceenow 


where 


howlde 


snow 


neawl 


white hair 


wos 


some, m. 


yamgrdeke 


wind 


newa 


some, /. 


tsowarehovida 


word 


haimhiG 


something 


hawedeebedae 


work 


nokora 


soul 


mawate 


wrist 


muetuke 


spoon 


tcetcka 


year 


tsosenemarike 


spoon, wooden 


nokesta 


yesterday 


yanta 


tapir 


awa 


yucca 


atsa 



96 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



SIPIBO 

Distribution and General Culture. The Sipibo properly belong 
to the region of the Ucayali River near the mouth of the Tambo, 
but today they are found scattered among rubber workers all 
along the Ucayali, Urubamba, and Madre de Dios Rivers. Their 
traditional home was a place called Roboya on the lower Ucaj^ali. 
The group whose physical measurements are recorded here was 
found in the possession of Sr. Maximo Rodriguez, a rubber gatherer 
on the Madre de Dios, near the mouth of the Piedras River. We 
are indebted to Sr. Rodriguez for much of our information, for 
the privilege of working with the Indians, and for his own splen- 
did hospitality. 

The Sipibo speak a dialect of the Panoan language very similar 
to that of the Conebo. Their whole culture, material and social, 
IS practically the same as that of the Conebo. They have the 
same loose political organization, with a head-man who exercises 
little authority except in warfare, and occasionally in family 
quarrels. They successfully repelled invasions attempted by the 
Inca in ancient times, but they were greatly impressed by their 
civilization and warfare. They think that the Inca will yet return 
to power in the Andes. Anything they see that is new, strange, or 
l)eyond understanding, they believe belongs to the Inca. 

Home Life. The Sipibo build the same type of house as that 
described for the Conel^o (plate 12, a). They sleep on mats made 
of reeds, or the soft parts of palm fronds. For their food supply, 
they depend less upon fish and more upon agriculture, than do the 
Conebo. They grow large fields of yucca or sweet cassava, and 
make it into flour as needed. When the plant is about ten months 
old, they pull the tubers, peel, and soak them in an old canoe for 
several days, then shred them and roast in large pans, thus re- 
ducing the mass to a very coarse flour. This flour may be stored 
for several months, and used as needed. It is eaten in soup or with 
water only, and is very nourishing. The plant grows from a cut- 
ting, and requires very little cultivation. 

The cooking utensils consist of the usual pots, bowls, wooden 
spoons, and ladles with handles on either the right or left side (plate 
15). 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 12 



^ 





Sipibo house and group 



J 



^ 



CO 



< 
fin 

O 



CO 

< 

Ph 

s 

t3 



O 
O 

Ph 




c 

I— ( 

o 

'a 
m 



PANOAN STOCK, THE SIPIBO 



97 



Dress and Ornamentation. The men dress in a cotton cushma 
(figure 10), which reaches to the knees, and sometimes they add to 
this a pair of embroidered trousers. The women wear short cotton 
skirts, tcitonti, and cloaks, rakota, over one or both shoulders 
(plate 13). Men and women go bareheaded except at night, or 
in the sun, when they throw a loose cloth over the head. The 
women gather the wild cotton, seed, clean, and store it away in 
large leaf pockets which have a hole in the side for the hand. These 
receptacles are suspended from the roof, and look like hornet 







Figure 8 
Sipibo potter 



nests. The spinning is done with a spindle of chonta palm, ten 
inches long, having a whorl of pottery, one and a half inches in 
diameter, and three-quarters of an inch thick, similar to those of 
neighboring tribes. The lower end of the spindle rests in a gourd 
cup, while the other is twirled between the thumb and forefinger. 
In order to prevent perspiration and the clinging of the thread, 
the fingers are frequently dipped into a bowl of ashes. 

The cushmas, skirts, and cloaks are woven on a large horizontal 
loom (plate 14, b). The necklaces, and arm and leg bands are 
woven on a small heart-shaped loom made of a bent liana (plate 16). 



98 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

The cushma may be dyed dark red, and have heavy hnes of black 
painted over it, or it may be white with either red or black lines 
in paint (plate 11, a). The native-made skirts and cloaks are usu- 
ally dyed black. 

Cords are made of bast, and used for nets, bags, carrying- 
baskets, harpoon and bow cords, and drum strings. The men wear 
strings of feathers hanging down their backs, and long strings of 
beads and seeds over the left shoulder and under the right arm 




Figure 9 
Sipibo mother and children. The head of the infant is undergoing artificial deformation 

(plate 17). The knife, utcate, is attached to a long finely woven 
band, and hung around the neck (plate 17). 

Both sexes wear half-inch bands on ankles, wrists, and above 
the elbows, also necklaces of monkey teeth, and various kinds of 
beads. Those of monkey teeth fit close to the neck, arms, legs, or 
wherever worn (plate 18) . The longer strings of beads are worn 
over the shoulder. Beads are made of seeds and nuts of different 
kinds, bird bones, and teeth of various animals, such as pig, jaguar, 
tapir, and monkey. Many glass beads are used on bands, an inch 



c^ 



% 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 14 





Sipibo Indians: a, Dugout canoe, 46 feet long and 5 feet broad, made from a single log; 
h, Woman weaving; c, Head-man and family 



r^ 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 15 o^ 




Sipibo household utensils, fire fans, and knife. (About 1/7.) 



PANOAN STOCK, THE SIPIBO 



99 



wide, worn about the neck and wrists; these are of different colors, 
and woven into beautiful geometrical designs (plate 19). Both 
men and women wear nose and lip ornaments. The septum is 
pierced, and a small disc of shell or silver, the size of a dime, is 
suspended on a thread or tied up close to the septum. The lower 




Figure 10 
Decorative design from a Sipibo man's cushma 



hp is pierced in the middle at the level of the gums, and a flat piece 
of silver or wood, kodi, inserted. This ornament is two to four 
inches long, tapering from one-fourth inch at the Hp, to one-half 
inch at the lower end (figure 12, a, b). They paint their faces, 
hands, and feet in elaborate geometrical designs as shown in figure 
13. These hnes are laid on with strips of bamboo. A strip, of the 



100 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



desired width, is drawn over the surface of the paint, then laid 
on the skin, and drawn from left to right. The work is free hand, 
and done very rapidly. Certain persons become more expert 
than others, and may be called upon to paint a number of friends. 
Anyone may wear the paint, which seems to have no significance, 
other than that of satisfying their ideas of beauty. 

Tobacco. The men grow tobacco, and smoke it in large wooden 
pipes, six inches long, one and a half inches across at the bowl, 
and tapering to one-half inch at the bottom. The short stem is 




O 




Figure 11 
Decorated battens used with tape and belt looms, Sipibo Indians. (4/7.) 



made of bird bone; these are like the pipes of the Conebo shown 
in figure 7. The women never smoke. 

Artistic Designs. The Sipibo use the same general geometrical 
designs as the Conebo on their pottery, paddles, clubs, and parts 
of the body. They usually paint the legs, arms, forehead, and 
neck black, and then paint designs in red or black on the face, 
hands, and feet. The original designs, here reproduced (figure 13), 
were drawn by a woman with a strip of bamboo on the face, hands, 
and feet of her husband ; then with a pencil she copied the designs 
on paper after a tracing of a hand, a foot, and a rough sketch of a 
face, had been made for her. The same designs are used by women 
and men without distinction. Whatever meaning these designs 
may have had originally has been lost, for they are used for purely 



.^ 



Peabody Museum I'apehs 



Vol. X, Plate 1G 




Sipibo arm bands, spindlewhorls, and looms for weaving narrow fabrics. (About 1/10.) 



n/ 



^ 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 17 




Sipibo necklace of woven cotton with nut-shell pendants, and a feathered head band. (1/4.) 



PANOAN STOCK, THE SIPIBO 



101 



decorative purposes now. It is interesting to note how completely 
blank spaces are filled with fragments of designs, and how variety 
is given by making some of the elements in wider lines. There is 
a general similarity of design running through all the productions, 
whether on implements, utensils, clothing, or the person, but no 
two are exactly alike. The angular forms may have been produced 
by basket-work. Very few cui-ved lines, if any, are to be found, 
and no reaUstic drawings. 

Marriage. A man may marry as many women as he can support, 
but all must belong to his own tribe. He may have concubines 






-v 




rrrr 




r^ 



Figure 12 



Sipibo Indians: a. Silver disc worn suspended from the septum of the nose (see plate 
13, a); 6, Sliver labret worn through the lower lip; c, Wooden labrets. (1/1.) 

from another tribe, and so raids are made among enemy tribes for 
the purpose of obtaining women. A man must marry all the 
sisters of the family as soon as they are old enough, but he may 
marry into other families also. The marriage ceremony with the 
operation of defloration, is the same as among the Conebo. Each 
wife has her own fire in the large common house, and she and her 
children eat and sleep alone. Houses are not in villages, but each 
house is separated by some distance of forest. A son may bring 
his wife into his father's house; or several brothers may build a 
large house together, and bring up their families under the same 
roof, having nothing else in common. Wives are always very 
kindly treated; even when unfaithful they are not punished or 
driven away. They are thus encouraged to confess, and give the 
name of the offender. The method of settUng such a family affair 



102 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



is, to say the least, unique. The offended hushand gives no sign, 
but at the next fiesta when there is ahvays drinking of chicha, and 
all are more or less intoxicated, he catches the guilty man by the 
hair of the head, and cuts a long deep gash in his scalp, with a small 
knife, called utcate, made and carried by every man for this pur- 
pose. They are now made of steel, but in the form of the ancient 
peccary tusk knife. Satisfaction is thus secured and the matter 
finally settled; there is no grudge remaining, and no retaliation. 
The offender cannot be attacked at any other time, cut in any 
other place, or punished in any other way. From the fact that each 





Figure 13 

Sipibo Indians: Designs used in the decoration of the person by both sexes. The lines 
are in black or red paint. Usually the neck and forehead are painted black 

man carries an utcate, it would seem that there must be constant 
use for them. We examined a number of heads, and found that 
about one in four had scars, and some fellows had three or four. 
Scars are no disgrace, yet those who had none took it as a good 
joke on the other fellows, and pointed out the guilty ones, who took 
it all good naturedly. Men treat women and children with great 
consideration. They trade their own things for necklaces, beads, 
etc., and give them to the women. Sometimes a woman w'ould 
not trade her own things because her husband was away, but 
when he came he always allowed his wife to do as she wished. I 
never saw any evidence of anger or rude treatment between hus- 
band and wife. 



1^ 



V 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 18 




jilflff 






Sipibo head-flattening board, hair combs, and woven arm bands ornamented with monkey 

teeth. (About 2/5.) 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 19 I' 







Sipibo beaded necklaces, and bracelet (upper figure). (About 1/3.) 



PANOAN STOCK, THE SIPIBO 



103 



The Dead. A\'hen a man dies a small canoe is made for a coffin, 
his body and all his belongings are placed in it, and buried in the 
earth floor of the house. All his neighbors attend the funeral, and 
while the men are placing the coffin in the grave, the woukmi march 
around the outside of the house, holding hantls and weeping. The 
wife or wives remain in the house near the grave. 

The famil}' cuts down the field, and moves away to prepare a 
new field and build a house. The old house is left standing over 
the grave. The widow at once goes into mourning; she cuts off 
her hair, paints her face black, and wears white clothing for a 
year. Every night for a month, and every full moon for a year, 
she returns to weep at her husband's grave. She throws away 




^ 



:CI 



Figure 14 
Sipibo paddle, showing decoration in black paint upon either side. Length, 68 inches 



everything that her husband has given her or made for her. At 
Rodriguez's place there were two women in mourning; one for a 
relative, and the other for her husband. The one mourning her 
husband had her hair cut close to her head, was dressed in white, 
and remained under her mosquito net all the time, eating nothing 
for some days. The other woman, as I passed, was crying so as 
to be heard a long distance, but in a half hour when I passed again, 
she showed no signs of mourning or grief. 

When a woman dies, she is buried under the floor of the house 
in the same way, without any ceremony, and the widower shows 
no sign of mourning. When a small child dies, the neighbors come 
in and sit around the room; the dead child is passed around and 
each woman in turn holds it for a time in her arms, and then it is 
buried under the floor of the house. 



104 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

Religion. The Sipibo worship the moon as mother of all men. 
At each full moon there is a fiesta with songs and dancing. They 
have no worship of the sun. They do not account for the origin of 
man or of anything else. There are three heavens, all above, 
where the souls of the dead go. There were but two until white 
men came, when the lowest heaven was invented for them, the 
next higher for all the savages, and the highest for themselves, 
who are not savages but civihzed men. 

The good and bad all go to the same place at death. Heaven, 
or the place of the dead, is much like earth, except that there are 
no stoiTns, and sunshine always. There are no enemies, or hard- 
ships, but plenty of game, fish, and women. All live above eter- 
nally, and there is no resurrection or return to earth. There is very 
Httle difference between the treatment of the good and bad, except 
that the bad may have more difficulty in getting food. 

Medicine Men. The medicine man gathers herbs, makes medi- 
cine, yobusi, and attends the sick. He reduces dislocations, and 
sets broken bones with splints and bandages. He massages a 
great deal in his treatments, but practises sorcery also. He shoots 
small bones or wooden arrows into anyone at a distance, causing 
sickness and death. He can remove such arrows shot by other 
medicine men. To do this he has a smoking ceremony in which he 
uses tobacco. He sucks the arrow, removes the piece of bone or 
wood from the body of the sick man, takes it from his mouth, and 
exhibits it to the patient and to others present. In certain ail- 
ments he covers the seat of the pain with wet tobacco leaves, 
blows on them, and afterward sucks out the disease and swallows 
it. Such diseases do him no harm. If a man dies in spite of this 
treatment, it is because the other medicine man is more powerful 
than he, and he is not held responsible. The position of medicine 
man is inherited by his eldest son. The sick are well cared for, 
and the old people are respected and kindly treated. 



PANOAN STOCK, THE AMAHUACA 105 

AMAHUACA 

Distribution and General Culture. I was unable to visit the 
home of the Aniahuaca, but my information was obtained from 
two very rehable sources: Sr. Mathias Scharff, who had lived and 
worked among the Amahuaca for several years, using them in 
gathering and transporting rubber; and an Amahuaca girl, Kat- 
seime, about twelve years of age, belonging to a Peruvian woman 
who was on her way from the interior to Lima. The girl had been 
stolen from her own people a few years before by the Campa, and 
sold to a rubber gatherer. We spent six weeks at the same rubber 
station, and got a vocabulary and much information from her. She 
was afterward taken from the low hot interior country over the 
Andes mountains at an elevation of 16,600 feet. She was poorly 
clad, compelled to walk to keep up with her owner on horseback, 
and, in her exhausted condition in the cold high climate, she con- 
tracted pneumonia, and died before reaching the coast. 

The home of the Amahuaca is the high country about the head- 
waters of the Sepauhua, Piedras, and Purus Rivers. The tribe is 
reported to be very large, possibly three or four thousand people. 
They live in families along the river in large communal houses. 
Their houses are built one hundred to two hundred feet long, and 
thirty to fifty feet wide, with very high ridge pole, and open gables. 
The framework of the house is made of rough poles, and the roof, 
which comes down to within three feet of the ground, is made of 
palm leaves. A wide hallway bordered with woven mats of palm 
leaves runs through the middle of the house. On each side there 
are a number of rooms ten or twelve feet square, separated from each 
other by woven mats. Fifty or more people Uve in each house. 

The people sleep in large wide hammocks, capable of supporting 
two or three persons. When the evenings are cool a fire is built 
under the hammock to keep the occupants warm. Each family 
has its own fireplace, which is either in the central hallway or at 
one end of the house. 

The Amahuaca have a very loose tribal organization. The chief 
inherits his position, but exercises very little authority except in 
times of warfare, when he has full control. They are an agricul- 
tural people, having large fields for growing corn, cassava, plan- 
tains, pumpkins, and peanuts. Their food supply is supplemented 



106 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

by hunting and fishing. They build blinds of leaves near game 
trails, and shoot the animals with arrows as they pass. They also 
use blinds to call the curassows within shooting distance. They 
capture the tapir by digging a deep pit in his runway, and cover- 
ing it with leaves. They carry the dirt a long distance away from 
the pit. 

Fire is made by twirling one stick between their hands on a 
base which rests on raw cotton. They make chicha by the same 
method as the other Panoan tribes, and from the roots of some tree 
make a very intoxicating drink, which renders them delirious and 
causes them to fall into a deep sleep from which they awaken with 
pleasant memories. They are not as good pottery makers as the 
other related tribes, but manufacture sufficient for their own use. 
They make a rough carrying-basket of the ribs of palm leaves, 
which they carry with the aid of a tump-hne of bark. 

Signal Code. They make Pan's pipes of reeds which are used in 
making music for their moonlight dances. The drum is not used 
in their dances, but is kept for the special purpose of sending 
signals at a distance. The drum is made of a section of the trunk 
of a hollow tree, covered with the tanned skin of the howling 
monkey. Instead of the drum, they sometimes use a flat root of 
the alatea tree, from which they remove the bark, but leave the 
root in place. The signal is sent by pounding the root with a 
heavy maul, the sound of which may be heard a very long distance 
through the forest. 

How complete the signal code is no one has been able to learn, 
but it seems to be sufficient for all their needs. It would appear 
that a drum keeper is always left at the village or at the landing 
place on the river to send warning signals in case of emergency. 
Once when Scharff went with his men to visit a village, he found 
an Indian at the river, who directed him to the chief's house. 
Soon after leaving the Indian, Scharff heard the sound of the signal 
drum, and when he reached the house, there was no one there 
except the chief to receive him. His interpreter told the chief that 
they came as friends to visit him. The chief replied, " If you are 
friends, you will leave your guns outside, and come into the house." 
When they went in, they were given chicha, and seated in ham- 
mocks. After another drum signal had been given, the people 
came from the forest into the house. 



PANOAN STOCK, THE AMAHUACA 107 

Dress and Ornamentation. The women wear a short skirt 
made of grass, bark, or woven cotton. The men go about naked 
with the exception of a cord about the waist under which is tucked 
the foreskin of the penis. This device is apparently designed to 
protect the organ from injury. Children go naked until the time 
of puberty. 

The bodies are more or less covered with paint to protect the 
skin from the sun and bites of insects. Faces, hands, anns, and 
legs are painted either red or black. Both men and women pierce 
their ears, and insert small joints of bamboo as needle cases. The 
hard wood and bone needles are used primarily for removing thorns 
from their feet and exposed bodies. The septum of the nose is 
pierced, and a small stick of wood worn through it. The lower lip 
is also pierced, and a decorated piece of flat wood or silver is worn 
in the same manner as among the Conebo. 

The}^ artificially flatten the head of infants by tying a board on 
the forehead, and they also flatten the nose by tying a band across 
it. The front teeth are sometimes filed to a point in order to pre- 
vent the collection of particles when eating meat, and to be better 
able to tear the fibers apart. All wear long strings of beads made 
of red and white seeds, and bands of woven cotton around the 
arms, either plain, or with small monkey teeth attached. 

Marriage. The Amahuaca marry within the tribe, but outside 
their own village. While they are allowed to marry more than one 
wife, monogamy is the general rule. To marry, it is necessary for 
a boy to hunt and work for the father of the girl he proposes to 
marry, until he has shown to the satisfaction of the father that 
he is able to support a family. When the father has given his 
consent, the young man must go into the forest some miles away, 
clear a field, plant it, and build a house. When his field is ready 
to use, at the end of about ten months, he returns, and takes his 
bride, without ceremony, to live with him in the new home. At 
the end of a year they return and make their home in the com- 
munal house of the wife's people. If a woman proves unfaithful, 
which seldom happens, she is driven away from the tribe. 

When a man has more than one wife, each has her own hammock, 
and fireplace; each furnishes her share of food for the husband, 
who eats alone, or with the boys of the family. After he has con- 
cluded his meal, the women and girls eat what is left. 



108 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

The Dead. When a man dies his immediate family leaves the 
house. The men of the household tie a rope around the neck of 
the naked corpse, and drag it into the forest, where it is buried in 
a sitting posture, and covered with leaves and earth. There is 
no other ceremony, and no evidence of mourning. 

Warfare. The Amahuaca is one of the few tribes that makes a 
formal declaration of war, or notifies its enemies that it is prepar- 
ing to fight. The common cause for warfare is the raids made for 
the purpose of kidnapping women. The chief has absolute au- 
thority, and makes preparations two or three months before set- 
ting out on a war campaign. They collect food, and make bows 
and arrows. When everything is ready, all the young women and 
children, carrying enough food to last two months, are sent away 
a long distance into the forest. It is the custom among all of these 
tribes for the conquerors to capture the women, and so this pre- 
caution is taken. The older women go with the men to carry food 
and ammunition. One tribe notifies another that it proposes to 
make an attack, by scattering loose corn along their trails. This 
seems to be a formal declaration of war. When a rubber gatherer 
wishes to be friendly, and to trade with the Indians, he hangs a 
gift in a tree near the Amahuaca's house. If the Indian wishes 
to accept the offer of friendship, he takes it, and leaves something 
in its place; if he does not wish to be friendly, he leaves it, and 
scatters corn about the place, as an evidence of hostility. When 
going into battle, this tribe makes the attack on the enemy very 
early in the morning, long before daylight. They keep their posi- 
tions as they advance by imitating the call of some bird. When 
they have completely surrounded the house, the signal to attack 
is given by the chief. The chief remains behind at some distance, 
with a small bodyguard about him, receives messages, and sends 
orders directing the fighting. 

They carry off the young women and children, but kill all the 
men and old women. They burn the buildings and destroy the 
fields, but never take possession of them. In warfare, they use 
bows and arrows, and clubs, but no spears, blowguns, or poisoned 
arrows. 

The Amahuaca are noted warriors. They are said to be at 
enmity with all Whites, and to kill them upon sight. Upon inquiry, 
I learned that the first expedition that went up the Purus River into 



PANOAN STOCK, THE AMAHUACA 109 

the Amahuaca country was well received by the Indians, and 
furnished with all necessary provisions. After spending some time 
with the tribe in looking over the territory for rubber trees, the 
men, when they were ready to leave, captured an Indian girl, and 
carried her away before the Indians could make resistance. When 
the}' discovered what had happened, the Indians followed and 
attacked the canoes in their attempt to rescue the girl. None of 
the white men were badly hurt, but many of the Indians were 
slaughtered. They were finally beaten off, and the girl was carried 
away. Since then they have not admitted white men to their 
villages; and because of this they are reported to be savages. 

Character. A veiy good insight into the character of the Ama- 
huaca is given by the following occurrence: Sr. Scharff wished very 
much to have a large group of Amahuaca assist him in gathering 
and transporting rubber, and so taking with him as interpreter an 
Amahuaca who had been in his employ for several years, he made 
a visit to one of the chiefs in the interior. When they landed from 
their canoes at the Indian village, the interpreter went to the chief, 
leaving Scharff and his armed men behind. He told the chief 
what they had come for, also about the good character of Scharff, 
and the work he wanted the chief and his people to do. The chief 
replied that he wished the white men would leave him and his 
people alone in their own country, that they were not molesting 
the Whites, and they did not wish to be molested; but after due 
consideration the chief sent for Schai-ff and told him that he would 
make an investigation of his place for himself. He selected four 
of his own men, and went home with Scharff. They looked over 
the territory, made complete investigation of the whole situation, 
and returned to their people. They then held a meeting, and de- 
cided to accept Scharff's offer, and to move to his river. The chief 
told Scharff that they would remain where they were for the pres- 
ent and send men in advance who would make clearings, build 
houses for his people, and that in a year, when the fields were ready, 
the tribe as a whole would move to its new location. The plan was 
accepted and faithfully carried out by the chief. 

The Indians were not always given such an opportunity to decide 
their own fate, as we learned from many occurrences and reports. 
We made a journey of several months to visit the brother of Sr. 
Scharff, who had a place and several hundred Indians on the upper 



110 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Piedras River, but before we could reach him, he was killed. He 
had been in the habit of sending a white man with some Indians to 
bring in men of another tribe. The methods were often barbarous; 
a few Indians would be captured, more killed, and the rest put 
to flight. Just before his death, Scharff (the brother) sent some 
of his Amahuaca Indians alone, armed with Winchester rifles, to 
capture a tribe a long distance away. It was the first opportunity 
these Indians ever had to retaliate, and they decided to make good 
use of it. Making preparations for a long absence, they soon re- 
turned, killed Scharff and his ten white employees, and burned 
the place. The report soon reached other rubber men, and Sr. 
Baldimero Rodriguez, with whom we had spent several weeks on 
one of our voyages, went over to learn what had become of all the 
rubber and other effects belonging to Scharff. The details will 
never be known, for he and all of his men were killed, and no 
white man has since risked a visit. The brother who was killed 
was the most notorious of all the rubber gatherers in the upper 
Amazon region. 

Vocabulary. 

THE FAMILY 



People 


atiri 


Sister 


tcipi 


Family 


mikai, meke 


Son 


tcampi 


Man 


hunte 


Daughter 


tcipi 


Woman 


cSnto 


Infant 


bista 


Father 


upa 


Grandfather 


miyawaka 


Mother 


mipui 


Grandmother 


uga, mipui 


Brother 


tcampi 








PARTS OF THE BODY 




Body 


nampi 


Neck 


tustcu 


Bone 


cautc 


Breast 


tcutcu 


Hair 


bate 


Stomach 


poka 


Face 


eruke 


Bowels 


poko 


Chin 


huta 


Bladder 


isonti 


Beard 


kunte 


Arm 


bona 


Eye 


wero 


Hand 


maka 


Eyebrow 


werspi 


Finger 


muka 


Eyelash 


wersmi 


Foot 


taku 


Ear 


pavinki 


Leg 


gistci 


Mouth 


kuska 


Heart 


hointl 


Lip 


kutcka 


Breath 


wihe 


Teeth 


huta 







PANOAN STOCK, THE AMAHUACA 



111 



ANIMALS. BIRDS, AND PLANTS 



Monkey 


tcetntuk 


Mosquito 


ciu 


Jaguar 


intok 


Corn 


huki 


Dog 


eintuk 


Yucca 


atsi 


Pig 


iya 


Cane 


tawata 


Fish 


iyepa 


Banana 


manintca 


Bird 


isa 


Papaya 


ni'impe 


Turkey 


kotcutc 


Camote 


kadi 


Poweel 


asink 


Tree 


hi 


Macaw 


stcka 


Bark 


ckaka 


Bee 


micki 


Wood 


hie 


Fly 


necibi 


Cotton 
COLORS 


capu 


White 


otco 


Blue 


tcao 


Black 


tcao 


Yellow 


mi'itce 


Green 


tcotc 


Red 
VERBS 


bietce 


Answer 


nesmali 


Fall 


pakui 


Ask 


ukaii 


Fear 


itakui 


Bend 


konti'i 


Fight 


mutcui 


Bite 


tutcai'lf 


Fill 


wupatci 


Bleed 


empi 


Find 


einki 


Boil 


hobatce 


Float 


wuatce 


Break 


uratcki 


Fly 


pui 


Bring 


wuki 


Follow 


giwaii 


Burn 


kuatci 


Forget 


sinayampi 


Bury 


wake 


Freeze 


matsi 


Call 


kuntatci 


Give 


inanki 


Catch 


kusatci 


Go 


kai 


Come 


hoki 


Grow 


naba 


Cook 


hobake 


Hear 


bastcaki 


Cry 


adarki 


Help 


akinki 


Cure 


natcuke 


Hit 


magui 


Cut 


catuki 


Hold 


untak 


Die 


naki 


Hunt 


haintc 


Dig 


wucaki 


Kiss 


imbake 


Dive 


heki 


Know 


einke 


Divide 


kakuki 


Trfiugh 


usaik 


Do 


aki 


Lead 


buki 


Dream 


uctcaiik 


Leak 


bupai 


Drink 


aiyaki 


Learn 


apai 


Drop 


mananke 


Leave 


niwaki 


Eat 


hiM 


Lend 


inanki 


Enter 


eki 


Lie 


utsai 



112 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Lift 


iyarki 


Shake 


cake 


Like 


untak 


Shoot 


matarke 


Listen 


undestcai 


Show 


inke 


Live 


andowhai 


Sing 


cumbake 


Look 


eitnki 


Sink 


untuke 


Lose 


yokaki 


Sit 


saui 


Make 


aki 


Sleep 


ocai'i 


Meet 


iike 


Smell 


cuti 


Miss 


kantai'i 


Smoke 


koi 


Murder 


itotaki 


Steal 


vianke 


Overturn 


mapokiwani 


Strike 


mauke 


Paint 


kuntari 


Suck 


uyuke 


Pass 


vindoke 


Swallow 


hidii 


Pay 


inankl 


Swim 


wugai 


Present 


inanke 


Think 


cinai 


Roast 


nantuki 


Thunder 


baiicke 


Rob 


vlanke 


Tie 


nocake 


See 


elnke 


Vomit 


hanake 


Seek 


wandaki 


Wash 


tcokake 


Sell 


manke 


Weave 


kustcuke 


Set 


wake 


Wound 


buoi 


Sew 


kustcuke 








ADDITIONAL 


WORDS 




Around 


watci 


Fan 


pici 


Bad 


iroma 


Fishhook 


mickiti 


Basket 


kaka 


Fast 


wuntah 


Bead 


moro 


Fever 


itsi 


Bed 


kaka 


Fire 


tci'r 


Belt 


navi 


Floor 


tahuk 


Bow 


biya 


Friend 


ansabu 


Bridge 


hii 


Fruit 


biempe 


Canoe 


ckatcuk 


Full 


aui 


Cold 


matse 


Funeral 


mai 


Crooked 


takorne 


Grave 


kinti 


Cooking pot 


kunte 


Good 


cada 


Cushma 


wastci 


Hammock 


disi 


Day 


notoi 


Hard 


kuda 


Dead 


nai 


High 


mananke 


Deep 


bisma 


Hill 


mai 


Diarrhea 


tcihui 


House 


tapas 


Dry 


dando 


Hot 


itsi 


Ear-rings 


theusi 


Hungry 


kucmanai 


Ear-rings of shell 


paruntanti 


I 


iya 


Egg 


watce 


Knife 


iyampi 


Empty 


iyemba 


Lake 


wakoma 


Enemy 


ilakui 


Leaf 


montepwi 



PANOAN STOCK, THE AMAHUACA 



113 



Lip plug 


kirtcu 


Sand 


mlsbo 


Long 


tcai 


Seed 


ustcuk 


loom 


topiki, hii 


Sharp 


mocak 


Many 


naha 


Shoe 


tantc 


Mat 


bicii 


Short 


bista 


Meal 


hiWee 


Sick 


widamba 


Meat 


nampi 


Snake 


trontuk 


Medicine 


micipa 


Skirt 


watci 


Middle 


kakuki 


Skull 


mapu 


Midnight 


natai 


Sky 


ocuk, nai 


Milk 


auntuk 


Small 


bista 


Moon 


ustcuk 


Soft 


wayo 


Mountain 


mismi, neK 


Spirit, good 


yocima 


Mud 


mai 


Spoon 


yambetsamba 


Naked 


watcemai 


Spring 


ina 


Narrow 


sambi 


Star 


bista 


Near 


orama 


Stone 


mastca 


Necklace 


moro 


Straight 


tcai 


Needle 


hombo 


String 


nutci 


Neighbor 


wiputek 


Supper 


iedi 


Nest 


kaka 


Sun 


wadik 


Never 


tsambe 


Sweat 


niskai 


New 


uinta 


Sweet 


wata 


Night 


yampei 


Tattoo 


apu 


No 


yampa 


This 


Itably 


Noon 


yambinatcki 


Thread 


nici 


Nose-ring 


edutcbe 


Tobacco 


Ktompe 


Nothing 


yampa 


Tomorrow 


anuntai 


Old 


tcunti 


Tongue 


antak 


One 


naa 


Tribe 


wuitsa 


Open 


wicuatckui 


Truth 


konk 


Pain 


isi 


Ugly 


yeroma 


Paint 


kuntai 


Urine 


isawi 


Palm 


kaso 


Unripe 


kuda 


Path 


wai 


Untrue 


ontsahi 


Pole 


waketa 


Vacant 


yamba 


Poor 


watcimai'e 


Vine 


nestci 


Pot 


kicpu 


War 


mauki 


Rain 


ui 


Water 


wakoma 


Rich 


cadak 


Wet 


mutca 


Ring 


matca 


Wide 


toah 


Ripe 


maniwa 


Wind 


matsi 


River 


huntuk 


Wing 


pai 


Roof 


mananki 


Yesterday 


ayante 


Root 


hi 


You 


miya 


Rope 


nice 


Young 


mastcuk 


Round 


doro 


Good man 


tcadak 


Salt 


tastcik 


Bad man 


iromak 



114 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



PHRASES 

My house mitapas I am tired paki 

Our house untak I am sleepy kustcai 

My foot tahutc I am weak wufkai 

My feet mitahutc Here it is nahaki 

Your foot nitahutc There it is oha 

My hand muimaka I am in my canoe mistcahu 

My hands itabuk You are in my canoe mindastcu 

Your hand mainta We are in our canoe mistcuha 

My dog untak We are in our good canoe caduk niknunhaunka 

This woman itably conto He is in my canoe ahaditu 

This man itably hunti A man will come in a canoe dahondihue 

I am warm meska A man will come with baggage hayahue 

I am cold cukei I see two men in a canoe itawihowi 

I am hungry kucmenahi I saw two macaws itawiinke 

I am thirsty wakoma I have seen a dog intoinke 



JIVARAN STOCK 

Distribution of Tribes. This group of Indians, commonly known 
as the Jivaro, occupies a large territory on the eastern slope of the 
Andes Mountains in Ecuador between the Chinchipa, Altoma- 
ranan, and Pastaza Rivers. A small space between the Marona 
and the lower Pastaza is inhabited by the Murato. There are 
nine tribes speaking dialects of the Jivaran language, and having 
similar cultures: Huambesa, Tamora, Cuanduasi, Ashira, Andoa, 
Copotaza, Arapeca, Chargaime, and Upano. The first five of 
these tribes are friendly among themselves, and are enemies of 
the other four tribes. A Une drawn west from Andoa would divide 
these two hostile factions. I was unable to visit the Jivaro in 
their own country to make personal obsei-vations, but was fortunate 
in finding at Iquitos, Peru, Sr. F. T. Muniz, who hved and traveled 
for some years among this people, and who gave me much informa- 
tion regarding them. 

Early in the Seventeenth Century, the missionaries came into 
contact with some of the tribes, and established stations. The old 
Spanish town of Macas is reported to have had at one time several 
thousand Jivaro, but today the town has disappeared and the 
inhabitants are scattered among the Upano, who speak a dialect 
of the same language. The more remote tribes have had little 
contact with the Whites, and they continue to practise their old 
customs and to live their old tribal hfe. Their number has been 
reduced, until at the present time there are not more than eight 
or ten thousand remaining. 

Home Life. There is no chief over the whole group, but each 
tribe has its own head-man. In time of war, a war-chief is selected 
who has absolute authority. They have no villages, but live in 
large oval-shaped communal houses, which may be seventy-five 
feet long and forty feet wide, containing several families. A family 
living in the large house may have a small house at a clearing some 
distance away, where they live while cultivating their fields. The 
houses are built of poles and have thatched roofs, the walls contin- 
uing to the ground, without windows or other openings except two 

115 



116 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

doors, one at either end of the house, one of which is for the use 
of women and the other for men. Each woman has her own little 
section of the women's end of the house, with her fireplace made 
of three short logs with ends together. At the other end of the 
house the men are grouped, each having his own stool and couch. 
The men in the house spend their time manufacturing blowguns, 
poisoned darts, quivers, lances, and round shields of wood or tapir 
skin. Here they make and keep the great signal drum. The men 
sit on stools, but the women must sit on the floor. They have no 
hammocks, but sleep on couches built on raised platforms around 
the walls. The women take care of the dogs, and keep them tied 
day and night to the foot of their couches. They make coarse 
pottery by the common coiling method, and also make baskets, 
nets, mats, and ropes as needed. 

Food Supply. They are an agricultural people, depending less 
upon hunting and fishing than many of the neighboring tribes. 
They grow corn, cassava, sweet potatoes, and plantains. They 
depend to some extent upon hunting and fishing. They use no 
bows and arrows, but depend upon other devices. They are more 
expert at using the blowgun than any of the surrounding tribes. 

The blowgun is made of two pieces of chonta palm, carved, pol- 
ished, wrapped with strips of bark, and covered with pitch. The 
guns are about seven feet long, one and a half inches in diameter 
at the mouthpiece, and taper to three-quarters of an inch at the 
muzzle. The mouthpiece is made of bone which is inserted in 
the end of the gun. The Yagua blowgun mouthpiece is spool- 
shaped with a depression for the lips, while the Jivaro mouthpiece 
has a bone which is put into the mouth when blown. 

The poisoned arrows are made of strips of chonta palm with 
a wisp of silk-cotton on one end to fill the bore and catch the 
breath. They are carried in a quiver which is fastened to a small 
joint of bamboo filled with curari poison, into which the points are 
dipped before being used. Blowguns are used here as bows and 
arrows are used among the other tribes, for killing birds and 
monkeys. The flight of the arrow is noiseless, and when it strikes 
the animal the shock is so slight that no attention is paid to it. 
The poison acts so quickly that the animal soon becomes dizzy 
and falls to the ground. The blowgun is the most effective weapon 
for all small game. 



JIVARAN STOCK 117 

They use traps, snares, and pitfalls for catching the larger 
animals. For catching fish they use large nets with nut sinkers and 
balsa floats. They also poison the pools with the roots of babasco 
{Jacquinia armiUaris). When the poison is used in large quanti- 
ties the water is turned a whitish color, killing all the fish, which 
float on the surface where they are picked up from canoes. 

Certain animals are taboo. The deer and sloth are supposed to 
be the dwelling places of the evil spirits, and are not eaten. The 
tapir is not considered good for women to eat. The men grow 
tobacco, and use it to smoke and drink. 

Fire Making. They make fire by the common method of twirl- 
ing a stick between the palms. They have an interesting tradition 
of how they first obtained fire. In the beginning they cooked their 
eggs in the sun, and warmed their food under their arms. A Jivaro 
man, Takia, first learned to make fire by rubbing two sticks 
together, but he kept the fire to himself, and would not allow his 
people to use it or to know how to make it, so they attempted to 
steal it from him. At that time the Jivaro resembled men but 
could fly like birds. Several of them went to Takia's house to try 
to get the fire, but Takia kept his door ajar, and when one put his 
head in, he closed the door, and killed him. The snake said that 
he would try another method, so he wet his wings, and went to 
the path where Takia's wife would find him in the early morning. 
She took pity on him, carried him into the house, and placed him 
near the fire. When he was warm and dry, he took a fire brand 
with his tail, and flew away to the top of a dead tree where he ob- 
tained some dry bark in which he wrapped the fire, and carried it 
to his own house. There he built a fire, and gave it to his people, 
so they were no longer compelled to ripen their food under their 
arms. Takia scolded his wife, but the Jivaro have had fire ever 
since, and know how to make it by rubbing together two pieces of 
silk-cotton wood. 

Dress and Ornamentation. Men wear either a kilt-like cotton 
garment reaching the knees, or a loose sleeveless bark shirt. These 
garments are sometimes painted in geometric designs, or decorated 
by sewing on strings of monkey teeth, beads, or feathers. The 
leaders at the dance wear a beautiful ceremonial hat or crown made 
of feathers. The men also wear a back ornament made of bird 
bones, which is suspended from a band over the forehead. The 



118 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

mummified head or war trophy is worn suspended over this orna- 
ment of bird bones. The women wear a skirt of cotton or bark 
which reaches a Httle below the knees, and a cotton cloak thrown 
over one shoulder and fastened under the arm. The children run 
about naked until the approach of puberty. 

Both men and women wear necklaces of the teeth of various 
animals, and seeds of various kinds and colors. In their ears the 
men wear sticks of chonta palm about six inches long and one inch 
thick, from which are suspended feathers and wings of beetles. 
The nose and lips are not perforated. They paint their faces, 
hands, and feet black with " wito " {Genipa Americana), for pro- 
tection against the flies and the sun. The hair is worn long behind, 
and cut square across in front. The men wear a loop of hair in 
front of their ears, wrapped and decorated with feathers. 

Marriage. Polygamy is common among the Jivaro. A man has 
the first right to marry his cousin, and may also take her younger 
sister when she reaches the age of puberty. He is not compelled 
to marry his cousin, as he may prefer to steal a wife from an enemy 
tribe. The consent of the girl's father is necessary, before the mar- 
riage can take place, and if he is willing, he gives a great feast in- 
viting all the members of the large household. The feast and mar- 
riage ceremony are in charge of the medicine man. When all are 
ready, the medicine man takes food and serves it to the bride, 
saying, " This is the way you must serve your husband." He offers 
her corn, cassava bread, sweet potatoes, and plantains, and each 
time repeats the same injunction. Then he brings a servant whom 
the bridegroom has secured, and says, " You must always be ready 
to serve your husband without his asking." This concludes the 
ceremony proper, and the rest of the night is spent in feasting and 
dancing. 

The Jivaro often make raids upon their enemies for the purpose 
of carrjdng off young women for wives or servants. It has been 
reported that the Jivaro practise the couvade, but my informant 
was positive that they do not now, and probably never did. 

When a man goes to visit a friend at his house, he steps inside 
the door, and stands at one side. A woman brings him a seat, and 
announces him. His host washes, combs his hair, paints his face, 
and dresses; when ready, he advances, greets the visitor, and sits 
down in front of him. The visitor talks in a liigh voice for fifteen 



JIVARAN STOCK 119 

or twenty minutes without interruption, giving an account of what 
he has seen, and what he has done since their last meeting. The 
host occasionally gives assent by saying, " And this is the way you 
have done it." When the visitor has concluded, the host takes his 
turn for about the same period, then they stop and begin talking 
about other things in a quiet tone. When a woman enters a house 
she is taken at once to the women's apartment without any 
ceremony. 

The Dead. When a man dies he is left in his bed, all of his pos- 
sessions are placed about him, together with food and drink. The 
house and fields are deserted, and no one ever goes back to the 
house or takes anything from the fields. 

Religion. The Jivaro do not have a well developed rehgious 
belief. Iguanchi, their chief spirit, takes account of all the impor- 
tant acts of life, but he is not worshipped in any sense, although he 
is considered a good and friendly spirit. It is unfortunate that the 
early missionaries applied the name of this good spirit to the Devil 
and manufactured a new name for God. The Jivaro have never 
willingly accepted religious teaching, and many times have driven 
the missionaries out of the country. They despise the Zaparo, 
because they have accepted Christian teaching, and are more 
under the influence of the Whites. The Zaparo, on the other hand, 
call the Jivaro '' ancas," or savages, and are greatly afraid of them. 

Medicine Men. No one dies a natural death. Disease and 
death are caused by the influence of an enemy medicine man, and 
hence the disease must be overcome by a friendly medicine man. 
The medicine man uses both herbs and magic combined. He 
selects his herbs, performs his incantations over them, moving 
his head from side to side, and then gives them to the patient. He 
then soaks tobacco in water, takes the fluid in the hollow of his 
hands, and sniffs it into his nostrils. He continues his incanta- 
tions, and calls upon the evil spirit to come out of the man, saying 
" If you, the evil one, have caused this sickness, come and take it 
away." He asks the patient if he feels better; if he does not, then 
he calls upon the animals in the same language. If the patient is 
not better by this time he gathers other herbs and repeats the 
process, then he sucks from the seat of the pain and exhibits a 
piece of bone, chonta, or a small spider which he has sucked out. 
If the patient gets well, he makes lavish presents to the medicine 



120 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

man, but if he dies, his friends may kill the medicine man or some 
member of his family, and a vendetta may be started in this way. 
When a medicine man is sent for, he first makes inquiry, and if 
he thinks a person may not recover he finds some excuse for not 
administering unto him. 

Mummified Heads. The Jivaro are considered a war-Uke 
people, and as stated above, they are divided into two hostile 
groups, which have been traditional enemies for generations and 
live in a chronic state of warfare. There are continual raids made 
from one tribe to another, killing the men, and carrying off the 
women. They are sometimes called head hunters and cannibals, 
because they cut off the heads of the enemy, and carry them home 
to be preserved as trophies (plate 20) . They are not cannibals, as 
they never eat any portion of the body. 

The tsantsa, or mummified head, is their greatest trophy. 
When one makes a raid to secure a head the chances are even that 
he will lose his own, hence it is considered a great honor to take 
the head of one of the traditional enemy. If the head is that of 
a chief, some noted warrior, or other important individual, the 
honor is greater, and a great feast must be given to which all the 
friendly tribes are invited. To give such a feast it is necessary to 
clear a field and grow cassava, corn, and plantains, for food and 
drink for the great throng that will attend. This requires several 
months or possibly two or three years, hence it is necessary to pre- 
serve the head in order to have it present at the feast, as evidence 
of the hero's prowess. 

The hero must plant his fields, but near the time of the feast 
his friends may assist him in hunting, fishing, and preserving meat, 
wliile the women of the house assist his wife in making great 
quantities of drink to be stored in large earthen jars. 

The man must also undergo a fast, or rather submit to taboos. 
He paints his body with black hnes, lives alone, and shows his 
bravery by going without weapons. He must not kill game with 
a spear, or eat the flesh of certain animals. He confines himself 
almost entirely to fruits, vegetables, and fish caught in the net. 
When the time for the feast arrives, the head-man takes charge. 
When the dance is ready to begin, the hero, carrying the tsantsa on 
the top of a staff, comes through the house, and presents it to the 
Master of Ceremonies, who dips the head first into a decoction of 



Pbabody Museum Papers 



,V 



Vol. X, Plate 20 




Chanchas or shrunken human heads, prepared by the Jivaro Indians. (About 1/4.) 



JI VARAN STOCK 121 

tobacco, then in chicha, and again in clear water. He afterwards 
pours a little of each of these beverages into the mouth of the hero, 
who is seated on a low stool. This ceremony ends the fast for the 
hero, and frees him from further obligations. The tobacco juice 
he has taken sei"ves as a violent emetic, but he soon recovers, goes 
to the river for a bath, and returns to take part in the dance. The 
Master of Ceremonies carries the head towards the dancers, falls 
on his knees many times, and ends by making an address compli- 
mentary to the courage of the hero, in which he says, " Brave 
Jivaro, you have avenged an injury." He then sets up the staff, 
with the head on it, in the dance ground; and the men, with the 
hero's wife, clasp hands and dance around the head, hurling ridicule 
and derisive epithets at it, as they advance and retreat. At the 
same time the other women dance in a great circle on the outside 
of the men. 

The dance at the feast of the head is the only opportunity that 
a woman ever has to dance with the men. It is her greatest honor. 
After this dance is over, the hero takes the head and hangs it on 
the principal pillar of the house, where it remains indefinitely. It 
may eventually be thrown into the river or disposed of at will. In 
some tribes it is kept and worn on anniversary occasions over the 
bird -bone back ornament. This ends the ceremonies connected 
with the head, but the dance continues day and night until the 
supplies are exhausted. 

At midnight on the last day of the dance, a large number of 
young peccaries, which have been kept fat for the occasion, are 
brought out, killed by the Master of Ceremonies, and divided 
among the guests to furnish food for their journey home. This 
signifies the end of the dance, and is the farewell salutation. 
Preparations are now made for the departure, and then all join 
in a final dance which ends at daybreak. They have been eating, 
drinking, and dancing for days, and all are so tired that they soon 
camp and take a long sleep. 

When the enemy is killed, his head is cut off with a bamboo 
knife, and carried home where it is hung up for three or four days 
until decomposition begins. An incision is made at the edge of 
the hair and carried over the top of the head to the back of the 
neck, and the skull is removed. The skin is cleaned of flesh, and 
boiled in an infusion of herbs containing astringents and preserva- 



122 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

tives. The skin is then sewn up, and shrunken by putting hot 
sand and hot stones inside. As the skin shrinks it is manipulated 
to keep it in the desired form. Finally the head is greased and 
smoked for a long time over a fire made of roots of a certain palm 
tree. To keep the Ups in position while the skin is drying, three 
small chonta palm sticks are thrust through them from below, 
and cotton strings woven in and out over the lips. These sticks 
are replaced with cotton cord when the head is completely cured; 
a transverse cord is attached to the three suspended cords, and 
hanging from it there are usually several single cords about fifteen 
inches long, decorated with feathers or beetle wings. These cords 
are not records, or quipus, but are used for ornamental purposes 
only. The ears are perforated, and have various decorations of 
feathers, beads, and beetle wings suspended. 

When the skin is sewn up, a short stick is placed inside, attached 
to a string through a hole in the top of the head. This is used for 
suspension of the head over the ornament of bird bones, when it is 
worn. The head is reduced to about one-eighth its normal size as 
is shown in the photograph (plate 20) , and is very dark brown in 
color on account of the smoke. It has been said that these heads 
resemble the originals to such an extent that they may be recog- 
nized. A woman is said to have recognized the head of her son, 
but in all such cases of recognition the fact is known that the head 
has been taken, and that it is kept in a certain house, so it would 
be very easy to identify it. There is so little resemblance to the 
original head that any one seeing a head for the first time is likely 
to doubt the story of its origin. 

Some tribes preserve the heads of their friends as well as those 
of their enemies, but women's heads are never preserved. 

Every boy is trained to be a warrior. He learns the manufac- 
ture and use of weapons, and the taking of the head. He kills a 
sloth, reduces and preserves its head in the same way that the 
warriors preserve the heads of their slain enemies. 

For protection against the raids of their enemies they make 
sharp points of chonta palm and set them in the ground about the 
fields, so as to impale the enemy as he approaches. They also dig 
pitfalls in the trails, plant lances below, and cover the pit with 
leaves and bark. These pits are usually dug near the place where 
a log crosses the trail. 



JIVARAN STOCK 



123 



Dances. In ordinary dances, the men and women dance around 
a circle, not togollier but at the same time, all singing with a flute 
accompaniment. There is a special dance which the men dance in 
pairs. Each is armed with a lance, each in turn makes a short 
address in which he glorifies himself, then dances in front of the 
others with his lance ready to strike, and ends by making a feint 
at his opponent; the others then go through the same performance. 
In the love dance, a man dances in a circle, blowing a flute, while 
a woman follows him about. 

The drum is never used to furnish music for the dance, but only 
for purposes of communication. It is made of a log, five feet long 




Figure 15 

Jivaro Indian drum, five feet long and about one foot in diameter, made by burning out 

the interior of a log 



and one foot in diameter, ^yiih. a hole burned out in the middle, 
leaving a lip which gives only a single tone (figure 15). 

M3rths. The Creation. They have an interesting story of the 
creation of man. All animals originally had the understanding of 
men; animals, birds, and reptiles all used the same language, 
talked together, and understood each other. A great serpent 
lived in a lake, and killed many of the animals and birds when 
they came to the lake to drink or to bathe. So many of them were 
killed that they held a consultation to determine what might be 
done to dispose of the serpent. They captured the serpent by 
draining the lake, and killed him. Then they held a great feast 
at which they drank much, and men danced with the widows of 
those who had been killed in the conflict with the serpent. Until 
this time all the animals used one language, talked, and acted Uke 
men, but now each group of animals and birds went away from 
this feast speaking its own language. Some birds continued as 
men, and some of the monkeys as women; so today at their dances, 
the men sing, " histi, histi, histi," and the women sing, " oa, oa, 
oa," in imitation of the bird and the monkey. 



124 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

The Flood. They have a myth accounting for the destruction of 
the world by water. A great feast was to be held, and two boys 
were sent away into the forest to get game. They made a camp 
under a tree, and went out to hunt. They secured much game, 
dressed it, and hung it up at the camp. The second day when 
they returned heavily laden with game, they were surprised to find 
that their first day's catch had been stolen. When they returned 
on the third day, they again found the meat had been stolen. On 
the next day, one remained in hiding to discover the thief. He 
found it was a great snake that lived in the hollow of the tree under 
which they had camped. To destroy the snake they built a fire 
in the tree, and the snake fell into the fire. The boys were hungry, 
and one of them ate some of the roasted flesh of the snake. He 
soon became thirsty, drank all of the water they had at the camp, 
then went to the spring, and from there to the lake. He was soon 
transformed into a frog, next into a lizard, and finally into a snake, 
which began to grow very rapidly. His brother was frightened, 
and tried to pull him out of the water, but the lake began to over- 
flow. The snake then told his brother that the lake would continue 
to grow until the whole world would be covered, and that the 
people would perish unless he returned and told them to make 
their escape. 

He told his brother to put a calabash in his pocket, to go on top 
of the highest mountain, and when the water came, to climb the 
highest palm tree. The brother returned, and told his people 
what had happened, but they refused to believe him, accusing him 
of destroying his brother; so he fled to the top of the mountain, 
and when the water came, climbed the palm tree. After many 
days the water began to subside, and he came down to the ground. 
From the top of the mountain he could see the vultures eating the 
dead people in the valley, so he went back to the lake where he 
found his brother, and carried him away in his calabash. 

Origin of the Sun and Moon. The sun and the moon, in the be- 
ginning, were two Jivaro men living on the earth in the same house, 
with a woman called Ahora. They quarreled together about the 
woman, and the moon said he did not like her anyway, and in his 
anger started to climb up a vine to the sky. The sun obscured liim- 
self for a time, and the woman cried, " Why are you leaving me 
here alone, I am going to the sky also," and started to climb up 



JI VARAN STOCK 125 

after the moon. She carried with her a basket of potter's clay. 
When she was near the sky, the moon saw her, and called, " Why 
do you follow me? " Before she could reply, he cut the vine and 
she, with her basket, fell to the earth. The clay grew, and the 
women today say that the clay from which they make their pots 
came from the soul of Ahora. 

The sun went up to the sky, seeking the woman. The moon, 
fearing the sun, fled, running on the mountain tops so that the sun 
was unable to overtake him, and they have never been reconciled: 
thus the sun is always seen by day, and the moon by night. The 
sun and the moon were not able to Uve in harmony with one 
woman; they were always jealous of each other and quarreling 
about her, so today the Jivaro are jealous, and fight for their 
women. Ahora is now a bird and at every new moon she can be 
heard to cry, " My husband, my husband, why have you aban- 
doned me? " 

Origin of the Stars. A jaguar married a Jivaro woman, and asked 
her to pick the insects from his head. She did so, and ate the in- 
sects, as is their custom, but soon became nauseated. This made 
the jaguar angiy, and he asked, " Why are you nauseated with 
your husband? " He at once ate her. As he was eating her, two 
eggs fell from his mouth ; his mother, standing by, gathered up the 
eggs, and put them away in cotton in a small pot. They hatched 
finally, and were two Jivaro boys. They were afraid of jaguars, 
so they planned to kill them all, but one escaped, so the boys 
decided to go to the sky where they would be safe. 

They made two bows, and many arrows. The small boy shot 
at the sky first, but his aiTOw did not reach the clouds. The first 
arrow the larger boy shot, pierced the sky, the second hit the end 
of the first, and the third the end of the second; and so the Une of 
arrows finally reached down to the earth. The boys climbed up 
the line of arrows to the sky, and became the first bright stars. 
The line remained for a long time, and the people from the earth 
and the sky went up and down. It was in this way that the Jivaro 
learned how the stars originated. At last the moon cut down the 
arrow passage, and left the stars up in the sky. (The second part 
of this story seems to be borrowed.) 

Vocabulary. While Sr. Muniz knew enough of the Jivaro lan- 
guage to get on with the people whom he had in his employ, his 



126 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



knowledge was not sufficiently exact to be of much scientific value. 
He had, however, made a very good vocabulary which is here 
suppHed for comparative study in the future. 





THE FAMILY 




People 


sagra 


Father 


aparu 


Man 


aicmango, kapito 


Mother 


nukuru 


Woman 


nua 


Brother 


yatsuru, yatsutci. 


Wife 


eiohiri 




yetci 


Grandfather 


apatceru 


Sister 


umai, umaru 


Grandmother 


mukucuru 


Servant 


kunarun 




PARTS 


OF THE BODY 




Body 


ayeci 


Shoulder 


tankwero 


Flesh 


namanki 


Back 


yakai 


Head 


muka 


Rib 


pali 


Head, shrunken 


tsansa 


Abdomen 


huahi, ambug 


Hair 


indaci 


Buttock 


sumu 


Face 


yapi, yaplro 


Arm 


kunato, kundo 


Chin 


hankwi 


Right hand 


uniur'ra 


Beard 


hankwe, suso 


Left hand 


wina 


Bearded man 


susurintino 


Finger 


wehi 


Eye 


ha, hi 


Stomach 


ambuhi 


Eyes 


imni 


Soul 


ma'ambi, nusi 


Mouth 


kweno, weno 


Joint 


nantiyi 


Tooth 


nai 


ANIMALS 




Anaconda 


yanunga 


Fly, large 


antci 


Ant 


wheta 


Hawk 


pintco 


Armadillo 


cucingi 


Hen 


ataci 


Armadillo, large 


si ma 


Heron 


imia, kau 


Bear 


tcagua 


Hog 


kangai 


Bee 


tcini 


Hornet 


eti 


Bee, honey 


nukutce 


Lizard 


camba 


Bee, yellow 


micki 


Louse 


yarangwi 


Bee, savage 


sikati 


Macaw 


apatci 


Bird 


tcingue, picko 


Macaw, yellow 


yambono 


Cat 


mici, miciko 


Monkey 


yakuma 


Cattle 


hapa 


Mosquito 


ukumbe, ai'iti 


Deer 


wagra 


Partridge 


wangwica 


Dog 


yawaru 


Parrot 


tuici 


Duck 


undura 


Parrot, green 


kanwi 


Fish 


namaka, kanka 


Pig 


kuga 



JIVARAN STOCK 



127 



Puma 


hapa yahua 


Tarantula 


pandakwi 


Rabbit 


sauwa 


Tortoise 


tcarapa 


Rooster 


ayumba 


Trompetero 


tciwa 


Snake, black 


napi makantci 


Turkey 


awatca 


Snake, water 


nikats 


Turtledove 


ciemba 


Spider 


kuntci 


Wasp, yellow 


hihuhu 


Squirrel 


kunamba 


Wasp, black 


angaini 


Tapir 


pana 


Woodpecker 
PLANTS 


katacoma 


Bean 


mika 


Pine 


tcua 


Camote 


impi 


Plantain 


pandama 


Caucho 


pinta 


Pumpkin 


yuhui 


Cane 


wayi 


Squash 


ungucpi 


Cane, wild 


zapapa 


Star apple 


yasu 


Cedar 


tcimbui 


Sweet potato 


impiyumital 


Corn 


ca 


Thorn 


sapa 


Flower 


sisa 


Thicket 


suata 


Forest 


ikiama 


Tobacco 


sango 


Gourd 


sapaya 


Tree 


kambua 


Latex, rubber turahi 


Tree, copal 


kunki tciriki 


Leaf 


nuka 


Tree, lanco 


kakita, wan 


Onion 


sipui 


Woods 


satca 


Palm, chonta 


piaio 


Yucca 


mama 


Pepper 


himia 


NUMERALS 




1 


cikitiki 


7 himira'iwiki'iraku 


2 


himira 


8 minendu 


'iwiki'iraku 


3 


minendu 


9 ainduki'iwiki'iraku 


4 


ainduki 


10 mai'iwiki'amuku 


5 


wina'amu 


20 huihi iwiki amuku 


6 


wina'iwiki'iraku 


VERBS 




Abandon 


ahapatino 


Appetize 


yayatisatino 


Able 


nikupasitino 


Augment 


pombartino 


Accelerate 


huomakatino 


Arrive 


hiatino 


Accompany 


ayatino 


Ascertain 


canuate 


Ache 


nahamatino 


Assist 


awaratiiio 


Across 


ikentakatino 


Awaken 


nandaiktino 


Address 


wahastino 


Bandage 


hingwiata 


Advance 


imahata 


Baptize 


imitiratino 


Advise 


atserkatino 


Bathe 


maitino 


Afraid 


icamatino 


Bar 


ustukeratino 



128 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Bark 


siimatino, tapaikiiio 


Conquer 


nauratino 


Be 


awai, puhustino 


Constrain 


imiteratino 


Beat 


awatino 


Construct 


pi'ikmartino 


Beg 


surucuo 


Contain 


pi'iktino 


Behead 


supiktino 


Continue 


aiyemsatino 


Behold 


istino 


Converse 


ahusatino 


Believe 


nikartino 


Cook 


inyarkatino 


Bid 


unsuktino 


Corrupt 


kanatino 


Blister 


nuwehe 


Cover 


maingatino 


Blow 


iyutino 


Covet 


wareruntino 


Blow, nose 


cikimartiiio 


Create 


nahantino 


Boil 


kunktino 


Crop 


yukifto 


Bore 


yuyuatino 


Crouch 


akaiktino 


Bore, horn 


ihirvitino 


Crowd 


ninatino 


Bore, wood 


inyuratino 


Cry 


haitino 


Braid 


isemata 


Cure 


sartino 


Brave 


kaherkatino 


Cut 


sispiktino 


Bring 


itatino 


Cut down 


awingatino 


Bring wood 


hirituatino 


Cut hair 


awartino 


Build 


ukurtino 


Cut up 


akartino 


Build, house 


yeamtino 


Dance 


hansihasinatuio 


Burn 


ikimaktino 


Deceive 


anangatino 


Buy 


sumaktino 


Desert 


asatiiio 


Carry 


ayatino 


Desist 


aikatiasatino 


Cast 


ahapatino 


Die 


hakatino 


Catch 


icikta 


Dig 


faustino 


Catch fish 


kwinutino a'atino 


Dig out canoe 


awatino 


Catch up 


amayanta 


Dine 


itsiktino 


Change 


yapahiatino 


Dischargt 


ipiatino 


Check 


nimakatino 


Disembark 


akakatino 


Choke 


kahimaratiilo 


Divide 


akangatino 


Chop 


aentsuquatino awatino 


Do 


nahantino 


Circle 


yetseratino 


Dog 


yahu'aru 


Clear 


mastae 


Donate 


suritiiio 


Climb 


kakeratino 


Double 


apihikutino 


Clothe 


nambiktino 


Dress, an animal 


akaratino 


Come 


winitino 


Drink 


wartino, uwartino. 


Come here 


winita 




umartino 


I come 


winahe, wite 


Drop 


huhisikatino 


You come 


winita, wita 


Eat 


yurumatino 


He comes 


winima 


Elevate 


acatwa 


He will come 


winitiua 


Embark 


hakiertino 


They come 


wintino 


Encounter 


inguktino 


Compress 


citatiiio 


Entangle 


hukamatino 


Conceal 


inhuktino 


Examine 


umbuartino 


Conclude 


amatifio 


Exceed 


nangamastiiio 


Conduct 


iakustino 


Execute 


umiktino 



JIVARAN STOCK 



129 



Extinguish 


ikinatino 


Impede 


nukurktino 


Fail 


parti no 


Intercept 


utarlatino 


Fan 


awahiiigtino 


Instruct 


nuimiteratifio 


Fast 


igeramaktino 


Intermeddle 


pakikifio 


Fear 


icamamatino 


Invite 


ipiatino 


Feast 


iciektifio 


Join 


huktino 


Ferment 


misatino 


Jump 


sikingtino 


Feed 


uhundatino 


Kill 


matino 


Fell 


atsongatino 


Kill, flies 


mandurtatino 


Fight 


maakatino 


Kiss 


apoktino, apatino 


Fill 


piiktino 


Kneel 


aiakicatino 


Finish 


amuktino 


Knot 


awhemata 


Fish 


ahundakatino 


Know 


wenikatino, nikartino 


Fit 


whaingtino 


Lead 


ikiestino 


Follow 


mayamagatino 


Leak 


ukartifio 


Forget 


kahinamakatino 


Learn 


nuimiteratifio 


Fling 


hapatino 


Leave 


hukitino 


Fly 


nanamatino 


Lessen 


nakuiktino 


Freeze 


mitciptino 


Lie 


wiitaratino 


Full 


nayentumatino 


Light 


ikinuktino 


Gargle 


kinktino 


Light, candle 


yiikaimaktino 


Give 


susatino 


Like 


istifio 


Give birth 


enyeng ganusta 


Load 


aensuka 


Go 


witino 


Lodge 


atuktino 


Go out 


wiektiiio 


Look for 


juktino 


I go 


witi, wihe 


Loose 


hatiatino 


You go 


wita 


Love 


aniata 


We go 


witi'imatin 


Make camp 


yapartino 


Grind 


pa'atamastino 


Make candle 


aka'atino 


Grow 


sakartino 


Make canoe 


pukmartino 


Grow plantains 


sapastino 


Make drunk 


maniktino 


Guard 


inguekitino 


Make load 


irumartino 


Hang 


cukarustino 


Make rope 


tcapiktino 


Harvest 


iwitino 


Make time 


uritino 


Have 


amatino 


Make trail 


hindamatino 


Hear 


anduktino 


Marry 


turutatino, nuatakatino 


Heat, sun 


itsiroderatino 


Measure 


yagartifio 


Help 


yenguitifio 


Melt 


menartino 


Hide 


ukmatino 


MLx 


surimatino 


Hinder 


kaningmaktino 


Mortify 


tambiratmarta 


Hit 


atino 


Murder 


naruma 


Hope 


wahastino 


Nourish 


ayuratino 


House 


yea 


Observe 


imastino 


Hunt 


funakatiiio 


Obstruct 


arangtino 


Hurry 


meteke 


Obtain 


atciktino 


Hunt 


misirtino 


Oppose 


atuktino 


Injure 


enuktino 


Overflow 


wandakatino 



130 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Overtake 


kenmaktino 


Sew 


apaktino 


Owner 


ataciertino 


Sharpen 


aksakata 


Paddle 


wiandakatino 


Ship 


ehekeratino 


Pain 


wakemeratino 


Shoot 


trapitci 


Pardoned 


sakaiamatino 


Shorten 


aksakatino 


Part 


akangatino 


Shrink, head 


tcuiritino 


Pass 


nangamastino 


Singe, scorch 


mingartino 


Pay 


akiktino 


Sit 


puhustiiio 


1/ 

Place 


wasimayatiiio 


Sit, bird on tree 


! patamastifio, ikitatifit/ 


Play 


antengtino 


Sleep 


kanartino 


Play, drum 


tunduyatino 


Slip 


inartino 


Poultice 


kankartino 


Smoke 


mukunatino 


Precipitate 


mitsangatino 


Soften 


minertino 


Punish 


asutiatino 


Sow 


spikitcutino 


Put out 


ikiepartino 


Speak 


tcitcastino 


Quench 


kinuktino 


Spin, cotton 


anungtino 


Question 


inindarustino 


Spy 


nakaktiiio 


Quiet 


inesatino 


Stand 


wahastino 


Quarrel 


maakatino 


Stick 


acingate 


Rain 


yutuktino 


Stir 


anankirtino 


Reach 


hiatino 


Stoop 


itiyurcama 


Recuperate 


sa'aritino 


Strangle 


kinktino 


Recover 


tcimiartifio 


Strike 


awatino 


Reduce 


pinuartino 


Suck 


mukunatino 


Rest 


yamaratino 


Subdue 


nupuiktino 


Repay 


awangatino 


Subside 


wakinatino 


Full 


ihemeratino 


Suspend 


awaktanitino 


Return 


wakitatino 


Swim 


ukuaktino 


Restore 


ayendatino 


Talk 


tcitcastino 


Rise, river 


nupengaratino 


Teach 


nikaperatino 


Roast 


uwatino 


Thresh 


akartino 


Roast, in leaves 


yankunatino 


Throw 


ahapatino 


Rob 


kasamakatino 


Tie 


etsemdata 


Roil 


yapimakatino 


Tighten 


taingwegatino 


Roll up 


napictino 


Toast 


nuiktino 


Roost 


aiyamatino, awamsatino 


Track 


yengatino 


Rub 


yakartiiio 


Trade 


takuktcamgatino 


Say 


timatiiio 


Travel 


wakastino 


Scatter 


spikitcutino 


Trust 


apuhukitino 


Scramble 


wakatino 


Twine 


huorta 


Secure 


aenderatino 


Unable 


kuhendakatino 




istino, ista 


Unchaste 


takaptino 


Sell 


suruktino 


Understand 


ananktino 


Seek 


wenekatino 


Unloosen 


akupkatino 


Send, convey 


aumatino 


Unload 


takurtita 


Serve 


aismaktino 


Uproot 


aentsuratino 


Settle 


pakatino 


Untwist 


kumgatino 



JIVARAN STOCK 



131 



Untie 


hetiatino 


Weed 


takaitiiio 


Visit 


istino 


Wind 


kendaiertifio 


Wash 


nihertifto 


Wild 


yupieratifio 


Watch 


itikimartino 


Wish 


aniatino 


Want 


tartiiio 


Work 


takastino 


Weave 


nihingate 


Write 


artino 




ADDITIONAL WORDS 




Above 


arakani 


Box 


urukta 


Account 


cuaka 


Breathe 


adngata 


Achote, plant 


ipiako 


Brevity 


huomuk 


Acorn 


atcuinama 


Bridge 


tcaka 


Active 


asumbi 


Brief 


kuranta 


Adam's apple 


piuwa 


Broad 


whangarama 


Afternoon 


kiawi 


Brood 


utciri 


Again 


ataki 


Brook 


nananda 


Aged 


acanda 


Broom 


hapika 


Air 


nasi 


Broth 


kando 


Alcohol 


coaki, kaii 


Bundle 


hintcazon 


Alone 


ningue 


Call, n. 


kikame 


Already 


wingahi 


Candle 


koapartino 


All 


tuki 


Candle 


yi 


All right maki 


, makati, paiayo, ya'atsu 


Canoe 


kanu 


Ancient 


tinwiki 


Care 


titu 


Appetizing 


yayatino 


Cataract 


mutci 


Aside 


arandatci 


Certain 


turanwi, nikasi 


Away 


aranda 


Chacara 


aha 


Axehead 


yutca'ayineri 


Chance 


amakei 


Bad 


kumaro 


Charcoal 


kayi, akata, kahimakai 


Bag 


cigra 


Chicha 


mihanantci, mahentci 


Ball 


mari, mara 


Chip 


nakacu 


Balsa 


papanga 


Clever 


yatciteranum 


Basket 


tcankina 


Close 


mai 


Beautiful 


penkera 


Cloth 


puci 


Because 


uruka 


Coal 


kaigami, kaiki 


Bed 


pika, piaka 


Cold 


kutuki, sitsika 


Bed, stream 


kuyuama 


Coffin 


kanunma 


Before 


yaou 


Complete 


peikama 


Behind 


atu 


Contented 


cire 


Below 


amara, nungatci 


Copal light 


kunkipuari 


Bitter 


yapa 


Cornfield 


naitcaca 


Black 


mukusa 


Cornstalk 


caski 


Blue 


lara 


Cotton 


anitci 


Board 


hapata 


Cover for pot 


amanekta 


Boiled 


knukama 


Crude 


inea 


Bow 


kicimago 


Cry 


hax 



132 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Current 


tcitciwi 


Fine thread 


sapsati 


Custom 


nuki 


Fine 


cerma 


Dark 


kerama 


Fire 


hi 


Darkness 


kaci'ikihi 


Firewood 


kacua 


Dart 


kandac 


First month 


huotciti 


Day 


sawanda, sawe 


Fishhook 


sau 


Day before yesterday 


anuyaou 


Flexible 


kuciterama 


Day after tomorrow 


nukacini 


Flour 


narifia 


Dead 


hakame 


Flute 


pingue 


Deaf 


kuiciri 


Food 


yuruna 


Deep 


hiercta 


Foolish 


upa 


Direct 


tulupin 


Form 


kutanga 


Dislike 


netsa 


For this 


asa 


Disregard 


yahasama 


Forward 


wikehi 


Distant 


tihercatayerta 


Fresh 


mitci 


Door 


ureta 


Fried 


yuti, yurangue 


Doubt 


tumaci 


Friend 


amigro 


Drop 


rum 


Friendly 


nikasa 


Dry 


karma 


From whom 


yana 


Dry meat 


narnama, puka 


Front 


niheyi 


Dumb 


iniirrl 


Full 


nukupwi 


Dung 


suata 


Full moon 


nantuwata'apakwi 


Dye 


tciengarpi 


Garment 


awangwema 


Eager 


hitcitamai 


Generous 


isaramus 


Early 


taciki 


Gold 


kuri 


Easy 

Egg 

Embrace 


ciri 


Gone 


wetci 


nuhinda 


Good 


penkwera, ayo 


mineksate 


Good day 


ma'aki puhuma 


Empty 


muguida 


Good time 


isita, isata 


Evening 


cuara 


Gratis 


yanga, andera 


Entire 


aci 


Grove 


ikiama 


Evil 


tuna, tawi 


Growth 


sakarta 


Far 


koro 


Grave 


matcitnusa 


Fanner 


awahuku 


Gum 


karia 


Farmhouse 


kundino, insawa 


Gun 


akaro 


Farther 


aranda 


Handkerchief 


papu 


Fat 


apo 


Happening 


whikahe 


Fear 


icamama 


Happy 


cira 


Feast 


manbun 


Hard 


kakarama 


Feather 


uri 


He 


ni 


Feeble 


watsarama 


Here 


yasa 


Fermented 


misawi 


Head of palm 


sambu, sambia 


Few 


icitiku 


Heavy 


kamburama 


Fiber 


tcambira 


Here 


pai, yasa 


Fierce 


yupairama 


Hide 


nuapi 


Fierce, wild 


kaheno 


High 


yuki 


Fight 


manama 


Hill 


nainda 



JIVARAN STOCK 



133 



Hillside 


nainda 


Money 


tcankitu 


His 


amwi 


Moon 


nantu 


Honey 


micki 


Moonlight 


isetatatwi 


Hot 


suitsuit, swariti 


Month 


niantu 


House 


hea, yea 


More 


knatci 


How much 


uruntuna 


Most 


ahui 


Hunger 


irka, suka 


Mould 


umi 


Hungry 


sukumama 


My 


wina 


I 


wi 


Much 


untsure 


Idle 


naki 


Mud 


sakusa 


Idiotic 


uguci 


Machete 


sa'api 


III 


hama, hawi 


Many 


irunume 


Image 


eirie 


Meal 


ihanikinga 


Impossible 


itiurtcati 


Mean 


citama 


Incision 


miserma 


Mercy 


sakardi 


Inside 


inita 


Naked 


misu, tcanambi 


Insufficient 


nukuptcu 


Name 


nari 


Insomnia 


ahunerta 


Narrow 


pana 


Invaluable 


anuanuca 


Narrows 


seretci 


Jet 


sasa 


Near 


arandatci, tipu 


Jivaro 


cuaru 


Net 


nika 


Juice 


yumiri 


New 


yamai 


Lack 


yayatsa 


Night 


kaci 


Lance 


nanki 


Nightfall 


kaiitci 


Lard 


kunduta 


No 


sa 


Large 


unda 


None 


atsuma 


Late 


uruma 


Not 


isa, atsuma 


Lean 


watsarama 


Now 


yame 


Lean to 


hea'apakta 


Oil 


asuite 


Lemon 


yumungo 


Other 


tcikitci 


Lie 


wi'ita 


Outside 


aranda 


Light 


hi 


Over 


yukinukinama 


Light, to make 


pandahi 


Overhead 


araka 


Lighter 


sata 


Pain 


nahamawa 


Lightly 


takapta 


Pair 


ihi 


Little 


utcitci 


Past 


kihini 


Load, on back 


aimakamatikwaskwa 


Path 


pisarta 


Long 


kuna 


People 


aentzu 


Long ago 


nitek 


Pepper 


anaibe 


Long time 


tconta 


Pitch 


sikata 


Law 


kuyuama 


Pity 


kuemil 


Lumber 


numi 


Plain 


paka 


Lunatic 


tumbi 


Playa 


kanusa 


Midday 


itsatutapiri 


Pocket 


wambatci 


Middle 


akangata 


Poison 


siasa 


Milk 


muntzu 


Poison, fish 


timo 


Mirror 


espik 


Pole 


numi 



134 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Poor 


misupahi 


Side, other 


amaini 


Pot, chicha 


muetsa 


Side, this 


huine 


Pot, cooking 


yertci 


Silver 


kwita 


Pot, water 


itcingana 


Simple 


kuntcikuno 


Preparation 


kokai 


Simpleton 


satca 


Purse 


pihantciri 


Singular 


iekitciki 


Pshaw 


ma'a 


Slide 


mitsangama 


Quickly 


kuranda 


Slowly 


yitamara 


Quiet 


titu 


Smallpox 


muro 


Quiver 


tcipeti 


Smell 


naherstino 


Rainbow 


kundaiika 


So 


kewi 


Readily 


acitcimbiahi 


Soft 


mina 


Ready 


urukana 


Sold 


wankani 


Rear 


insakahi 


Solid 


katsurama 


Red 


kapaka 


Sorcerer 


wicino 


Reed 


pa'ata 


Soup 


tumbi 


Return 


tatastahi 


Source 


pukumi 


Remedy 


sunka 


Spear 


ihiyuta 


Returned 


wakitakiapa 


Spider web 


ango angomari 


Right 


tutupine 


Spirit, evil 


sumai, cuentci pasuna 


Ring 


takasaipa 


Spirit, good 


uisa 


Risen 


mihungahi 


Spirits 


mahmtcikareana 


River 


entsa 


Star 


yaya 


Road 


yinda 


Steam 


maye 


Robber 


kasa 


Sterile 


ka'a 


Robust 


undaiyeci 


Strange 


ma 


Roof 


kombanaka 


Storm 


nasensayiyatawi 


Room 


piektcuaci 


Street 


yinda 


Round 


kaner 


Strong 


kakarama 


Rubber 


farara 


Sufficiently 


nukupwi 


Sad 


mayahi 


Sufficient 


makiti 


Salt 


wi, katci 


Sullen 


panda 


Same 


tuki, au 


Summit 


nukurka 


Sands 


naikimi 


Subdued 


nupuitkam 


Sap 


yumiri 


Sun 


etsa 


Sash 


sa'aki 


Sunset 


etsanungahasebi 


Saw 


murra 


Sunset 


itsa pukundahi 


Scanty 


sutaratci 


Supply 


ahui 


Sea 


neri 


Sweet 


yumixia 


Salt 


yahu 


Thankful 


yumisatinu 


Separate 


miswa 


Thanks 


makiti 


Shirt 


puci 


Thanksgiving 


ikiauntumkatae 


Short 


tcuwatsiki 


That 


nu 


Shortly 


sutara 


Then 


nuyi, nu 


Short time 


nuiki 


There 


nuim, atu 


Show 


inyukturitino 


Thin 


serritce 


Sick 


tumaro ha'ahi 


Thirst 


kita 



JIVARAN STOCK 



135 



Thirsty 


titukapuhama 


Water 


yume 


This 


asa, asau, hunuasa 


Water, boiling 


nuhukmakata 


Thou 


amwi 


Water, in pot 


uwarae 


Thus 


nutcuaci 


Warm 


swera 


Time 


nuike 


Wax 


nugi, saka 


Today 


yainai 


Weary 


pimbikma 


Together 


apalakama 


Weigh 


kinawi 


Together, go 


ihe, wirite 


Well 


ya'atsi, ya'atsin 


Together, two 


apatikama 


Wet 


tcupikama 


Tomorrow 


kacini 


What 


kurakangui 


Twilight 


sawarta 


What 


wari 


Underneath 


waptaka 


What, animal 


urukahi 


Unknowable 


nikatcii 


What, thing 


warimba 


Unknown 


tea 


AVhen 


urutai 


Unmarried 


natsa 


Where 


tui, tuin 


Until then 


weawikatahi 


\Mierefore 


itiurkatiniki 


Unwilling 


nakimage 


Whirlpool 


winki 


Upon, hill 


murra 


Whither 


tuimba 


Vacant, house 


sa'aki 


White 


puhu 


Vanilla 


sikuta 


White, feather 


sui 


Very 


ti 


Who 


ya, yuna 


Very well 


ayo 


WTiole 


sinseka 


Vexed 


kaherkama 


Wings 


nanepwe 


Village 


hea aparama 


With 


yai 


Vine 


ka'api, naiku, teresa. 


Wood 


hi 




harango 


Wornout 


sambayaska 


Vine, fish poison 


yokei 


Yes 


he, hete 


Vinegar 


kaciki 


Yesterday 


anu, yau 


Walk 


wikasta 


You 


atuma 


WaU 


kawito 


Your 


amino 


Wasp 


hihuhu 







WITOTAN STOCK 

Distribution. The largest and most important of the tribes of 
the Putumayo River region is the Witoto (Huitote, Ouitote, 
Uitote). It occupies the territory between the Putmnayo and 
Caqueta or Yapura Rivers on the north, and the Napo River on 
the south. The population of the region is fifteen to twenty 
thousand, made up of the following sub-tribes : 



Emuirise 


Kabduya 


Monunisaya 


Sigayo 


Gella 


Komeyone 


Nongoni 


Spuna 


Haiyofo 


Laboyano 


Ouokaise 


Utcerua 


Huraya 


Maynane 


Sebua 


Yabuyano 



My authorities, from whom the following information was ob- 
tained, were Sr. Plinio Torres, who had used a band of Witoto for 




Figure 16 
Outlines of hand and foot of Witoto Indian 



a number of years in gathering rubber along the Putumayo and 
Madre de Dios Rivers; and the best possible authority, Jagi 
Huari, a Peruvian, who when six years of age had been left alone 
with the tribe for six years, in order that he might learn the lan- 
guage, and then serve as an interpreter when these Indians were 
taken over by Sr. Torres. He thus learned the language and cus- 
toms of the Indians, and has continued to live with them for the 
past fourteen years. 

On account of some disagreement with other rubber gatherers, 
Torres left the Putumayo region, with his Indians, and traveled 



136 



WITOTAN STOCK 137 

more than a thousand miles to the junction of the Amigo and Madre 
de Dios Rivers, where we found him clearing land and building a 
house. Several of his Indians died after reaching the Madre de 
Dios on account of fevers and dysentery contracted on the journey. 

Organization. The Witoto Indians have a very close pohtical 
organization for the sub-tribes, but there is no chief over all of 
the tribes. They live in enormous communal houses, grouped 
together about a great plaza. Each village has a chief, ijama, 
and two or more sub-chiefs, one for each of the large houses. The 
offices of chief and sub-chief are inherited by the eldest son. The 
duties of the sub-chiefs are to assist the chief, and to act in his 
stead when he is disabled or away from home. If the chief dies 
leaving a young son, his brother acts as chief until the son is about 
eighteen years of age. If a chief has no son, his brother becomes 
the chief. 

The chief has absolute power over the lives and property of his 
people; however, if the chief is unjust or exercises his authority 
too freely his people may move away, and leave him behind. The 
chief has full power in time of war, but for ordinary occasions he 
calls for volunteers. The chiefs may have more than one wife. 
When one chief visits another he takes tobacco and coca along 
with him, as a gift, while his wives take choice fruits and meats 
for the host's wives. His host invites him into his house, and offers 
him tobacco and coca, and when he departs the chief presents 
him with tobacco and coca, or a tiger tooth necklace. 

Houses. The large communal houses may have as many as a 
hundred apartments, and are capable of accommodating as many 
families. The center of the house is used for a meeting place and 
for dances. The houses are kept dark on account of flies. The 
roof, made of the leaves of vegetable ivory palm {Phytelephas 
macrocarpa) , reaches to the ground. There is no smoke-hole or 
windows, and only one folding door made of leaves, which is kept 
closed. Each family has a very small hanging door of leaves. The 
large apartment opposite the entrance door is assigned to the chief. 
The house, plate 21, was being constructed for the accommodation 
of Torres' group, so that it was not as large as the ordinary Witoto 
house. It was built, as the number of outside posts would indi- 
cate, to accommodate twenty families. The house was sixty feet 
long, forty-five feet wide, and thirty feet high. It will be seen 



138 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

from the framework that there are no central posts supporting 
the roof. This allows a large open space of floor in the center. 
The whole inside of the house is left open; the apartments are 
indicated only by the hammock posts, and the small individual 
fires. They make fire in the ordinary way, by twirling a stick be- 
tween the palms of the hands, and also by striking fire from two 
stones. They have no traditions about the origin of fire. 

Food Supply. The Witoto are primarily an agricultural people. 
Each family has its own field in which they cultivate cassava, 
plantains, potatoes, pineapples, and coca. In making the field, 
the men cut the trees with stone axes, and the women burn the 
brush, plant, and cultivate the vegetables. They add fish and 
game to their food supply, but prefer fish to game, probably be- 
cause there is less of it. They hunt together in common, and 
bring the catch to the chief, who distributes it equally among the 
famihes. 

They capture peccaries, deer, and tapirs in a great net, six feet 
high and a thousand or fifteen hundred feet long, which is stretched 
among the trees in a suitable place in the forest. They catch the 
fish with spears, hooks, and nets, but for the most part depend 
upon poisoning the pools with the crushed leaves and roots of 
the babasco (Jacquinia armillaris) . The poison is carried to the 
pools in baskets, which are dipped frequently into the water, and 
soon the dead fish are seen floating on the surface. A very effec- 
tive hook is made by tying the spine of Astrocaryum to a stick, 
and baiting it with a worm. The blowgun, obiyaka, eight or 
ten feet in length, is made of two pieces of chonta palm {Bactris 
ciliata), grooved, polished, wrapped with a tough strip of the bark 
of huimbaquiro (Bomhax or Jacitara), and coated with a resinous 
gum {Vismia guianensis). The arrows used with blowguns are 
made of chonta or patawa palm {Oenocarpus patawa) with a wisp 
of silk-cotton (Bomhax) , tipped with poison made from the extract 
of a tree called oipui, or made of ramu (Strychnos castelmoeana) 
and pani (Cocculus toxicoferus) . The arrow points are cut in the 
making, so that they will easily break off in the wound. In hunt- 
ing, a lance, moruko, is also used with poisoned tip. These lances 
are made of the leaf stalk of cane with chonta palm poisoned 
points. Eight or ten of these lances are carried in a bamboo case, 
the tips resting in curari poison. The spears are of three types: 



ai 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 21 




Witoto Indian group, and house in process of construction 



WITOTAN STOCK 139 

barbed, for killing the tapir; round, for use in warfare; and with 
a point of bamboo, for killing fish. 

The women make a very refreshing drink, called hugabi, from 
the fruit of the kenaku palm, mixed with cassava, but they have 
no intoxicating drinks. They eat regularly, only twice a day; 
breakfast, monenena, in the morning at daybreak, and supper, 
nawita, in the evening at about six o'clock or sundown. Through 
the day they chew the leaves of the coca plant {Erythroxylon coca) , 
but take no other food. The leaves of the coca are toasted, pul- 
verized, and mixed with the ashes of burnt leaves of another plant. 

Jaliko, the Feast of the Pole. Each year at the beginning of 
the season for clearing and planting the fields, they cut down a 
large tree, and carry a section, three feet or more in diameter and 
fifty to seventy-five feet in length, into the house of the chief. 
The log is so heavy that it is always necessary for them to call 
upon other villages for assistance. While the men are clearing 
and planting the fields, the chief, with the aid of the sub-chiefs, 
spends his time in carving the log. The chief carves on one end 
the bust of a woman with her hands crossed on her breast. The 
sub-chiefs hew off the top of the log for a dancing platform, and 
paint on each side a great snake, the anaconda, in three colors: 
red, yellow, and black. At the end of eight months, when the 
first fruits are ripe, a great feast, called Jaliko, the feast of the pole, 
is given. 

When the time arrives, the chief appoints six men to collect the 
food and drink for the feast. Two men wear white bark cushmas 
painted in front and back with jaguars; two wear cushmas painted 
with poles and branches; and two wear cushmas painted with 
birds. All of the men wear bark masks with only their eyes visil)le. 
Early in the afternoon of the day of the feast, these six men go 
armed to the houses of the sub-chiefs. The two representing the 
jaguars carry long poles with hooks on the ends, and proceed to 
tear off the roof of the house; the two men painted with poles and 
branches carry stone hatchets, and begin to cut down the posts of 
the house; and the two men painted with birds go into the fields, 
and begin to destroy them. In order to prevent this wholesale 
destruction of the houses and fields, the families hasten to give 
the men a great abundance of food of all kinds: fruit, cassava 
bread, meat, fish, and nuts, which they carry to the chief's house 



140 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

where the dance and feast are to be held. In the evening all the 
village people gather at the chief's house for the feast and dance, 
which lasts all night and until late in the afternoon of the next 
day. The women dance on the ground, while the men dance on 
the top of the log. Each man supports himself with a pole, which 
he holds upright in front of him with both hands, facing the 
women. One man leads the singing for the dance, while the others 
join in at the chorus. When the leader is tired out, another takes 
his place. The burden of the song is in adoration of the sun, 
moon, plants, fruits, and animals. The rhythm of the dance is 
accentuated by the sound of rattles, made of nuts, worn by the 
men above the calf of the right leg. The dance of the men on the 
log is merely a shifting from one foot to the other, emphasizing 
the beat with the right foot. 

After the dance is over, the chief cuts up the image of the woman 
and gives a piece to the head of each family present, who takes it 
home and burns it in his own little fireplace. The chief himself 
burns the head of the image. 

The feast appears to be a kind of harvest thanksgiving ceremony, 
but the exact meaning of the different elements is difficult to 
understand. Their dances and feasts are usually held when the 
different fruits are ripe, or when certain fish come up the river. 
During these festive dances, other households are invited and all 
exchange wives during the dance, with the exception of the chiefs. 
Two of the best musicians lead the dance. Each has attached to 
his arm a bunch of feathers, and carries a Pan's pipe of three 
bamboo joints of different lengths. The music is made by each 
in turn blowing a single note on his pipe. The women generally 
dance in circles with clasped hands, and the men dance around 
the outside with their arms locked. The drum is not used at the 
dance, but only for signals and messages. The flutes made of 
the human arm bones of their enemies are used only for personal 
amusement, and played when the individuals who made them are 
alone. 

Other Amusements. Among most tribes, the boys find amuse- 
ment in shooting with the bow and arrow, but the Witoto do not 
use these and the boys must find amusement in some other way. 
They make wooden tops, humuraka, about six inches long and one 
and a half inches thick, with a notch at one end, and a point at the 



WITOTAN STOCK 141 

other. A string is wound around the top, and it is thrown up in 
the air. The men and boys also play ball. They make a large 
rubber ball, uvvika detirowi, about six inches in diameter, and 
all play together arountl the central plaza. The ball is tossed into 
the air and must be caught on the knee of the right leg, bounced 
into the air again, and received in the same way on the other side. 
The hands must not be used except in guiding the ball to the 
knee. These ball games between villages last four or five days. 
They play ball in the afternoon, and dance at night. 

Dress and Ornamentation. No clothing is worn indoors, but 
the men, when on the trail, hunting, or working in the fields, wear 
a breechcloth of bark. The women wear narrow woven cotton 
bands on the wrists and ankles. Neither men nor women wear 
paint or are tattooed. The men pierce the ears and the alae of the 
nose, for the insertion of feathers, but the septum is not perforated. 
The sub-chiefs pierce their ears and the alae of the nose, and wear 
a wooden plug in the middle of the lower lip. The chief wears, in 
addition, two extra lip plugs one on either side of the center. The 
plugs are sometimes made of silver or gold. The sub-chiefs wear 
jaguar tooth necklaces; in case of trouble between the chief and a 
sub-chief this necklace is taken away by the chief, and the sub- 
chief is thus disgraced. The extra lip plugs are the only evidence 
of position worn by the chief. As there is no clothing or headdress 
worn, these are the only marks of distinction within the tribe. 

Marriage. The Witoto marry outside the village, but within the 
tribe. No one, except the chiefs and the medicine men, is allowed 
to have more than one wife. The medicine men are allowed to 
have three or four, while the chiefs may have as many as they 
wish. The sons of chiefs must always marry the daughters of 
other chiefs. The three or four hundred people living in one group 
are considered as one family, and all of the children as brothers and 
sisters. 

When a young man wishes to take a wife he speaks to his father, 
who makes arrangement with the father of the girl he desires; 
but if the boy's father is dead he goes to the chief instead. The 
boy makes a present of tobacco to the chief, works for the girl's 
father, and gives him tobacco and coca. The tobacco and coca 
for the father are brought in, and left on the floor of the house. 
At the same time, the boy brings rare fruits and game, and a cer- 



142 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

tain kind of wood, popai, which is very much prized, and presents 
them to the girl's mother. The food is then divided among all the 
families in the house, and if all partake, it is considered a sign that 
they agree to the marriage. The boy must then remain in the 
house that night, and sleep alone. The next day the girl's father 
sends her to the boy's household where she lives with the family 
until after puberty, when the young man takes her to his own 
apartment in the family house of his father. If a wife should prove 
unfaithful, she is killed by her husband. 

When a woman is about to be confined, she retires to the forest 
alone, and returns with her child. She is given presents by all of 
the other women of the household. When a chief's wife has a 
child, the medicine men come to the house; the eldest takes the 
child in his arms, sings and chants a ceremony, then passes it to 
the next, and he to the next, continuing throughout the night. 
This ceremony is intended to keep the evil spirits away from the 
mother and child, and to give the child good health. The child 
is named by the father and mother, without any ceremony. There 
seem to be family and tribal names. Jagi Huari means " beads 
about his neck." His son's name is Guaita Huari — Guaita 
means " to catch." The name Huari is never found in any other 
sub-tribe, and the name Jagi can never be used by any other 
family. Men are sometimes given nicknames of animals or birds. 
Some examples of individual names are as follows: 

Sehua sub-tribe: chief's name, Sorroginema; wife's, Jenadeno; 
and son's, Irimamuy. Man's name, Binarima; wife's, Bogeirei; 
and son's. Keif o. Man's name, Siaguide; wife's, Nanimegoqueina; 
and son's, Boiriyama, 

Kabduya sub-tribe: man's name, Suyei; wife's, Setiniyei; son's, 
Kitibequi; and daughter's, Sirequitofefio, 

Monunisaya sub-tribe: man's name, Jairebiuneima; and wife's, 
Diguidami. 

Nongoni sub-tribe: man's name, Yidima; wife's, Sanuano; 
son's, Cani; and daughter's, Cayei. 

The families are always small, in spite of the common desire for 
children. There are seldom more than three or four children born in 
one family. The members of the family sleep in individual ham- 
mocks; the father on one side of the apartment, the mother on the 
other, with the children in the back part, and a fire in the middle. 



WITOTAN STOCK 143 

The Dead. When a chief dies he is wrapped in a new hammock 
with all his possessions and buried in the center of the floor of 
the house, then the people move away, and build another house. 
When any other member of the tribe dies, he is buried under his 
own fireplace, and the house is not deserted. The grave is dug 
about five feet deep, and the body placed in a sitting posture. A 
man dies in his hammock. Each family places some offering in the 
hammock, then it is bound around the corpse with a rope, and 
placed in the grave with all his possessions. His dogs and pet 
animals are buried ahve, or later when caught are killed and 
buried. 

If a father and mother both die and leave young children, they 
are buried ahve with the mother. Jagi knew of one case where 
both parents had died and had left three httle children, the mother 
dying shortly after the father. The eldest child, about eight years 
of age, overheard the people talking, and learned that the children 
were to be buried ahve, so he quietly escaped to the forest; but 
the other two were put in the grave alive with the mother and 
covered up with earth. Jagi was present, and witnessed the burial. 

Two or three months after a man's death the people of his house 
hold a fiesta and dance in his honor. When a man dies, his widow 
cuts off and burns the bands which are put on her ankles and arms 
when she is promised in marriage. If she has great affection for 
her husband, and thinks she will never want to marry again she 
cuts off her hair as a sign of mourning. When a wife dies, a man 
shows no signs of grief or mourning. 

If any one is suffering from some incurable disease which renders 
him helpless, or from some unknown serious disease, he is buried 
alive. Ordinarily they take exceptionally good care of the aged, 
because they are considered wise, and their counsel is desired. 

Medicine Men. When anyone is sick, the members of his family 
give him such remedies as are commonly known among the tribe. 
If he does not recover and the sickness proves serious, the aimi, or 
medicine man, is called in. He gives no medicine, but treats the 
patient by magic and manipulation. He takes ground tobacco 
leaves, boils them in a small cooking pot, squeezes out the liquid, 
boils it again until it is a thick syrup, and then mixes with it water 
and the ashes of the popai. He dips his fingers into the liquid, and 
puts them in his mouth. In a few minutes he is overcome with 



144 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

dizziness and sickness and in this condition is able to discover the 
disease. After a half hour he takes tepid water as an emetic. He 
has now discovered the disease, knows what it is, and where it is 
located. He uses no drugs, but begins at once his manipulations. 
He rubs the patient, always in the direction of the extremities, 
and blows the disease away from between his hands. He presses 
with the heels of the hands, rolls his knuckles, and rubs with his 
fingers; as he finishes rubbing, he brings his hands together at the 
top of the patient's head, or at his toes, or his finger tips, and then 
blows away the disease. To insure the safety of the patient from 
the return of the disease, he blows upon the hammock. 

The medicine man operates in the middle of the big house. The 
patient is brought in, laid on a mat, or swung in a hammock. If, 
however, the patient is too sick to be moved, he may be treated in 
his own apartment. About ten feet inside of the door of the big 
house there is a pole on which hangs a bag of coca, at the bottom 
of which is kept a small pot of Hquid tobacco. The medicine man, 
in taking his tobacco, squats before this pot with his back towards 
the center of the house. If the patient is seriously sick, the medi- 
cine man may remain with him for several days blowing away the 
disease. Besides this kind of treatment, the medicine man is 
able also to reduce fractures, using tablets of wood as splints; to 
lance ulcers; to put on plasters of various kinds; and to cup the 
back and shoulders for diseases of the chest. 

When a medicine man is sick he attributes his sickness to som.e 
powerful medicine man in another tribe. In cases of epidemics the 
medicine man goes from house to house, and if many die he recom- 
mends that they burn the houses and move away. In all cases 
death is due to the influence of some other medicine man, and the 
local medicine man is not held responsible. The medicine man is 
paid for his services in tobacco, coca, and jaguar teeth. When 
a child is sick its mother eats nothing but cassava. If anyone is 
near to death, the other members of the household sit nearby and 
sing. In case of smallpox they separate the sick, and send all the 
unaffected people away to the forest during the continuance of 
the disease. 

Ordinarily the medicine man does not reveal the sickness that he 
has removed from the body of the patient, but in certain cases of 
severe illness he bites and sucks from the body of the patient a 



WITOTAN STOCK 145 

small object of gold, silver, wood, or bone, shows it to the chief, 
and says that he has taken it from the body. The chief takes it, 
shows it to the patient, and then returns it to the medicine man, 
who puts it in his mouth. This is the evil that is causing the disease, 
and since it has been removed, the patient says that he feels better, 
and usually recovers. 

The medicine man works in the fields as an ordinary member of 
the tribe; but he is respected by his own tribe, because he is able 
to cure diseases, and he is feared by other tribes because he is able 
to send diseases upon them. A medicine man is not able to send 
any particular disease, but just disease of some kind. 

The position of medicine man is inherited. The eldest son is 
always supposed to have the power to heal. From childhood he is 
not allowed to eat certain kinds of food, or to do certain things. 
He must not eat the fat or flesh of animals, or certain fruits. He 
may eat small birds, small fish, and cassava, the common staple 
food. He uses a great deal of tobacco. The boy is taught by his 
father, but he is not allowed to practise until after his father's 
death. Each large house has a medicine man, but the greatest 
of the medicine men lives in the house with the chief. 

Cosmogony. The Witoto start with the world already made, 
without any account of its creation. They know that the world 
is round from the fact that they see a circular horizon. They know 
also that it is flat with water all around and under it, because they 
have dug wells and found water below. 

At death they go up to the sky from the point of departure on 
the top of the high mountains in the west. One time a man, after 
going to the top of the mountain, came back, and told the people 
that he saw great mountains and cities beyond, but no one else 
has ever gone to see them. The rivers join together, and run away 
into a great hole in the earth, called monokakagi, and never come 
back. Where the hole is, and what finally becomes of the water 
is unknown. 

Man is an evolved monkey. A long time ago, before there was 
any sun or moon, monkeys came up through a hole in the earth, 
and after a long time some of them developed into men, while the 
rest remained monkeys. The Witoto were the first men. At the 
time the monkeys became men, there was no sun, but it came 
afterward from some unknown place. The animals came about 



146 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

the same time that men made their appearance. Fathers tell their 
cliildren stories about how the monkeys became men. 

Time is counted by moons, dawi; and by seasons, hwiyaraoH; 
the time from one rainy season to another, or from harvest to 
harvest, or flowering time to flowering time. 

Religion. They beheve a big man, Hosinimui, is in the sky, 
who has a long beard which reaches to the middle of his body, but 
has no hair on his head, and who wears the sun as a crown. When 
the sun goes down at night it is because he has gone to bed, and 
put out the light. His food is composed entirely of honey and 
peanuts. There is also an evil spirit, Taife, who has long flnger 
nails, and may do personal injury to his victims. At death all 
without distinction go above in the sky, and remain there forever, 
inactive. The soul of the dead, hursesima, comes back to earth 
at times, and walks around at night. 

Warfare. The Witoto are not a war-like people, but are forced 
at times to go to war, and at such times are well organized under 
the chief. When they want to provoke war with another tribe, 
some members of the war party go to the other tribe, and give 
a man coca; when he begins to eat it, they hit him on the head with 
a stone hatchet, kill him, cut off his head, and carry it home to eat. 
To secure volunteers for such a war, the chief places on the ground 
a pot containing the extract of tobacco. He then makes an ad- 
dress, dips his flngers into the liquid, places them on the tip of his 
tongue, and calls upon all who are wilHng to go to war to do the 
same thing. This ceremony is in the nature of an oath, and is 
often used on other occasions. It is the most sacred oath, and is 
never broken. 

When they kill men in war they cut off the heads and the arms, 
and carry them home, where they eat the flesh of the heads, throw 
away the skull, and make flutes of the arm bones. The heads are 
boiled, and the teeth taken out and made into necklaces. The 
flesh is eaten by the old men, and the leader of songs, nugoitimoi. 
Recently Torres' band of Witoto Indians made a raid against the 
Andoke, killed three men, cut off their heads, ate the flesh, then 
placed the skulls on top of poles in front of their own houses. 
Jagi says this is not the usual practice. Sometimes the skulls have 
the facial part broken away, and the rest hung to the roof over the 
chief's quarters. 



WITOTAN STOCK 



147 



When a chief dies or is killed, his own people take out his teeth, 
and burn or break them, for fear some enemy may dig up the body, 
and take the teeth for a necklace. When prisoners are taken, they 
are brought home, and killed in the plaza by an executioner, who 
uses a lance or a stone hatchet. Captured women are tied to a 
pole in the center of the plaza, and left there over night, when any 
man who wishes may have access to them, a privilege seldom 
accepted. The next day they are killed by the executioner. 

As the Witoto have no bows and arrows, they use in warfare 
spears, hard wood clubs like double-edged swords, called makana, 
and stone axes. They do not use their poisoned lances or blow- 
guns in warfare. 

It has been reported that the Witoto are cannibals, that they 
eat the heads, arms, hands, and feet of their enemies or undesirable 




Figure 17 

Witoto Indian drum five feet long and two feet in diameter made from a log. The 
interior was burned out through the two holes and connecting slit 

persons coming among them; but they eat only a part of the 
flesh of the head, and that for revenge, and for the purpose of in- 
spiring fear in their enemies. For the same reason, they make 
flutes of the bones of the arm. 

Signal Code. The drum, huari, is used entirely as a means of 
communication. It is made of a log, five or six feet in length and 
two feet in diameter (figure 17) . On the top of the log is a hole 
near each end, six inches in diameter, and connecting these is a 
sHt, one and a half inches wide. The interior of the log is burned 
out through the slit and holes, and the fire controlled by blowing 
through the leg bone of a stork. The two sides are of different 
thickness, thus they produce two tones differing in pitch. For 
sending messages two drums are used, and four tones are furnished, 



148 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



differing in pitch and quality. The operator stands between the 
two logs, and beats them with his rubber-tipped stick, huakitchu. 
His code is based upon these four different tones, the time between 
his strokes, and the number of blows. The drum is kept in the 
chief's house, suspended from the roof or is hung by lianas from 
a tree outside, and kept from swinging by cords attached to a 
buried log. 

The Witoto have been made notorious on account of the " Atroc- 
ities of the Putumayo," made public a few years ago by Sir Roger 
Casement. The real condition of affairs in the Putumayo region, 
and the treatment of the Witoto by rubber gatherers could not 
well be exaggerated. Hearing of these misdeeds of the rubber 
gatherers, I reported them to the Peruvian Government and to 
my own, some two years before Sir Roger Casement had heard of 
them. The Peruvian Government immediately stopped the atroc- 
ities, as is evidenced by the fact that Sir Roger presents only 
reports of what had happened, not anything that he himself saw. 

Grammar. In order to form the comparative, maka, much, is 
prefixed to the positive. There is no superlative form. 







COMPARISON 




Good 


mari 


Bad 


marineti 


Better 


makamari 


Worse 


makamarineti 




USE OF POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES 




My father 


kwaimoa 


Their house 


imakahopo 


My mother 


kwainono 


Our house 


kaghopo 


My house 


kwaihopo 


My good house 


knaihopomari 


His house 


baimwihopo 


His good dogs 


baimakotikomari 


Your house 


ohapo 


Large house 
PRONOUNS 


ijuihopo 


I 


kwe 


We 


kai 


Thou 


o 


You 


omo 


He 


o 


They 


omo 


She 


ohe 






This 


naimwe 


My 


knai 


That 


biama 


Your 


ohe 


Which 


muka 


This 


bai 


Who 


bumwa 


Our 


kai 


What is this? 


hadiyabuwi? 


What man is this? 


wimabuo? 



What did you say? nupodo? 



WTiose dog is this? biyihikobuwi? 



WITOTAN STOCK 



149 







DECLENSION 






The man 




wigma 






For the man 


wigmayi 






With the 


man 


wigmadiga 




Vocabulary. 














THE FAMILY 




Man 


igma 




Aunt 


iusunu 


Woman 


rino 




Brother 


ama 


Husband 


kwi'ini 




Sister 


bunu 


Wife 


kvvi'ai 




Son 


hito 


Grandfather 


iusuma 




Daughter 


hisa 


Grandmother 


iusunu 




Boy 


iurotiko 


Father 


mota 




Girl 


hisa 


Mother 


e'i 




Baby 


hamadi 


Uncle 


iusuma 










CARDINAL 


POINTS 




North 


oguayak 




Zenith 


haaka 


West 


bibemu 




Nadir 


ana 


South 


oyekodubehaukunak 


Up river 


avibeni 


East 


biye 




Down river 


wireni 






COLORS 




White 


insereti 




Blue 


mokoreti 


Black 


hitereti 




Yellow 


hosi 


Red 


hiyoreti 




Brown 


hetuda 






NUMERALS 




1 


dahi 




5 


dabakwiro 


^ 


mena 




10 


nangwahibekwiro 


3 


dahiyamand 




20 


aikwiro 


4 


naka'amak 




Above 20 (many) 


daheseti 






ORDINALS 




First 


dahi 




T,ast 


irakena 



They count their fingers, beginning with the httle finger of the 
left hand. For the right hand, the same names are used as for the 
left hand, except for the thumb which has a new word, ten. From 
ten to twenty the toes are counted in the same order as the fingers, 
with a new word for twenty. No other words are used for num- 
bers except the indefinite word for a great number. 



150 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



VERBS 



Ask 


hikanaiti 


Know 


iunati 


Break 


jedi 


Make 


huinoka 


Bring 


ati 


Paint 


hidi 


Burn 


oside 


Play 


deter owi 


Catch 


gaita 


Put 


honi 


Come 


biti 


Reply 


iu'aidoti 


Cook 


rokoki 


Return 


biti 


Cry 


kweri 


Roast 


ruika 


Cut 


koaiti 


Run 


arikina 


Pie 


foodaiti 


Say 


nupo 


Dig 


ekono 


See 


kiodo 


Drink 


hiro 


Send 


oretati 


Eat 


gunu 


Sew 


tifoka 


Fall 


iu'aidi 


Sing 


rono 


Fly 


fedi 


Sleep 


inidi 


Give 


haisika 


Smell 


nuita 


Go 


makariti 


Speak 


nakti 


Grow 


moni 


Suck 


disenhiro 


Have 


jino 


Swim 


idi 


Hear 


kakadi 


Take 


hiro 


Hunt 


henodi 


Walk 


haiti 


Judge 


hifaneti 


Wash 


hokoki 




ADDITIONAL WORDS 




About 


iaredi 


Death 


baidi 


Bad 


marineti 


Dog 


hiko 


Ball, rubber 


uika 


Dog./. 


hikoerino 


Beads 


jagi 


Dog, m. 


hiko'oima 


Better 


makamari 


Dogs 


hikotiko 


Bird 


ofoma 


Drum 


wari 


Bird,/. 


ofomaerina 


Drumstick 


wakitcu 


Bird, m. 


ofomaoima 


Dry 


safreneti 


Birds 


nanofoma 


Empty 


heriainoti 


Blowgun 


obiyaka 


False 


benagnoyoti 


Chicha 


eimo 


Feast 


jaliko 


Chicha, fruit 


hugabi 


Fever 


duiko 


Chief (name o 


f) Ijama 


Full 


monitaiti 


cc a 


' Kutunen 


Good 


mari 


« « 


' Rianumui 


Green 


hamadi 


« « 


' Amigo 


Hard 


kweneredi 


<C it 


' Mampi 


Here 


benoma 


« « 


' Ifi 


Hot 


usireti 


Cold 


rosireti 


House 


hopo 


Corn 


petcato 


Jaguar 


hiko 


Day 


aje 


Lance 


suda 



WITOTAN STOCK 



151 



Large 


ijui 


Spirit, evil 


taife 


Late 


nawiti 


Spirit, good 


hosinimui 


Many 


aka 


Stone 


nofuika 


Medicine man 


eima 


Straight 


hanoredi 


Moon 


hwibui 


Sun 


hitoma 


More 


aka 


Sweet 


niaimeridi 


Much 


aka 


Tapir 


hegedima 


Naked 


dunoka 


Tapir, /. 


hegedima'erino 


Needle 


egido 


Tapir, m. 


hegedima'oima 


Negative 


ineti 


Tapirs 


hegeditiko 


Nest 


hoho 


There 


hipihi 


Night 


nagone 


There, distant 


baini 


No 


damaiti 


Thief 


fuiki 


None 


ineti 


Tobacco 


jera 


Nothing 


jidi 


Tomorrow 


ikomoni 


Old 


iuaikeroma 


Top 


humuraka 


Open 


ekono 


Tree 


amina 


Opposite 


oruikadibi 


Tribe (name o 


Laboyano 


Paddle 


faijahi 


tt (( ( 


Sebua 


Pain 


isiredi 


« <( < 


' Huraya 


Palmfruit 


kenaku 


CC « ( 


' Monunisaya 


Partridge 


kotoma 


CC ct i 


Nongoni 


Pig 


aimo 


<t it i 


' Kabduya 


Pig,/. 


aimo'erino 


« (( ( 


' Haiyofo 


Pig, m. 


aimo'oima 


Truth 


wanai 


Pigs 


togaimo 


Turkey 


muidoki 


Poison 


aupui 


Ugly 


heredi 


Quickly 


arikena 


Warm 


ikasiti 


Rain 


dedi 


Wet 


riadi 


Raw 


uweneti 


Where 


nifue 


Ripe 


hiedi 


Wide 


adjuemi 


River 


ije 


Wind 


aifui 


Same 


adinomo 


Wing 


riaiko 


Singer 


nugoitemai 


Worse 


makamarineti 


Sky 


mona 


Yes 


he 


Small 
Soul 


hanoredi 
hursesima 


Yesterday 


nafatoni 



MIRANHAN GROUP 

Vocabulary. The short vocabulary here appended was ob- 
tained from a small boy at a rubber station on the Manu River. 
He had been captured sometime before, but had not learned to 
speak Spanish well enough to give me any information about his 
people, nor even where they lived. The man who had him did not 
know where he came from, or to what tribe he belonged. 





THE 


FAMILY 




Man 


kwakpi 


Son 


itsemeni 


Woman 


kwatci 


Child 


mani 


Father 


takani, tci'iha 


Baby 


tcowapekwi 


Mother 


kwa'atro, kwa'atco 








PARTS OF THE BODY 




Head 


manjkwi 


Chest 


mapahi 


Hair 


manikwahi 


Abdomen 


mapahi 


Cheek 


manipa 


Arm 


manahenkwa 


Chin 


makwatsahi 


Upper arm 


manehikwa 


Eye 


maatci 


Lower arm 


maonsik 


Eyebrow 


mahe 


Hand 


maonse 


Eyelash 


ma'atcitci 


Finger 


m'aonskwa 


Ear 


manimi 


Nail 


maonsikwani 


Nose 


matihigo 


Hips 


makipa 


Mouth 


mahi 


Leg 


mat'tia 


Teeth 


makwahi 


Upper leg 


makipa 


Tongue 


manihikwi 


Lower leg 


mapateri 


Neck 


manikwa 


Knee 


matooahi 


Throat 


makortotsa 


Ankle 


mattia 


Shoulder 


makomavik 


Foot 


mattiapa 


Back 


mapaseria 


Toe 


mattikwa 


Side 


mam'miko 


Joint 
VERBS 


makomivik 


Bite 


meikoi 


Rise 


kwakwameni 


Come 


kwaditcitci 


Run 


matini 


Drink 


veheterlk 


Sit 


kwatakivi 


Eat 


kwamematcowa 


Sleep 


kwakikwa 


Paddle 


mapotoa 







152 



MIRANHAN GROUP 



153 



ADDITIONAL AYORDS 



Dog 


oipi 


Cat 


i'lkernek 


Hog 


mani 


Jaguar 


hoipi 


Parrot 


waro 


Turkey 


nimiko 


Cock 


kvvapi 


Hen 


kataraka 


Yucca 


waheriki 


Plantain 


iuhiko 


House 


lia'antc 


Roof 


iume'eko 



Floor 


iumainkwa 


Canoe 


meina 


Paddle 


potokwa 


Pole 


katehika 


Day 


mepa 


Night 


kaveni 


Tomorrow- 


pekorekan 


Good day 


Imlnik 


Thank you 


meimivi 


Yes 


eheh 


No 


tsatanikato 



TUPIAN STOCK 



TIATINAGUA 



Distribution. The Tiatinagua occupy the territory south of the 
Madre de Dios between the Inambari and Beni Rivers, particularly 
along the Tambopata, Heath, and Madidi Rivers. They number 
at present five or six hundred, and are known locally by various 
names: Atsahuaca, Yamiaca, and Guarayo or Huarayo. The 
term Huarayo has no ethnic value, but is a general name applied 
to all savages, as the term Chuncho is used in some other regions. 
These Indians speak a dialect of the Tupian language. 

Organization. The Tiatinagua have a very loose tribal organi- 
zation. Each group has a head-man or chief, who leads his people 
in their wanderings from their permanent villages in the interior 
to their hunting places. Two or three families live together in 
small palm-leaf houses. They build temporary shelters on sand 
bars, along the rivers, by leaning palm leaves against a bent pole. 
They travel for the most part on foot, crossing the rivers on balsas, 
made of two logs fastened together by chonta palm pins driven 
through them. They make no canoes. 

Food Supply. Around their permanent homes in the forest they 
make great clearings where they grow corn, cassava, sweet pota- 
toes, and plantains. Along the rivers, where they hunt and fish 
at certain seasons of the year, they plant bananas and plantains 
in a small clearing out of sight of the river. These clearings are 
so well secluded that a traveler would not be able to find them 
without knowing the location or clue. The traveler, seeing a 
single banana or plantain tree standing at the river bank, wonders 
how it happened to grow there. If he were to land, and make his 
way into the forest behind this tree, he would find plenty of fruit. 

Plantains are eaten raw, or are roasted when green or ripe. 
The rind is spHt by biting it longitudinally, and is removed with 
the fingers and teeth. Then the plantain is placed in the fire, 
and roasted on hot coals. They make very httle pottery, and 
often use a joint of bamboo, instead of a cooking pot, especially 

154 



TUPIAN STOCK, THE TIATINAGUA 



155 



when they wish to cook fish. They cut a joint of green bamboo of 
sufficient size, place the fish inside, and throw the joint into the 
fire. The fish cooks before the bamljoo l)urns through. 

The men make fire by twirhng a stick between the palms of the 
hands in the ordinary fashion. They do not grow tobacco, or use 
it in any form. The men hunt, fish, and make balsas. The women 
clear, plant, and cultivate the fields, build their houses and shelters, 
gather fruits and nuts, and even make bows and arrows for the 
men. The men hunt in large numbers, and divide their catch. 
The common method used in hunting most of their game is the 













Figure 18 
Tiatinagua woman making cornmeal 



drive. They encircle a wide area, and drive game towards a com- 
mon center on high ground, where the animals are killed with bows 
and arrows. They have no hooks, but are very successful in 
shooting fish, and sometimes drive them into a trap made by 
planting sticks across a side stream. 

The Tiatinaguas are the most expert in the use of the bow and 
arrow of any of the tribes visited. The bow is held in the left 
hand, with the arrow on the left of the bow, and under the fore- 
finger; then the arrow is held on the string with the thumb and 
index finger, and pulled with the other three fingers on the string. 
They pull across the breast with the head turned to the left, and 
the arrow below the line of the eye. In shooting at a target, six 
inches in diameter, at a distance of twenty-five yards, they made 



156 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

an average of a direct hit once in five times, with the other arrows 
close to the target. They use bows and arrows about six feet in 
length. 

Dress and Ornamentation. The chief wears a shirt made of 
woven wild cotton while all the other men wear a close fitting 
sleeveless bark shirt which comes down nearly to the knees. The 
women wear a piece of bark as an apron, hanging in front from a 
belt or string tied around the waist. The children wear no cloth- 
ing until after puberty. They dye their clothing, and paint their 
bodies, black with wito and red with arnotto. Women and children 
wear necklaces made of the teeth of monkeys, peccaries, and other 
animals. The men sometimes wear a crescent-shaped nose orna- 
ment made of mother-of-pearl, and certain men wear two or three 
bright feathers under one arm. Neither men nor women pierce 
their ears or lips. The heads of the children are flattened by tying 
a board on the forehead, as is the custom already described among 
the Conebo. 

Marriage. The chief alone is allowed to have more than one 
wife. They marry within their own tribe, but outside of their own 
village, and bring their wives to live in their villages. There is no 
marriage ceremony, and as far as could be learned, only mutual 
consent between the two parties directly concerned is necessary. 
If a woman dislikes her husband or his people, she may return to 
her own people, without restraint. Wives are very well treated, 
yet a husband may sell his wife or his children. Marriage cannot 
take place until after puberty ceremonies have been performed for 
both boys and girls. 

When puberty arrives, a feast and dance takes place. The old 
women take the girls aside and cut the hymen with a bamboo 
knife. The men take the boys at puberty, and cut the frenum 
preputii with the same kind of bamboo knife. When a husband 
dies his widow returns to her own people, and lives with her 
brother. The chief may have five or six wives, but must take them 
from other Tiatinagua villages. 

. When a woman is to be confined she retires into the forest with 
two other women as assistants. After a suitable place is selected, 
one woman sits down with her back against a tree and takes the 
patient on her lap, locking her arms under those of the patient, 
and holding her firmly in that position while the other woman 
assists in the delivery. 



^ 



Peabody Museum Papers 



Vol. X, Plate 22 
















«6t/-»»»' 





Tiatinagua Indian bark cushma, necklaces, headdress, and feather ornaments. (1/10.) 



TUPIAN STOCK, THE TIATINAGUA 157 

The Dead. When a man dies in a village the body is taken to 
the forest, and buried at full length. His clothing, bows, and 
arrows are buried with him. If a man dies while traveling or en- 
camped along the river, the body is thrown into the river without 
ceremony. 

A few days after we left one Tiatinagua village, a Peruvian, Sr. 
Galvez, who had formerly visited the village, came back to it. For 
some unknown reason, the Indians killed him, cut off his head, and 
threw the body into the river. It is not known what disposition 
they made of the head. When our canoemen were returning up 
the river, they found a skeleton on a sand bar which they identified 
as that of Galvez by means of his American shoes. The fish had 
eaten all the flesh from the bones, but the boots were still in place. 

When one is sick with some incurable disease, or is thought 
permanently helpless, the men tie his hands and feet together, and 
throw him into the river to drown. They beheve that all sickness 
comes on account of cultivation, as there is no sickness in the 
forest. When there is an epidemic, they segregate the sick. Some 
time before our visit, there had been an epidemic of sore eyes, and 
half the people were affected. The diseased ones were separated, 
while the others went away into the forest. 

Religion. They start with the world in its present condition, 
and have no traditions of a creator. They believe in two separate 
spirits. A good spirit, Itosiga, is in the form of a very large white 
man, with a long black beard who lives in the depths of the forest, 
where only a few very old men have seen him. His only function 
is that of causing the growth of plants. He is not worshipped or 
held in any reverence. The other spirit, Ikwikwi, is in the form of 
a small black man, with black beard. He also lives in the forest, 
and occasionally is seen. When he is heard coming through the 
bushes, they shoot arrows at him, and drive him away. He is not 
evil, and does them no harm, but they feel uncomfortable when he 
is near. 

Personal Appearance. When we visited the Tiatinagua village 
at La Torre, on the Tambopata River we found the people healthy 
and in good physical condition. Apparently, they take less care 
of their personal appearance than any of the other tribes. They 
allow the hair to grow long, and do not extract the scattered hairs 
on the face or body; consequently they appear to be much more 



158 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



hairy than any of the other tribes. The hst of physical measure- 
ments will reveal a marked difference between the Tiatinagua, 
and the Panoan and Arawakan groups. 

The Tiatinagua, while not differing greatly in stature, have 
very slender bodies, long faces, and long heads. They have the 
lowest index of any of the groups, 76.31. The minimum frontal 
measurement is the lowest of all, and there is a marked depression 
at the temples. While they have the long face and long head, they 
have, at the same time, the broadest nose of any of the tribes 
measured, which may indicate that some method of artificial 
flattening is in use. 

Grammar. The masculine is formed by adding yawi to the 
noun, and the feminine by adding pona. The plural is formed by 
adding kematine to the singular. 







PRONOUNS 




I 


eya 




We 


dekya 


Thou 


ikwanaiyi 




You 


dekya 


He 


iyawi 




They 


dekya 


She 


iwenasi 








Vocabulary. 














THE FAMILY 




Chief 


otonia 




Uncle 


bapba 


Man 


deha, yawi 




Aunt 


toto 


Woman 


ipona 




Brother 


koki 


Husband 


bekopu 




Sister 


ohi 


Wife 


ikuyi 




Son 


tcowa 


His wife 


alwanasi 




Daughter 


icewi 


Grandfather 


hoasi 




Boy 


ibakwe 


Grandmother 


canasi 




Girl 


ipona 


Father 


kaka 




Infant 


icowi 


Mother 


nai'ig 










PARTS OF THE 


BODY 




Head 


iyohwak 




Teeth 


ese 


Hair 


iohwana 




Tongue 


yana 


Face 


ikohwa 




Shoulder 


ibahak 


Eye 


ikohwa 




Back 


itna'asa 


Ear 


icahak 




Side 


ithohanic 


Nose 


ekwi 




Breast 


ekopeci 


Mouth 


inama 




Arm 


iya 


Lip 


ikwasa 




Elbow 


wacu 



TUPIAX STOCK, THE TIATINAGUA 



159 



Hand 


ime 


Knee 


oca ha 


Palm 


imehoto 


Ankle 


ikibocahi 


Finger 


iniesis 


Foot 


ihiohu 


Nail 


imekica 


Toe 


iliioliis 


Thumb 


imeyaiyai 


Sole 


ihioiiukahu 


Index 


imekisa 


Stomach 


mahi 


Leg 


ikisi 


COLORS 




black 


katagwa 


red 


kaokwiuigi 


blue 


katawakiheni 


white 


kaocini 


green 


katawa 


yellow 
NUMERALS 


hawahawa 


1 


owi 


12 


tiyehipa 


2 


bikapiai 


13 


owitahoho 


3 


bahipiep 


14 


owitahawa 


4 


bekadepiai 


15 


owikacici 


5 


iamatamata 


16 


iyisamahow 


6 


ai'ipiep 


17 


owitahoakikici 


7 


bikanipiai 


18 


iyidakawadakawa 


8 


bikapiyoliuma 


19 


diyikini 


9 


ki'ipiha 


20 


i'isawani 


10 


i' iamatamata 


21 


i'iniweyakakiko 


11 


wanta 


22 
VERBS 


eaniwgyakakiko 


Ask 


woihaha 


Go 


pokihey 


Break 


isahakwi 


Grow 


powahi 


Bring 


yekwi 


Have 


akwikayani 


Burn 


ewahakwi 


Hear 


hacahak 


Buy 


ehehaikwi 


Know 


habawikafia 


Call 


gowikwi 


Make 


tiotikwi 


Come 


fuekwi 


Play 


mahamaha 


Cook 


ekwakwi 


Put 


heakikwokwama 


Cry 


ta'akwi 


Rain 


enahwa 


Cut 


ahakwi 


Reply 


soiha'akwi 


Die 


manohe 


Return 


fuinahi 


Dig 


tiokwi 


Roast 


nowakwi 


Drink 


yene 


Rob 


sikanto 


Dry 


hokaya 


Run 


kwahikwahi 


Eat 


itcahikaha 


Send 


pokimi 


Fall 


hawitcakwihi 


Sew 


sokokwi 


Fly 


kwakwesan 


Shoot 


pohoheti 


Give 


kiakwi 


Sit 


aliokikwi 



160 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



Sing 


isawahki 


Swim 


besani 


Sleep 


kakawi 


Take 


icikwi 


Smell 


uciwicini 


Thing 


keawiya 


Speak 


mimikwi 


Walk 


pokikwi 


Sting 


ha'akwakwi 


Wash 


cakwakwi 


Suck 


hekibibikwi 







ADDITIONAL WORDS 



Above 


biakwa 


Hand 


keakaha 


All 


pokohiwi 


Hat 


ehyauha 


Arrow 


emehi 


Here 


andikwi 


Balsa 


ewisipi 


High 


kiau 


Bark cushma 


nohwa'aki 


Hot 


tcatiyo 


Bark for cushma 


teapaka 


House 


iking 


Basket 


icaha 


My house 


ikwayiki 


Bird 


tsamapwi 


Hunger 


hiakwi 


Blind 


kowamihi 


Knife 


epi 


Bow 


weya 


Late 


sidia 


Breakfast 


mekawaka 


Leaf 


ehawini 


Canoe 


kwakba 


Left 


icani 


Cloud 


bo 


Light 


sidia 


Cold 


tcaiwi 


Little 


oipohwi 


Corn 


ciki 


Long 


hoano 


Deaf 


keanini 


Machete 


ba 


Day 


hapohwakia 


Many 


kematini 


Death 


manwa, emano 


Midday 


yekohayanek 


Dinner 


kici 


Moon 


bahi 


Dog 


nyawewa 


Much 


kibutcini 


Dove 


kwibehi 


Music 


emiaki 


Each 


obwaiii 


Naked 


pakimae 


Earth 


meca 


Near 


katcipede 


East 


eiya 


Needle 


akiseko 


Enemy 


hahipya 


Net 


hietcakyi 


Every 


kewicini 


Never 


kiyakwa 


Far 


kewecini 


New 


itcakwa 


Fire 


kwaki 


Night 


sinia 


Fish 


sewa 


No 


opwuyahwuba 


Flesh 


notci 


Nothing 


tcamak 


Floor 


kicika 


Old 


itig 


Flower 


akwikaha 


Opposite 


Qwhemihik 


Forest 


epiyo 


Other 


kiepiya 


Friend 


kamimiakwikwe 


Oven 


meci 


Full 


ceahietcka 


Paddle 


ehebihi 


Gold 


owi 


Pain 


kanei 


Good 


ei 


Paint, red 


atcote 


Grief 


kanehi 


Paint, black 


wito 



TUPIAN STOCK, THE TIATINAGUA 



161 



Painted 


hakokatanaiatcatci 


Snow 


nehatcitcina 


Papaya 


esiya 


Sour 


weci 


Partridge 


koicwi 


Spectacles 


ikowa 


Plantain 


ehagni 


Spoon 


oyana 


Playa, sand bar 


vicihai 


Stone 


mei 


Plenty 


kematoni 


Straight 


kaminihi 


Pole ' 


akwi 


Sun 


eceki 


Poweel 


ekwik 


Supper 


sindia 


Quickly 


sokokwahihi 


Sweet 


kabitca 


Ready 


yekwohaiikwi 


That 


hikifoihi 


Right 


ipani 


There 


wekwi 


Ripe 


inhaws 


Thief 


sipohwi 


River 


na'ai 


Thirst 


ina 


Roof 


omi 


This 


hikiwa 


Root 


akwisakwi 


Tired 


kemano 


Roast corn 


ciki 


Tobacco 


nabakwakwi 


Round 


ciki 


Today 


mikawa 


Salt 


sesasesi 


Tomorrow 


bikawa, mikawahi 


Same 


yekwi 


Tree 


akwa 


Short 


itewehi 


Tree, cushma 


wapei 


Silver 


ihawi 


Water 


ena, enaoha 


Spirit, good 


idosiga 


Wet 


keatco 


Spirit, bad 


imigue 


Wide 


ewecani 


Sky 


eya 


Yes 


apweya 


Sleepy 


balahi 


Yonder 


ahipwehi 


Small 


keatciya 


Young 


ico 


Snake 


peyo 


Yucca 


eyi 



162 



TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 



ATSAHUACA 

Vocabulary. A dialect of Tiatinagua vocabulary, obtained from 
a rubber man on the Tambopata River. 

FAMILY 

Man t'harki 

Woman tcinani 



PARTS OF THE BODY 



Hair 


eyohwa 


Neck 


enatck 


Face 


ecimo 


Eye 


etohwa 


Eyebrow 


ibowa 


Eyelash 


itohwaya 


Ear 


ecaha 


Nose 


ewi 


Mouth 


enaba 


Lip 


ikwausa 


Bow 


A 

enaba 


Bring 


tatikwi 


Camote 


kwaiyo 


Candle 


watika 


Came 


ete 


Canoe 


tcitca 


Canoe 


kanoahi 


Come 


yakopaka 


Corn 


sitce 


Cushma 


tharki 


Cushma bark 


nauha'aki 


Dead 


himano 


Dog 


iniwewa 


Enemy 


huanaya 


Fish 


sthiwa 


Macaw 


kha 



Teeth 


isthe 


Chin 


ekwekwe 


Arm 


iya 


Hand 


emi 


Thumb 


emetitce 


Index finger 


eme 


Leg 


itisi 


Foot 


ehiohwi 


Blood 


ina 



ADDITIONAL WORDS 



Monkey 


isthehawa 


No 


tcama 


Papaya 


heme 


Pig 


yohi 


Plantain 


ikawi 


Plenty 


kahinso 


Poweel 


ewi 


Rat 


si'au 


String 


ot'to 


Tea 


ita 


Tree 


isthehowa 


Tree for bark cloth 


wapei 


Turkey 


ewi 


Water 


ena 


Yes 


ei 


Yucca 


eke 



TUPIAN STOCK, THE MABENARO 



163 



MABENARO 



The Mabenaro live in the interior of the forests north of the 
Madre de Dios River, some twenty miles from Gamatana. At the 
time of our visit, their villages had not been discovered by the 
rubber men. One of Torres' rubber prospectors, while traveling 
through the forest in search of rubber trees, came upon two Indian 
children, a boy about twelve years of age and his sister some two 
years younger, and carried them to his home on the Madre de 
Dios. We visited his place about three months later, and found 
the children held there as servants. When found, they were both 
naked, and the only thing they had in their possession was a bow 
and arrow. As the children had not yet learned to speak Spanish, 
we could obtain very little information concerning them or their 
language. The children were both rather tall and slender, and 
had no physical deformations. Their head measurements were: 



Boy 

length, 185 mm. 
breadth, 147 mm. 
height, 126 mm. 
cephalic index, 79.46 



GlHL 

length, 171 mm. 
breadth, 136 mm. 
height, 125 mm. 
cephalic index, 79.53 



I was able to obtain a short vocabulary from which it would seem 
that their language is very closely related to that of the Tiatinagua. 
I did not obtain any numerals, because the children were unable 
to count. They seemed bright and cheerful in spite of their un- 
happy surroundings, and the girl was continually humming the 
following tune : 




^^ 



H^ 



P-^ 




D.C. 



g 



m 



f-^ 



±^ 



164 


TRIBES OF 


' e; 


ASTERN PER 


Vocabulary. 










THE FAMILY 


Man 


dia 




Son 


Woman 


wani 




Daughter 


Father 


tata 




Infant 


Mother 


wanti 




Boy 


Brother 


dodo 




GW 


Sister 


doda 








PARTS 


OF 


THE BODY 


Hair 


iyoina 




Neck 


Head 


iyoa 




Shoulder 


Eye 


ithoa 




Back 


Eyebrow 


iboathuna 




Chest 


Eyelash 


ithokaguina 




Arm 


Ear 


ithaha 




Hand 


Nose 


awi 




Finger 


Mouth 


ikwatsa 




Leg 


Teeth 


itsi 




Foot 


Chin 


ithawi 








ADDITIONAL WORDS 


Bird 


waboro 




Parrot 


Chicken 


tawalipa 




Peccary 


Cock 


tawalipadia 




Poweel 


Cold 


buata 




Pucucung 


Come 


thiathia 




Plantain 


Dog 


niyo 




River 


Duck 


hohi 




Tree 


Fire 


kwathi 




Turkey 


Forest 


athe 




Wangana 


Hot 


atcowa 




Water 


House 


ithai'i 




Wood 


Jaguar 


hull 




Yucca 



deanawa 
ipona 
nana 
ka'abo 
iyaro 



inara 

ibatha 

ibibakwa 

thatha 

ibai 

imiatsa 

imi 

itha 

iwatsi 



kwitsa 


wabathama 


mapi 


tintothara 


naha 


mano 


akwi 


titobai'i 


wabu 


eowi 


kwathithi 


kwavia 



SOMATIC CHARACTERS 

Measurements. While the measurements recorded are the ones 
usually taken by workers in the field, some explanation of points 
of departure may prevent confusion in comparisons. Those who 
have worked among the more primitive peoples, know how difficult 
it sometimes is to disarm suspicion and to overcome superstition, 
with regard to taking measurements, which, for accuracy, require 
that the instrument touch the body of the subject. It is often a 
very delicate matter, necessitating sufficient time to work into the 
good graces of the people, and to secure their full confidence. It 
was always an individual matter with these people ; one man would 
stand up to be measured without hesitation, while another would 
refuse absolutely, and no amount of persuasion, cigarettes, or other 
inducements, would overcome his prejudice. We found it next to 
impossible to take measurements of the women; any such sug- 
gestion was resented by the men in unmistakable demeanor. The 
only measurements of women obtained were those of the Witoto 
and Piro. 

A comparison of the measurements of various stock groups re- 
veals some interesting differences in physical development, see table 
6, pages 178-9. The Witoto are the tallest, and have the longest 
arms and legs, and the smallest heads, faces, noses, and bodies. 
Their heads are the longest and lowest, giving them a height- 
breadth index of 86.23 and a cephaHc index of 77.43. They have 
the least prognathism, the greatest breadth of lower face, but the 
lowest upper facial index, 76.63. They have an unusual span with 
a ratio to height of 107.3. The difference in height between men 
and women is 152 mm., which makes the women only 90.6 per cent 
of the men in stature. 

The Tupian representatives, the Tiatinagua, were the shortest 
in stature, arms, legs, and trunk. Their ratio of span to stature 
is 102.3. They had the highest and narrowest heads which gave 
them a height-breadth index of 94.49, and a cephalic index of 76.31. 
They had the shortest noses, and the highest nasal index, or 92.16. 
The Panoan had the largest and broadest heads and faces, with 

165 



166 TRIBES OF EASTERN PERU 

indices of 87.23 and 84.75, respectively. The Arawakan had the 
longest and largest bodies of all, and they were taller than the 
Panoan. The women of the Arawakan group measured were 
Piro. Comparing their stature with that of the Piro men, there is 
found a difference of 103 mm., which makes the women 93.6 per 
cent the height of the men. The ratio of the span to the stature 
of the women is 100.8, while for the men it is 103.7. The average 
cephaHc index of the men is 77.43, while that of the women is 78.07. 
There is a very noticeable difference in ranges in the two largest 
groups, the Arawakan and the Panoan; they were greater among 
the Arawakan in every case. 

EXPLANATORY 

1. Age: approximate. All were adults. 

2. Height: in bare feet. 

3. Height to shoulder : to acromion of right shoulder. 

4. Span: maximum arm reach. 

5. Arm length: height to shoulder, less height to middle finger. 

6. Shoulder breadth : biacromial. 

7. Chest diameters: at level of nipples. 

8. Length of cubit: left, over the elbow to tip of medius. 

9. Length of finger: left, third, over the joint. 

10. Length of hand: left, line of thenar and hypothenar eminences to end of 

medius. 

11. Breadth of hand: left, across the knuckles. 

12. Breadth of foot: left, maximum at right angles to the length. 

13. Head length : glabello-occipital. 

14. Head breadth: maximum. 

15. Head height : auricular. 

16. Minimum frontal : between temporal crests. 

17. Menton-crinion : chin to hair line. 

18. Bizygomatic: maximum width of upper face. 

19. Bigonial: diameter between angles of lower jaw. 
9.0. Nose height: sub-nasal point to nasion. 

21. Nose breadth: over the alae. 

22. Eye measurements: between the outer and the inner angles. 

23. Cephalic module: average of length, breadth, and height of head. 

24. A X 100 -r- b: measure of prognathism. 

25. Facial index: menton-nasion -^ bizygomatic breadth. 

26. Measurements : in millimeters. 

No attempt has been made to subject the measurements to a 
refined mathematical treatment, because the different series con- 
tain too few individuals to make the results of much value. 



SOMATIC CHARACTERS 167 

Thirty-four measurements were taken, twelve indices were cal- 
culated, and the average, minimum, maximum, and range de- 
termined of the following groups. 

TABLES OF MEASUREMENTS AND INDICES 

Arawakan Stock 

Table 1. Piro, 23 males and 8 females. 
" 2. Macheyenga, 19 males. 

Panoan Stock 

Table 3. Sipibo, 14 males. 

" 4. Conebo, 3 males; 

" " Setibo, 3 males; 

" " Amahuaca, 2 males. 

TupiAN Stock 
Table 5. Tiatinagua, 4 males 

Witotan Stock 

Table 5. Witoto, 5 males and 4 females. 

" 6. Comparison of Average Measurements. 



TABLE 1. ARAWAKAN STOCK. MEASUREMENTS* 



Males 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 




38 

1640 

1380 

650 

930 

56.71 

1690 

50 

373 

300 

240 

80 

460 

184 

88 

47.83 

110 

247 

108 

43.73 

37 

35 

209 

159 

136 

93 

102 

76.08 

85.53 

91.18 

168 

102.4 

114 

71 

201 

145 

78.62 

127 

120 

49 

40 

81.63 

57 

102 

35 


25 

1580 

1340 

630 

850 

53.80 

1610 

30 

370 

270 

240 

88.89 

465 

179 

80 

44.61 

110 

240 

92 

38.33 

33 

25 

196 

147 

123 

93 

104 

75 

83.67 

89.42 

155 

98.1 

111 

65 

198 

144 

77.08 

120 

121 

44 

43 

97.73 

56 
97 
35 


30 

1580 

1320 

630 

850 

53.80 

1650 

70 

400 

270 

240 

88.89 

440 

176 

85 

48.30 

112 

240 

98 

40.83 

30 

30 

189 

153 

128 

90 

99 

80.95 

83.66 

90.91 

156 

98.7 

121 

69 

194 

146 

82.88 

116 

127 

45 

39 

86.67 

54 
90 
32 


55 

1530 

1250 

550 

840 

54.90 

1580 

50 

375 

285 

235 

82.46 

425 

168 

85 

50.60 

101 

240 

102 

42.50 

35 

33 

193 

150 

140 

92 

101 

77.72 

93.33 

91.09 

161 

105.2 

121 

77 

206 

146 

82.88 

121 

137 

51 

44 

82.27 

68 

33 

55 

92 

32 


35 
1635 
1380 
650 
870 
53.27 
1685 
50 
380 
290 
250 
86.21 
450 
181 
88 
48.62 
107 
255 
108 
42.35 
35 
37 
192 
148 
131 
97 
103 
77.08 
88.51 
94.17 
157 
96.6 
120 
75 
192 
146 
82.19 
126 
124 
49 
38 
77.55 
69 
35 
59 
97 
40 


40 

1620 

1330 

620 

830 

51.23 

1685 

65 

360 

280 

240 

85.71 

440 

182 

81 

44.51 

106 

245 

105 

42.86 

36 

32 

193 

151 

135 

99 

102 

78.24 

89.40 

97.06 

159 

98.1 

121 

76 

187 

147 

82.31 

121 

128 

46 

43 

93.48 

65 

27 

53 

99 

41 


30 
1650 
1400 
680 
875 
53.03 
1690 
40 
390 
280 
245 
87.50 
450 
168 
90 
53.57 
106 
255 
105 
41.17 
30 
35 
180 
141 
134 
94 
106 
78.33 
95.04 
98.11 
152 
92.1 
112 
70 
191 
142 
78.87 
121 
120 
46 
42 
91,30 
72 
35 
58 
99 
35 


24 
1610 
1340 
590 
840 
52.17 
1710 
100 
380 
290 
230 
79.31 
460 
177 
80 
44.19 
110 
245 
100 
51.02 
35 
40 
184 
147 
131 
91 
99 
79.89 
89.12 
91.92 
157 
97.5 
114 
74 
179 
145 
78.62 
117 
122 
47 
43 
91.49 
65 
33 
52 
95 
35 


33 
1580 
1280 
600 
900 
56.96 
1620 
40 
370 
285 
230 
80.72 
440 
167 
83 
49.70 
107 
250 
110 
44 
30 
30 
193 
150 
142 
98 
104 
77.72 
94.67 
94.23 
162 
102.5 
129 
77 
186 
144 
89.58 
118 
128 
49 
39 
79.59 
67 
29 
53 
89 
34 


25 

1620 
1330 
560 
850 
52.47 
1695 
75 
370 
270 
205 
75.82 
460 
175 
78 
44.57 
111 
255 
110 
43.14 
27 
30 
194 
141 
135 
100 
102 
72.68 
95.74 
98.04 
167 
96.9 
119 
70 
185 
136 
87.50 
116 
121 
48 
38 
79.17 
64 
34 
49 
97 
34 


30 


Height 


1680 




1400 




620 




880 




52.38 




1750 




70 


QVinnlflpr Virpadt.h 


400 


OVioct rlinm latpral 


270 




250 




92.59 




460 




188 




83 




44.15 




117 




260 




105 




40.38 




37 




37 




200 


TTpqH hrPTflth 


159 




138 




96 




103 




79.50 




86.79 


^/i 1 V 1 no * /) 


93.20 




166 




98.8 




126 




73 




194 




153 




82.35 




122 




136 




48 




45 




93.75 




63 


T^'.nr hrparlth 


28 




60 




96 




36 







* All measurements are in millimeters. 



168 



OF PIRO INDIANS, (23 MALES AND 8 FE]VL\LES) 



12 


IS 


14 


16 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


Aver. 


Min. 


Max. 


Range 


36 


27 


25 


24 


32 


40 


33 


43 


26 


23 


30 


35 










1640